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Here’s the abstract – the entire article is available open access .

Food-tracking apps constitute a major category of the thousands of food-related apps now available. They are promoted as helping users monitor and measure their food consumption to improve their health or to lose weight. In this article, I present six vignettes drawn from interviews with Australian women about their use and non-use of food-tracking apps. The vignettes provide detailed insights into the experiences of these women and their broader sociocultural and biographical contexts. The analysis is based on feminist materialism theoretical perspectives, seeking to identify the relational connections, affective forces, and agential capacities generated in and through the human-app assemblage. The vignettes reveal that affective forces related to the desire to control and manage the body and conform to norms and ideals about good health and body weight inspire people to try food-tracking apps. However, the agential capacities promised by app developers may not be generated even when people have committed hope and effort in using the app. Frustration, disappointment, the fear of becoming too controlled, and annoyance or guilt evoked by the demands of the app can be barriers to continued and successful use. Sociocultural and biographical contexts and relational connections are also central to the capacities of human-app assemblages. Women’s ambivalences about using apps as part of efforts to control their body weight are sited within their struggles to conform to accepted ideals of physical appearance but also their awareness that these struggles may be too limiting of their agency. This analysis, therefore, draws attention to what a body can and cannot do as it comes together with food tracking apps.

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On Tuesday I am giving an invited presentation at an event organised by VicHealth on the theme of ‘Harnessing the Power of Digital Technologies’. Some of the issues I’ll be focusing on include covering the different ways in which digital devices and software are used for health promotion, and what the social issues are. I’ll be drawing on my recent and current research projects looking at the social aspects of how people use digital health and self-tracking technologies (see my blog post summarising the findings of these projects).

The critical sociological approach I’ll be advancing is discussed in a range of my publications over the past few years. The most recent of these publications include my book Digital Health: Critical and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives , a chapter on wearable devices (available OA ), an article on what health professionals and healthcare consumers see as valuable about digital health and what its future may be (available OA ), a special journal issue I edited on self-tracking, health and medicine (the editorial for this is OA ) and an article reporting my research project on the use of social media by healthcare workers (available OA).

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Employment in Canada rose by 31,800 to a total of more than 18.6 million jobs in June, according to seasonally adjusted numbers released today by Statistics Canada. The surge follows two months of little change.Part-time jobs rose by 22,700 in June while full-time employment posted a gain of 9,100 jobs. On a year-over-year basis, June employment increased by a rounded figure of 214,900 jobs on a gain of 284,100 full-time jobs and a loss of 69,100 part-time jobs.More people were employed in construction, natural resources, and manufacturing; at the same time, employment decreased in accommodation and food services, and in agriculture. There was little change in the number of employees in both the private and public sectors, as well as in self-employment.The number of employed people increased for men aged55and older, while it held steady for the other demographic groups.The unemployment rate increased to 6.0% in June from 5.8% in May.Employment increased in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. There was little change in the other provinces.In Ontario, employment rose by35,000in June. With more people looking for work, the unemployment rate in Ontario increased to5.9% in June from 5.7% in May. […]

A new survey found 65% believe freelancers were happier than other professionals and 26% expected to be a freelancer at some point in their career, TechRepublic reported, citing a Reportlinker study. It also found that only 40% of US millennials felt loyal to their companies. […]

US temporary help services jobs rose by 3.2% in June on a year-over-year basis, according to seasonally adjusted numbers released today by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Compared to May, the number of US temp jobs rose by 9,300. And May’s decrease in temporary jobs was revised to 4,700 from the previously reported 7,800.The temp penetration rate — temporary jobs as a percent of total employment — remained at 2.04% in June.“Though data can be choppy on a monthly basis, we would not be surprised to see temporary staffing continue to benefit from the favorable changes in the economy in the short-term as businesses adjust to greater demand, after which we expect the industry to cool to a slower pace more typical of the mature phase in an economic cycle,” said Tony Gregoire, research director at Staffing Industry Analysts.Total nonfarm jobs rose by 213,000 on a seasonally adjusted basis in June. The US unemployment rate was 4.0% in June, up from 3.8% in May. The increase was entirely driven by a surge in the labor force of 601,000 people, according to Staffing Industry Analysts’ analysis of the BLS report.The college-level unemployment rate — which can serve as a proxy for professional employment — rose to 2.3% in June from 2.0% in May.The two main messages from today's jobs report are that both employment and the labor force still continue to grow rapidly even though a low unemployment rate means fewer workers are on the sidelines than before, according to Gad Levanon, chief economist, North America, at The Conference Board.“Given the continued strength in the US economy, we expect more of the same for the labor market in coming months: more people joining the labor force, but strong job growth will continue to tighten the labor market, further accelerating wage growth,” Levanon said in a statement.Click on charts to enlarge. […]

Global CEO confidence edged down in the second quarter, according to The Conference Board. Its measure of CEO confidence decreased to a level of 63, from 65 in the first quarter.A reading of more than 50 reflects more positiveresponses than negative ones.“CEO Confidence declined slightly in Q2, but overall sentiment remains positive,” said Lynn Franco, director of economic indicators at The Conference Board. “CEOs’ optimism regarding the growth prospects for both mature and emerging economies have eased considerably since the beginning of the year. However, most CEOs expect profits will increase over the coming year, with market/demand growth and cost reductions the major driving forces.”CEOs’ assessment of current economic conditions was about the same as in the first quarter of 2018, with 74% reporting conditions are better compared to six months ago. CEO sentiment was also virtually unchanged regarding the assessment of current conditions in their own industries, with about 51% reporting conditions are better than six months ago.Looking ahead, however, CEOs’ expectations regarding the economic outlook are much less optimistic than last quarter. Now, just 48% expect economic conditions to improve over the next six months, down from 63% in the second quarter.CEOs’ assessment of current conditions in the US retreated slightly, but overall remains positive. Sentiment regarding Europe and Brazil declined sharply, with confidence regarding current conditions in Europe going from positive to neutral. In Brazil, sentiment went from positive to negative. Sentiment regarding India declined, although to a lesser extent, and remains cautiously positive. CEOs’ assessment of China and Japan remained about the same as in the first quarter.Looking forward, CEOs are the most optimistic about short-term prospects for the US, though less so than in the first quarter of this year. Expectations for Europe declined from positive to neutral, while expectations regarding China, Japan and India are neutral to slightly positive. Expectations for Brazil, however, have turned slightly negative.nbs […]

RSRPartners, a Greenwich, Conn.-based executive search and leadership consulting firm, announced Alan Rennewill lead the firm’sindustrial technology practice. Prior to joining RSR Partners, Renne was a managing director for Russell Reynolds Associates and was with The Coca-Cola Company in senior general management positions.ON Partners, a retained executive search firm, appointed Heidi Hoffman as partner. Hoffman will lead the firm’s supply chain practice from its Atlanta office. Hoffman most recently was a senior client partner at Korn Ferry, where she led the firm’s Global Supply Chain Center of Expertise in North America.Soltech Inc., an Atlanta, Ga.-based firm that provides IT staffing among other services, added two members to its leadership team:Edgard Negron as head of marketing and Chris Tyner as leader of technical operations.Most recently, Negron led NewPoint Media Group’s digital marketing department, while Tynerwas a member of the leadership team in a joint venture between Sharecare and the Hospital Corporation of America. […]

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Supplementary Volumes














Based on the Third Edition of the Realencyldopadie

Founded by J. J. Herzog, and Edited by Albert Hauck









(v0i. L)


(VOLE. II. TO %H.)






of Pronunciation and














Professor of Church History, New York University.



Editor in Biblical Criticism and Theology on "The New Inter New York, Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer

national Encyclopedia," New York. on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.



of LL.D.

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological of

Seminary. Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.



Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Tes­

tament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.



One of the Corresponding Secretaries of the Board of Foreign

Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York.



Professor of Canon Law, Catholic University of America,

Washington, D. C.


(Office Editor.)

Member of the Editorial Stag of the Enayalopa3dls Britanniaa

Company, New York City.


Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Warn, Tex.



fanaqlng Editor of the SrsxnAnn DicrioxAax, etc.,

New York City.



Professor of Church History, University of Halls.


Late Pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church, Hartford, Conn.



Professor of Church History, EvsngeVCal Theological Faculty,

University of Breslau.



Professor Of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological Semi­


KARL BENRe,TH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg.


(iER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Formerly Priva4docent in Old Testament Theology, University

of Berlin. Member of the Executive Committee of the

German Society for the. Exploration of

Palestine, Jerusalem.


Pastor of St. Michael's Church and President of the Society

for the Inner Mission, Hamburg.


Editor of the etc., Washington, D. C.

EDUARD 80EH~CER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Formerly Professor of Romance Languages. Universities of Ti ells

and Strasburg.


Professor of Church History, Independent School of Divinity,




Protector of Church History, University of Gottingen.


Professor of the New Testament and Church History, University

of (ireitewaid.


Formerly Pastor at Nabern near Hlmhheim, Wtirttemberg.



Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of GBttlngen.


BB,IEGER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsio.


DLitt. (Oxon.),

Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symboltm, Union

Theological Seminary, New York.


Late Supreme Consistoriai Councilor, Munich.



Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen.


University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

Pedagogics, and Didactics, University of Erlangen.



Instructor of English. College of the City of New York.


Professor of Canon Law, Catholic University of America,

Washington. D. C.


Late Professor of Systematic Theology,University of Greftewald.


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis. University of Lelpda,

and President of the German Evangelical Arebeo­

logical Institute, Jerusalem.


Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.



supme Conslstorial Councilor, City Superintendent, and Pastor

of the Church of the Cross, Dresden.


Professor of Practical Theology, University of Gfessen.


Librarian, University of Greifswald.


Late Coneistorlal Councilor. Dessau.


BAoording Secretary of the American Bible Society, New York.


lformerfy General Superintendent and Honorary Professor of

Church History, Evangelical Theological Faaalty,

University of Breslau.


Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, uni.

varsity of Eriangea.


Professor of New Testament lxegmls, University of Berlin.

and Architecture, New York City.



Professor of Church HisWry, Evangelical Theological Faculty,

University of Strasburg.


late Professor of Church History, University of Halls.


Late Baptist Clergyman and Author, Morristown. N. J.


Gymnaetal Professor. Parchim, Mecklenburg.


Professor of Ecclesiastical. Public. and German Law, Univer­

sity of Lelpsia.


Late Professor of Olaesical Philology and Ancient History, Uni­

versity of Jena.


Formerly Lecturer on comparative Religion, Bangor Theo­

logical Seminary.


Professor of History, University of Tabiagen.


Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical School, and Pro­

fessor, Military Academy. Munich.



Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis.. Ethics, and Prue.

Uca1 Theology, Evangelical Theological Faculty,

University of TQbingen.

N GUTHE, Th.D., .

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipalo.


Formerly Professor of History and German in the Luisenstadt

RealGymnasium, Berlin.

ADOLF HARNACB, Ph.D., M.D., Dr.Jur.,


PmfAowr of Church History, University of Berlin, and Gen..

eral Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

ALBERT ~HAUCg, Ph.D., Dr.Jur., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic; Editor of the P

.adknoyldopdtdia, Founded by J. J. Heraog.


Professor, and Director of the University Library, Gfeseen.


Formerly Professor of History, Dorpat, Russia.



CondeWrial Councilor, Professor of New Testament Theology

and Exegesis, University of Greffswald.


Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Lefpsic.


Dean, New*tadt~ontbeAfxh, Bavaria, Editor of


Late Professor of Bodesiaetical University of Berlin.




Pastor of the Church of St. Nicholas. Leipsfc, Editor of the


of the Deoloptac)w



Professor of Homiletics and Liturgies, University of Lelpsic.


Pastor of the Luther0hurrh and Prlvatrlocent for the History

of Religion and the Old Testament in the

University, Leipsic.



Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halle.


Consietorial Councilor, University Preacher, and Professor of

Practical Theology, Evangelical Theological Faculty,

University of Breslau.


Supreme Conaistorlal Councilor, Berlin.


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipelc.



Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Kiel.


Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Erian­




Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Evangelical Theological

Faculty, University of Bonn.


SOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlanm


GER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.



Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University of




Late Provincial Councilor for Schools, Hanover.


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.


Chief InepWtor of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart.


Professor of Church History, University of KBDSgeberg.


Professor of Aryan Languages. University of Lelpelo.


Late Studfendirektor, Munich.


Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty,



Professor of Church History, University of Halle.


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Erlangen.


Professor of Church History, University of Upeala, Sweden.



Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.


Secretary of the Alliance of the Reformed Churches, London.


Supreme Conetatorlal Councilor, Member of the Royal Conaiatory.



Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.



Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.


Councilor for Schools, Leipaic.


Professor of Christian Archeology, University of Berlin.


Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological Soirool. Cambridge, Mass.



Professor in the Theological Seminary (Teacher of Hebrew,

New Testament Greek, and Religion), Maulbronn,



Professor of the History of Art, University of Kiel.



Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Waco, Texas.


Supreme Conststorlal Councilor, Speyer, Bavaria.



Late Bishop of Aalborg, Denmark.


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of Religion,

University of Basel.

Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Obnrch, Pariah of St. Paul,



General Secretary of the Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip,




Pastor of the First German Evangelical Lutheran Bt. John's

Church, Newark, N. J.


Formerly Instructor in French, Yale College and Sbefeld Sd­

entific School, New Haven. Conn.


Pastor at Gatergieben, Prussian Saxony.


University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology. Uni­

verefty of Leipeia


Late Professor of History, University of Amsterdam.

HUGO BACHBBE, Ph.D., Th.Lic., Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Rostock


Professor for Religious Instruction and Hebrew, Holy Cross

Gymnasium, Dresden.


Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary,

Allegheny, Pa.


Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary,

New York.


Pastor at Goldberg, Mecklenburg.


Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Gottingen.


Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology. Univer­

sity of Greflswald.



Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Boetoct.


Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Bmi1n.


Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, University

of Erlangen.



Professor of Dogmatiae and New Testament Ete8esls. Evan­

gellaal Theological Faculty. University of Bonn.


Late Professor of Church History, University of Basel.


Professor of .Egyptology, University of Leipelo.


Privy Councilor. Professor of the German Ianguege and Li4

eratnre, University of Erlangen.


Astor Library, New York City.

PAUL T8C8dCSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen.

WILHELB VOL03K (f), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Eaeged>0. University of Ros.



D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Didactic and Polemical Theology. Princeton Theo­

logical Seminary.


Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Marburg



Pastor Prlmarlae, Guben. Prussia.


Professor of Classical Philology, University of Munich.


Professor of New Testament aegedr and Introduction, Uni­

versity of Erlangen,

OTTO ZOECBLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Proleeeot of Church History and Apologetics, University of



This encyclopedia presents in a condensed and mqdified form that great body of Prot­

estant learning called the

Professor Albert Hauck, Ph.D., D.Th., D. Jur., the famous church historian of Germany. The

German work is the third edition of that religious encyclopedia which was originally edited

by the late Professor Johann Jakob Herzog and bore his name popularly as a convenient

short title. The late Professor Philip Schaff was requested by his intimate friend Dr. Her­

zog to adapt the encyclopedia to the American public and this he did. To this combination

of German and American scholarship the publishers gave the happy title of

This name has been familiar to thousands of

the religious public on both sides of the sea for the past twentyfive years and so has been

preserved as the title of this publication, with the prefix " ° New."

The history of this encyclopedia up to the present is this: In December, 1853, there appeared at Gotha

the first part of the which was the Protestant

reply to the challenge of the Roman Catholic scholars engaged upon the

which had been appearing at Freiburg im Breisgau

since 1846. The credit for suggesting the latter work must be given to Benjamin Herder (181888), one

of the leading publishers of Germany. Its editors were Heinrich Joseph *etzer (180153), professor

of Oriental philology in the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, a layman, and Benedict Welts (180585),

a priest and professor of theology in the University of Tabingen. The proposition to do as much for Prot­

estant theology and research was mooted by a company of Protestant theologians, and Matthias Schnecken­

burger (180418), professor of theology in Bern, had been chosen editor of the projected work. But

the political troubles of 1848 prevented the carrying out of the scheme and the death of Schneokenburger

that year made it necessary to find another leader. At this juncture Friedrich August Tholuck (1799­

1877), professor of theology in Halls, where Johann Jakob Herzog was professor from 1847 to 1854, was

consulted and he named his colleague. It was an ideal choice, as Professor Herzog was a competent

scholar, a friend of progress in theology, moderate in his views, and a to all parties among

the Protestants. The publisher of the Protestant encyclopedia was Christian Friedrich Adolf Rost (1790­

1856), who was carrying on the business of Johann Conrad Hinrichs, and under that name.

Both the Roman Catholic and Protestant religious encyclopedias were conspicuous successes and came

to be called popularly, by the names of their editors, " Wetzer and Welts " and " Herzog " respectively.

The former was finished in 1856 in twelve volumes, followed by an index volume in 1860; the latter in

1868 in twentytwo volumes including the index. In December, 1877, the Herders entrusted a' new edition

of "Wetzer and Welts" to Joseph Hergenr6ther (182480), at that time a professor of theology in.Munich.

On his elevation to the cardinalate in 1879 he transferred his editorial duties to Franz Philipp Kaulen

(18271907), Roman Catholic professor of theology in Bonn, and under him the new edition was finished

in 1901 in twelve volumes, each one much larger than those of the first edition. In September, 1903, the

index volume appeared. In 1877 the first volume of the second edition of "Herzog" appeared, edited by

Professor Herzog with the assistance of his colleague in the theological faculty in Erlangen, Gustav Leopold

Plitt (183680). On Plitt's death Herzog called in another colleague, Albert Hauck (1845), the professor

of church history, who survived him and brought the work to its triumphant close in 1888 in eighteen

volumes. includingthe index. In the spring of 1896 appeared the first part of the third edition of" Herzog"

with Hauck, who meanwhile had gone to Leipsic as professor of church history, as sole editor. It is upon

this third edition that the present work is based.

The idea of translating " Herzog ' in a slightly condensed form occurred to John Henry Augustus Bomberger (181790), a minister of the German Reformed Church, and then president of Ursinus Col­lege, Collegeville, Pa., and in 1856 he brought out in Philadelphia the first volume, whose titlepage reads thus:


1866. In this work he associated with himself twelve persons, all but one ministers. In 1860 hdissued the second volume. But the Civil War breaking out the next year put a stop to so costly an enterprise and it was never resumed. The first volume included the article " Concubinage," the second " Josiah." It had been issued in numbers, of which the last was the twelfth.

In 1877 Professor Philip Schaff (181993) was asked by Dr. Herzog himself to undertake an English reproduction of the second edition of his encyclopedia, and this work was fairly begun when, in the autumn of 1880, Clemens Petersen and Samuel Macauley Jackson were engaged to work daily on it in Dr. Schaff's study in the Bible House, New York City. The next year Dr. Schaff's son, the Rev. David Schley Schaff, now professor of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., joined the staff. The original publishers were $. 8. Scranton Company, Hartford, Conn., but a change was made before the issue of the first volume and the encyclopediawas issued by Funk Wagnalls. The titlepage read thus

The first volume was issued

Wednesday, November 1, 1882, the second Thursday, March 1, 1883, and the third Tuesday, March 4,

1884. Volume I. had pp. xix. 1847; volume II. pp. xvii. 8481714; and volume III. pp. xix.

17152631. In November, 1886, a revised edition was issued and at the same time the


In 1891 the third edition of the encyclopedia was issued and with it was incorporated the

of with an appendix, largely the work of Rev. George William Gilmore, bringing the bio­

graphical and literary notices down to December, ,1890. The entire work was repaged sufficiently to

make it one of four volumes of about equal size, and it is this fourvolume edition which is known to

the public as the the volumes being respectively of pp. xlviii. 679 and four

pages unnumbered; 6801378; 13792086; iv. 20872629, viii. 296. As the German work at its base was

overtaken by the time "3" had been reached, the "SchaffHerzog" from that letter on was based on the

first edition of " Herzog." Therefore much of its matter is now very old. Yet it has been a useful work,

and in 1903 its publishers determined on a new edition based on the third edition of " Herzog/ " which

had been appearing since 1896. But inasmuch as there was a space of ten years between the be.

ginnings of the two works, it has been necessary to bring the matter from the German down to date.

This end has been accomplished by two courses: first by securing from the German contributors to " Her­

zog " condensations of their contributions, in which way matter contributed to the German work has in

many instances been brought down to date, and second by calling on department editors for supplemen­

tary matter.

As appears from what has been said above, this encyclopedia is not entirely anew work. It is really anold workreconatructed. Its list of titles is largely the same and it follows the same general plan as inthe oldwork. The points of identity are: (1) that at its base lies the once associated with the name of Herzog, now with the name of Albert Hauck, professor of church history in the University of Leipsic, and the author of the authoritative history of the Church in Germany; (2) that it gives in condensed form the information in that work, and takes such matter directly from the Ger­man work in most instances, although occasionally while the topic is the same the treatment is independent of the German contributor's; (3) that it has much matter contributed by the editorial staff and specially secured contributors; (4) that in Biblical matters it limits its titles to those of the German base, so that it should not be considered as a Bible dictionary, although the Biblical department comprehends the principal articles of such a dictionary. The points of dissimilarity are these: (1) It contains much matter furnished directly by those contributors to the German work who have kindly consented to condense their articles and bring them within prescribed limits. These limits have often been narrow, but in no other way was it possible to utilize the German matter. (2) It con­tains hundreds of sketches of living persons derived in almost every instance from matter furnished by themselves. In writing these sketches much help has been received, principally in the suggestion of names, from the English and American and from the German Wer ist's (which is a similar work for Germany), and we desire to acknowledge our indebtedness with thanks. But comparison between the sketches in this book and those given of the same individual in the books referred to will reveal many differences and be so many proofs of the


extensive correspondence carried on to secure the given facts. Every person sketched herein, with almost no exception, has been sent a blank for biographical data. Some thought to save themselves the trouble of filling out the blank by referring to a dictionary of living persons, but it has generally turned out that the requirements of this blank were not met by the book referred to and it has been necessary to write to the subject, and frequently more than once, before the desired information could be secured., (3) The matter in proof has been sent to persons specially chosen for eminence in their respective departments. These depart­ments with the names of those in charge of them are: Systematic Theology, Rev. CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D., professor of systematic theology, Chicago Theological Seminary; Minor Denominations, Rev. HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D., one of the corresponding sec­retaries of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York City; Liturgies and Religious Orders, in the first volume, Rev. JOHN THOMAS CREAGH, D.D., professor of canon law, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., in subsequent volumes, Very Rev. JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D., president of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.; the Old Testament, Rev. JAMES FREDERICK MCCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D., professor of Oriental languages, University College, Toronto; the New Testament, Rev. HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D., professor of the literature and interpretation of the New Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.; Church History, Rev. ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D., professor of church history, Baylor Theological Seminary (Baylor University), Waco, Texas. Besides reading the proofs they were requested to make such additions as would not only bring them up to date but represent the dis­tinctive results of British and American Scholarship. (4) A much more thorough bib­liography is furnished. The attempt has been made to give sources so that students may pursue a subject to its roots; second, to supply the best literature in whatever language it occurs; third, to supply references in English for those who read only that language. (5) All articles based on German originals have been sent in proof to the writers of the original German articles when these writers were still living. Some of them had furnished the articles and they had merely been translated, but in the great majority of cases the German authors had not. given that cooperation; not a few, however, have kindly read our condensations and made corrections and additions. For this cooperation thanks are due.

We here mention with gratitude the permission given by the publisher of the Mr. HEINRICH ROST, the head of the great publishing house of J. C. HINRICHS of Leipsic, and by the editor of its third edition, Professor ALBERT HAUCg, Ph.D., D.Th., D.Jur., of the University of Leipsic, to use its contents in our discretion. Dr. Hauck has done far more than give permission. He has manifested a kindly interest in our work, has revised the condensations of his articles, and facilitated our efforts to secure from his contributors advance articles. This helpfulness is much appreciated, and we would fain give it prominent recognition.

Rev. DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D., who holds the chair of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., whose father was the founder of this work and who was himself one of its original associate editors, felt unable on account of other duties to assume any editorial responsibility for the present work, as he had been asked to do by the publishers when the new edition was determined .on, but he entered heartily into the arrangement whereby the sole responsibility of general editor should be lodged with his former associate editor, and has cooperated by bringing down to date almost all the articles which he and his father contributed to the first edition.

The labor of coordinating the material sent in by the many persons who have coop­er ated to bring out this work has fallen upon the managing editor, CHARLES COLEBROOK SHER­MAN, who has discharged his difficult duties with conscientious fidelity and marked ability.


The bibliography, which is probably the greatest novelty of this encyclopedia and is a fea­

ture certain to be greatly appreciated, has been prepared by Professor GEORGE WILLIAM

GILMORE, late of Bangor Theological Seminary, and the author of Hurst's f

The work of condensing and translating the articles from the contributors to

the has been done by BERNHARD

PIOK, Ph.D., D.D., Lutheran pastor, Newark, N. J.; ALEXIaIRA"E DU PONT COLEMAN, M.A.

of Oxford University, instructor in English in the College of the City of New York; ALFRED

STOECKIUS, Ph.D., of the Astor Library; WILLIAM PRICE; and HuRERT EvANs, Ph.D. of

Leipsic. The pronunciations have been supplied by FRANK HORACE VIzETELLY, F.S.A.,

managing editor of the

When the contributors to the have chosen not to condense their articles themselves, but have preferred that this work should be done by the editors of the New the fact is indicated by the use of parentheses enclosing the signature. Edi­torial addition's or changes in the body of signed articles for which the contributors should not be held responsible are indicated by brackets. A double signature indicates that an article originally prepared by the contributor whose name appears first (in parentheses) has been revised by the contributor whose name follows. The cross (t) following the name of a contributor indicates that he is dead.

15, 1907.

For purposes of research and definite information the student is constantly under the necessity of discovering not only lists of works on a given subject, but also initials or full names of authors and place and date of publication and often the exact form of the title of a book inaccurately or partially known. To furnish this information the work which will prove useful beyond all others is the which with its records the books received down to 1900; accessions beyond this date are also recorded in supplementary issues. Especially valuable to the theological stu­dent are the four parts devoted to the Bibles and Bibleworks in the British Museum, though the large number of entries makes it hard to consult these parts. Some help is given by the tables of arrangement. A for 18811905, ed. G. K. Fortescue, 4 vols., London, 190206, makes available a very considerable part of the latg literature upon all subjects. Next to this, if indeed not equally valuable so far as it is finished, is the exhaustive work doing for the French National Library and for publications in French what the work just named does for the British. This is the now in course of publication, Paris, 1897 sqq., of which volume xxiv., the last received, carries the list through "Catzius." The value of these two publications will be more accurately estimated when it is recalled that the two institutions are stated repositories for copyrighted books in the two countries respectively. An impor­tant feature of the first volume of the French catalogue is a helpful account of pre­vious catalogues of the French National Library. The English work is in folio, the French in octavo. Perhaps the next best general work is that of J. C. Brunet, Paris, 1810, superseded by the 5th ed., 6 vols., 186065, with Supplement, 2 vols., 187880. After these two works come in point of usefulness what may be called the ,national catalogues, recording the books published in Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, and America. For Germany the work was begun in the Heinsius, reedited and enlarged by 0. A. Schulz. then by F. A.. hiller, covering the period 17001851 in 11 volumes, Leipsic, 181254, for


the earlier period incomplete. This was continued by ering the years 185165 in one volume (1875), and from that time to the present by the Halfyearly volumes are published which are superseded in course by the fiveyear volumes. These were accompanied by a to 1885, which arranged the entries topically. From 1883 on the was superseded by a by Georg and L. Ost, Hanover, 18891904 (now complete down to 1902), serving as an index to the Hinrichs, and arranging the catchwords alphabetically.

For publications in French there is the cover­ing the period 184099, 15 vols., Paris, 18671904, begun by O. Lorenz and continued by D. Jordell, with a or index published at irregular intervals, but exceed­ingly full and usable. The an annual list of copyrighted books classified according to subjects, published in Paris.

For British publications the London, 1846, now very hard to obtain, carries the list of books from 1800 to 1846 with to the same. This was continued by the now complete down to 1905, 7 vols., London, 18641905. The three vol­umes for 18901905 are arranged by authors and subjects in one alphabet. For the period 183789 there is an 4 vols., London, 185893. A issued, which, like the French annuals and German semiannuals, is superseded by the volume cov­ering a series of years.

For modern Italian works the authoritative source is the 3 vols., Milan, 190105, a work singularly complete for the period it covers.

For American publications the period 182071 is inadequately covered by the by O. A. Roorbach to 1861, and then by J. Kelly, a set of books rarely on the market. The continues this to the end of 1905 in 6 vols. folio, 2 vols. roy. 8vo, New York, 18801906. This was begun by F. Leypoldt and is con­tinued by the In this series a issued, superseded like the other annuals by the larger volume. The whole is being supplemented by Charles Evans with the . . . , 16891820. Of this magnificent work, vols. i.iv. are issued, Chicago, 190307, bring­ing the titles down to 1773.

For earlier books a valuable set of volumes is L. Hain, 2 vols. in 4 parts and an Stuttgart, 182691, giving a list of books printed from the invention of printing to 1500. To this W. A. Copinger has added a in 2 vols., 3 parts, London, 18951902, and Dietrich Reichling, in course of prepa­ration and publication, containing corrections and additions, Munich, 1905 aqq.

Valuable as selected and classified lists of general literature, including theology, are Sonnenachein's and London, 189195. The foregoing are all in the field of general literature and are not specifically theological.

giving fists of literature in the various depart­ments of the science, the older ones have principally a historic value. Some of the best are: J. G. Watch, 4 vols., Jena, 175765, arranged topically with an index of authors; G. B. Winer, 3d ed., 3 vols., Leipsic, 183742 (gives little literature in English); E. A. Zuchold, 2 vols., G6ttingen, 1864 (an alphabetical arrangement by authors of books in German issued 183062) ; W. Orme, London, 1824 (contains critical notes). One of the older books, often referred to for its lists of editions of Scripture,. is J. Le Long, 2 vols., Paris, 1709, enlarged by A. G. Masch, 5 vols., Halle, 177890. T. H. Horne added to his a rich bibliography of the works issued before and in his time (also printed

on the subject). Of H. J. Moulton's only vol. i.,

published, Edinburgh, 1906. General Semitic and Oriental philology is

treated in separate volumes on the individual languages in the

ed. aqq.


separately), London, 1839, which, however, is not found in editions of the later than that of 1846. An excellent work is that by James Darling, London, 1854, with supplementary volume, 1859, particularly useful as giving the contents of series and even of volumes. A modern production, noting only works in English, is J. F. Hurst, New York, 1896, fairly complete up to its date, arranged according to the divisions in Theology and in convenient smaller rubrics, with very full indexes. Unfortunately, it needs supplementing by the literature subsequent to 1895. It is to be hoped that the publishers will see their way to add a supplement, containing the later literature. For Roman Catholic theology consult D. Gla, Paderborn, 1894. W. T. Lowndes, 4 vols., London, 1834, new edition by Henry G. Bohn, 185764, while not exclusively theological, deals largely with curious theological books and is useful for the annotations.

Among the most useful guides to theological literature are the works on Introduction to. Theology or on Theological Encyclopedia and Methodology, most of which give classified lists of literature. Schleiermacher's Berlin, 1811, 1830, was followed by K. R. Hagenbach, Leipsic,1833, revised by M. Reischle, 1889. This last, though not in its latest form, was practically repro­duced by G. R. Crooks and J. F. Hurst, New York, 1884, rev. ed., 1894, with copious lists of literature, English and American, added. Better even than this is A. Cave, 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1896, in which the lists of literature are especially valuable, though the lapse of a decade since the publication makes a new edition desirable. Of very high value for its citation of literature, including Continental, English, and American, is L. Emery, Paris, 1904.

In the way of the past

decade has witnessed great progress. The two great Bible Dictionaries, superseding

for English readers all others, are A by J. Hastings and J. A.

Selbie, 4 vols. and extra volume, Edinburgh and New York, 18981904 (comprehensive

and fully up to date in the Old Testament subjects, but conservative and often timid

in dealing with the New Testament), and by T. K. Cheyne and

J. S. Black, 4 vols., London and New York, 18991903 (also comprehensive, much

more " advanced" in the Old Testament and admitting representation to the "Dutch

School" in the New Testament parts, but handicapped by the Jerahmeel theory of Prof.

Cheyne). F. Pigouroux, Paris, 1891 sqq., still in course of pub­

lication, has reached « Palestine" with part xxix., and is an excellent specimen of the

conservative type of French Biblical scholarship.

In the work of W. Smith and S. Cheetham,

London, 187580, is still valuable, and there is no later work in

English to take its place. Of high value is F. X. Kraus,

Freiburg, 188186. The best work, which must supersede all others

because of its extraordinary completeness and fulness, but which has been only recently begun

and must take many years to complete under its present plan, is F. Cabrol,

Paris, 1903 sqq. (parts i.xii. are out, and bring the reader

down to "BaptAme"). In a different field, and worthy of high praise, is W. Smith

and H. Waee, 4 vols.,

London 187787, representing the best English scholarship of its day, and, from the

nature of its contents, not easily to be superseded. A help to this, particularly in the matter

of early Christian writers, is W. Smith,

ology, 3 vols., new edition, London, 1890.


In the general field of and must be men­tioned on the Roman Catholic side the of Wetzer and Welte, 2d ed., begun by Cardinal Hergenrbther, continued by F. Kaulen, 12 vols. and Freiburg, 18801903. This work must be commended for its accurate scholarship, its ad­mirable regard for proportion, and for the large range of subjects it treats with fairness and with only a suspicion of a tendency toward ultramontanism. Briefer is the begun by J. Schafler (continued by J. Sax), 4 vols., Regens­burg, 18801900. The new of M. Buchberger, Munich, 190406 (in progress), is not particularly valuable. The evangelical side of German scholarship is represented by the great work of J. J. Herzog, 3d ed., revised under A. Hauck, Leipsic, 1896 sqq., 18 vols. issued to date. This is the great storehouse of German Protestant theology and the basis of the present work. The most ambitious work of American scholarship is J. McClintock and J. Strong, New York, 1867­1881, with two supplementary volumes, 188486 (claims to have over 50,000 titles; necessarily it is now in need of revision). Other works, each having its distinctive field, are: W. F. Hook, 8th ed., London, 1859, reprinted Philadelphia, 1854; J. Eadie, ib., 1861; J. H. Blunt, 2d ed:, ib., 1872; idem, ib., 1891 (both of considerable worth, representing "High Anglicanism"); W. E. Addis and T. Arnold, London and New York, 6th ed., 1903; J. Hamburger, 3 vols., 3d ed., Leipsic, 18911901 (deals with both Biblical and Talmudic subjects; "by a Jew for Jews"); published under the direction of an editorial board of which I. K. Funk was chairman and Isidore Singer managing editor, 12 vols., New York, 190106; F. Lichtenberger, 13 vols., Paris, 187782 (for French Protestants). T. P. Hugh, London, 1885, is the only encyclopedic work on the subject, but defective and unreliable. In Hymnology there are: H. A. Daniel, i. Latin hymns, ii. Latin sequences, iii. Greek hymns, iv.v. supplement to vols. i.ii., Leip­sic, 184155 (a storehouse of material often inaccessible elsewhere, but ill digested, inac­curate, and perplexing to consult); E. E. Koch, 3d ed., partly posthumous, 8 vols. and index, 186677 (the greatest collection of biographies of hymnists, unfortunately not reliable); the one Eng­lish cyclopedic work in hymnology is J. Julian, London and New York, 1907. A work of immense erudition and alone in its field, which comprehends much that is theological, is J. M. Baldwin, 3 vols., New York, 190106 (vol. iii. in 2 parts is devoted to the bibliography of the subject, duly classified).

While most of the are noted under the appropriate titles in the text, the following are worthy of special mention here. For the all the books except Exodus to Deuteronomy were published in handy form in the Hebrew by G. Baer and F. Delitzsch, Leipsic, 186995 (the text, though critical, does not concern itself with readings from the versions); the ht ed. so far of the complete Hebrew text is C. D. Ginsburg's vols., London, 1894; the text alone was reprinted in 1906 (the by Ginsburg, London, 1897, is the one indis­pensable handbook to the text); yet a very excellent has been published by R. Kittel with the assistance of Professors G. Beer, F. Buhl, G. Dal­man, S. R. Driver, M. Lohr, W. Nowack, J. W. Rothstein, and V. Ryssel, in 2 parts, Leipsic, 190506, obtainable also in smaller sections. The new series entitled ed. Paul Haupt, now in course of publication, Leipsic, London,


and Baltimore, 1894 aqq., and known generally as the "Rainbow Bible" and less widely as the "Polychrome Bible," sets forth the composite origin of the books and indicates the separate documents by printing the text on backgrounds of different tints (the critical objection to the series is that as each book is not directly the result of a consensus of scholar­ship, the effect in each case is the pronouncement of a single scholar and consequent in­decisiveness in the verdict). The lexicons which are most worthy of confidence are: W. Gesenius, vols., Leipsie, 182653 (indispen­sable for the thorough student); idem, 14th ed. by F. Buhl, ib., 1905; and (best for the English student) F. Brown, C. A. Briggs, and S. R. Driver, Oxford and Boston, 1906. Besides the old Concordance of J. Fiirst, Leipsic, 1848, there is now avail­able S. Mandelkern, ib., 1896, which unfortunately is badly done, the errors being very numerous. The best gram­mar is W. Gesenius, 27th ed. by Kautzach, 1902, Eng. tranal. of 25th ed. adjusted to the 26th Germ. ed. by G. W. Collins, London, 1898, along with which should be used S. R. Driver, London, 1892. Re­lated to Old Testament study is M. Jastrow, 2 vols., London and New York, 1903. For the Greek of the Old Testament there is sadly needed a new lexicon. The only one of moment is J. F. Schleusner, vols., Leipsic,178486. The by A. Tromm, 2 vols., Amsterdam, 1718, ought not to be dis­carded, even by those who possess E. Hatch and H. A. Redpsth, Oxford, 18921900, 2d ed., 2 vols. and supplement, 1906, the omissione in which make still necessary recourse to the older work.

For texts the student will naturally turn either to the of Tischendorf, 2 vols., Leipsic, 186972, with by C. R. Gregory, 3 vols., ib., 188494 (containing the most complete collection of the variant readings with description of the sources from which they are derived); to the edition by B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, 2d ed., Cambridge, 1890; to R. F. Weymouth's London, 1892; to E. Nestle's 3d ed., Stuttgart, 1901; or to O. von Gebhardt's ed., combining the readings of Tischendorf, Tregelles, and Westeott and Hort, 16th ed., Leipsic, 1900. Of lexicons the best for general purposes is J. H. Thayer, New York, 1895; but notice must be taken of H. Cremer, 9th ed., Goths, 1902, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1886, with supplement (a work that aims to bring out especially the the­ological, philosophical, and psychological elements of the New Testament vocabulary, and is not a general lexicon). A choice is given in concordances between C. H. Bruder, Con­5th ed., Gottingen, 1900, and W. F. Moulton and A. S. Geden, Edinburgh and New York, 1897 (good for Westcott and Hort's text). For the English Bible the two concordances of value now are R. Young, 7th ed., Edinburgh and New York, 1899; and J. Strong, New York, 1896. The best grammar of the New Testament is F. Blass, Gottingen, 1902, Eng. transl. of .2d ed., London, 1905, along with which should be used E. D. Burton, on the subject). Of H. J. Moulton's only vol. i., published, Edinburgh, 1906. General Semitic and Oriental philology is treated in separate volumes on the individual languages in the ed. J. H. Petermann, H. L. Strack, sqq.


As a directory upon the geography of the following works represent the choi­cest: the latest and the standard bibliography of Palestine is R. Rohricht, Berlin, 1890. Earlier but still useful is T. Tobler, Leipsic, 1867. On the topography there is nothing in English, perhaps nothing in any other tongue, superior in its way to G. A. Smith, 7th ed., London, 1897. Alongside this should be put E. Robinson's 3 vols., London and Boston, 1841, and in Germ. trawl. at Halle the same year, and 1856 (a second ed., including both works in 3 vols., was published, Boston, 1868, but omits some things in the first edi­tion which are sadly missed). In spite of its age this book is still useful. The Palestine Text Society of London has since 1887 been engaged in republishing the ancient itineraries and descriptions relating to Palestine, thus making available to the student material other­wise obtainable only by painful research. Special notice is deserved by the monographs published by the Palestine Exploration Fund of London, including the massive An epochmaking work was W. M. Thomson's 3 vols., New York, 1886 (perhaps the most popular book ever written on the subject). An old classic, by no means superseded, is H. Reland, Utrecht 1714. On the antiquities of Israel two works with nearly the wane title, were issued in the same place and year, Freiburg, 1894, the one by I. Benzinger, in 1 vol. (new ed., Tilbingen, 1907), the other by W. Nowack, in 2 vols.

In the department of the sources available to the student are

growing exceedingly abundant. For a survey of early Christian literature the most

detailed work is that of A. Harnaek,

2 vols. in 3 parts, Leipsic, 18931904 (a book of reference). A handbook of great value

is G. Krager, Frei­

burg,1895, 2d ed., 1898, Eng. trawl., NewYork,1897 (a model of compression and succinct­

ness, including short lives of the writers and good lists of literature). C. T. Gruttwell,

2 vols., London, 1893, is also a work of merit. A

massive work, doing for the Byzantine and later writers of the Greek Church what Harnack

does for the early period, is K. Krumbacher,

Munich, 1897. As a guide to the use of medieval literature, and as a help to the

sources and an indicator of all that is best in those sources in modern works, there is no book

which can be compared with A. Potthast, Berlin, 1896, quoted

in this work as Potthast, No student of ecclesiastical history can afford to

be without this most complete guide to the MSS. and the editions of the sources of

knowledge of the lives of the saints, notables, and writers down to 1500 A.D.

As a source for original investigation in Patristics, as well as in medieval theological writings, there is nothing so handy (because of its comprehensiveness) as the collec­tion made under the direction of the Abby Migne, 22.1 vols., Paris, 184464; 162 vols., ib., 185766 (a set of works rarely on the market, costing about $1,200, but possessed by the principal general and theo­logical libraries in the country; the drawback is that the text is often not critical and is very badly printed). Subsidiary to the use of Migne the following works are often quoted: J. A. Fabricius, vols., Hamburg, 170528, new ed., by G. C. Harles, 12 vols., 17901811, incomplete (quoted as FabriciusHarles), which is a biblio­graphical and biographical directory to early patristic writings, and contains textual matter of great importance; J. S. Assemani, 3 vols., Persian, Turkish, Hebrew, Samaritan, Ar


menian, Ethiopic, Egyptian, and other documents, with critical matter relating to them); E. Martkne and N. Durand, 9 vols., Paris, 172433; A. Gallandi, 14 vols., Venice, 176581 (contains some works otherwise difficult of access. An index of contents to Gallandi is to be found in J. G. Dowling, 192209, Oxford, 1839). A work of great usefulness is R. Ceillier, new ed., 14 vols. in 15 and 2 vois., Paris, 185869. Noteworthy are the excellent and handy Vienna, 1867 aqq., appearing in parts and not in regular order (vol. xxxxvii. appeared 1906), and ed. 0. von Gebhardt, A. Harnack, and T. Zahn, 4 vols., Leipsic, 187678, the same, 5th ed. minor, 1905; and J. B. Lightfoot, 4 vols., London, 187789 (a work which will stand as one of the monuments of English scholarship, rich in original investigation, and with excursuses of the first rank in value and brilliancy). All these are supplemented in the case of new discoveries or by new treatment of works already in hand in the ed. 0. von Gebhardt and A. Harnack, 1st series, 15 vols., 2d series in progress (14 vols. issued), Berlin, 1883 sqq., and by the English ed. J. A. Robinson, 7 vols., Cambridge, 18911906. For the English student there are available the ed. E. B. Pusey, J. Keble, and J. H. Newman, 40 vols., Oxford, 1839 sqq.; and the AnteNicene, and Nicene and PostNicene Fathers, best and handiest in the Am. ed., published as follows: ed. A. Cleveland Coxe, 9 vols. and Index, Buffalo, 1887 (Index volume contains a valuable bibliography of patristics); 1st series, ed. P. Schaff, 14 vols., New York, 188792, 2d series, ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace, 14 vols., New York, 18901900. The first series includes 8 vols. of Augustine's works (by far the best collection yet published in English) and 6 of Chrysostom's; the 2d series includes the church histories of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, and selected works of Gregory of Nyasa, Basil, Jerome, Gennadius, and others. Not to be left out of account is the of M. J. Routh, 2d ed., 5 vols., Oxford, 184648, a collection of patristic and other frag­ments still of value and constantly employed and referred to.

Among collections of is easily held by the massive

still in course of publication, of which over 60 volumes are already issued

in folio and quarto, Hanover and Berlin. This series originated in the f far

in Frankfort, 1819. The work was put into the hands of

Dr. G. H. Pertz, to whom the great comprehensiveness of the series and its consequent value

is largely due. Dr. Pertz was editor and did much of the work till in 1875 it passed into

the lends of Prof. G. Waltz, at whose death in 1886 Prof. W: Wattenbach took charge,

and in 1888 Prof. E. Diimmler. Most of the German experts in the branches which the

collected documents represent have collaborated. There are five sections,

and many subsections. The documents in this royal

series concern Christendom at large and not, as the title suggests, the German empire alone.

There is a volume of by 0. HolderEgger and K. Zeumer, Berlin, 1890, covering the

volumes issued up to that time, and the table of contents is carried five years, farther along

in the work of Potthast mentioned above.

Other collections of value to the historical student are: the vols., Berlin, 186473; M. Bouquet, 23 vols., Paris, 17381876 (begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur and continued by the Academy. A new ed. was

record is carried down to 1328 A.n.); L: A. Muratori,


25 vols. in 28, Milan, 172351 (covers the period 5001500 A.D.; an elaborate new ed. under the direction of Giosu6 Carducci and Vittorio Fiorini is being pub­lished by S. Lapi at Citth di Castello, 1900 sqq.); ed. Niebuhr, Bekker, and others, 49 vols., Bonn, 182878 (not so good in workmanship as is usual with German issues; a new ed. is in course of publication in 50 vols. at Bonn). In connection with this series of Byzantine historians should be noticed E. A. Sophocles, Memorial edition, New York, 1887 (good for the Greek of the Roman and Byzantine periods). 13 vols., Paris, 184185 (pub­lished under the care of the French Academy), is necessary for the study of the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia. The begun at Halle, 1834, with the works of Melanchthon in 28 vols.; continued with Calvin's in 59; and now presenting those of Zwingli, is the indispensable source for the student of those writers. Of some value to the student, more particularly to the archeologist, are: Berlin, 1863 sqq., and Berlin, 1825 sqq. A mag­nificent series is in progress in the Paris, 1881 aqq.

For those who have not access to large libraries a number of selections from historical documents have been printed. For church history to the time of Con­stantine, cf. H. M. Gwatkin, London and New York, 1893; for the medieval and modern periods one of the best is E. Reich, London, 1905, with which may be compared the smaller collection by S. Mathews, Boston, 1892 (both give the selections in the original languages). For stu­dents of the medieval period O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal have translated many impor­tant documents in New York, 1905. Other works of this character are E. F. Henderson, London, 1892; D. C. Munro and G. C. Sellery, New York, 1904 (consists of transla­tions or condensations from European writers on important topics); J. H. Robinson, vols., Boston, 190406 (containing translations, condensations, and adaptations of selections, ranging from Seneca to J. A. Hobson, useful for illustration of European and American history, sacred and secular). The reader of German will receive efficient help in such publications as M. Schilling, 2d ed., Berlin, 1890; K. Noack, 2d ed., Berlin 1890; D. A. Ludwig, Davos, 1891; P. Mehlhorn, Am Berlin, 1894; C. Mirbt, 2d ed., Tiibingen, 1901; H. Rinn and J. Jilngst, Tiibingen, 1905.

To an excellent guide is C. Gross,

London, 1900. First among the collections of sources is

to be mentioned A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs,

3 vols. (vol. ii. in 2 parts), London, 186978

(covering the period 200870 A.D.; a storehouse of original documents, unfor­

tunately left incomplete through the death of Haddan). Of high value are David Wil­

kins, 4 vols., London, 1737;



(no more published; issued under the direction of the Record Commission); J. A.

Giles, 36 vols., Oxford, 183843 (the work not

well done, but still useful). For the reader of English alone a large number of select sources

are given in H. Gee and W. J. Hardy, of

London, 1896 (covers. the period 3141700). Known by the searcher after original sources


as of the highest value are the publications of a number of societies. Belonging in this

class, though not under the care of any society, are

London, 185891 (known as

the One of the most important of this series is No. 26, T. D. Hardy's

vols. in 4, 186271). The Henry Bradshaw Society

of London began in 1891 to publish monastic and other documents; the Camden Society

exists for the purpose of publishing documents illustrative of English history (London,

1838 to date), many of which are of ecclesiastical interest; the Surtees Society of Durham,

founded 1834, has issued over 100 volumes, many of which make available sources of the

first rank.

In the number of works should be known to students. A monu­

mental work begun by J. S. Erach and J. G. Gruber, continued by A. Leskien, is

Leipsic, 181889 and still

receiving additions. Already 100 volumes and more have been issued, and it is to be contin­

ued from time to time. The biographical interest is so pronounced in this production that it

takes a front rank in this class of works. The biographical interest is also predominant in

another work to which very frequent reference is made, L. S. Le Nain de Tillemont,

2d ed.,16 vols., Paris, 170112,

parts of it in an English translation by T. Deacon, 2 vols., London, 1721,173335. J. P. Nice­

ron, 43 vols.,

Paris, 172945, is a work of reference often used; mention is due also to the

45 vols., Paris, 1843 aqq., and

of J. C. F. Hoefer, 46 vols., Paris, 185256, both serviceable and sometimes the only avail­

able works. Of national biographical works, for Germany there is the

50 vols., Leipsic, 18751905 (still in progress; it is under the auspices of the

Historical Commission of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences); for France, the

begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur, 12 vols., Paris, 173363,

and continued by members of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belleslettres to vol., xxxii.,

1898 (a new edition is in progress, completed as far as vol. gvi.); for Protestant France

may be consulted E. and It. Haag, La 7 vols., Paris, 184659, 2d ed.,

enlarged by H. L. Bordier, vols., 188789; also belonging here is A. C, A. Agnew,

2 vols., Edinburgh, 1886 (printed for private circulation only).

The one work of note for Holland is A. J. Van der Aa,

Haarlem, 1852 sqq. For England there is the noble

edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, 63 vols., and 3 supplement vols., with

one of errata, London and New York, 18851904 (contains much of interest to Americans,

especially on the founders and notables of colonial times; a cheaper ed. is promised); F.

Boase, vols., Truro,

18921901; and J. Gillow,

vols., London and New York, n.d. (the lists of works by the subjects of the entries are an

exceedingly valuable being very complete). The Danes have also a biographical

dictionary like those mentioned,

F. Brisk, Copenhagen, 1887 sqq.

There is still needed an adequate work on American Biography which shall correspond to the English cited above. There are available the vols., New York, 18921906 (the alphabetical order is abandoned and no consistent substitute adopted; an elaborate index volume appeared in 1906); and James Grant Wil


son and John Fiske, rev. ed., 6 vols., ib., 189899 (the revision consists mainly of a sup­plement).

As a propaedeutic to the study of an indispensable

work is E. Sehdrer, 3d ed., 3 vols.

and Index, Leipsic, 18981901, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., 5 vols., New York, 1891. Of works

on general Church History there is a wide range of choice. A. Neander, of

11th Am. ed., 5 vols., Boston, 1872 (coming down to 1517

A.D.), and Index volume, 1881, is the most philosophical work on the subject yet published,

superseded in parts by the discoveries made since it was written, but as a whole by no means

obsolete; with this should go J. K. L. Gieseler, whose in the German was

in 5 vols., Darmstadt, 182425, Eng. transl. began by S. Davidson and others, 5 vols., Edin­

burgh, 184856, edited and translation carried further by H. B. Smith, translation com­

pleted by Miss Mary A. Robinson, 5 vols., New York, 185781 (especially valuable for its

citation of original documents); and J. H. Kurtz, a translation of which from the 9th Ger­

man edition by J. Macpherson appeared in London, 188889 (condensed in form and very

usable; new ed. of the German by N. Bonwetsch and P. Tschackert, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1906).

P. Schaff, 7 vols., New York, 188292, coming down through

the Reformation, but omitting vol. v. on the scholastic period, is perhaps the most readable.

A very compact work is W. Moeller, of 3 vols., London, 1892­

1900 (comes down to 1648; the 2d ed. of the German original by H. von Schubert, Tiibingen,

1902). J. F. Hurst, of 2 vols., New York, 18971900, is also

compact; it is conservative in treatment of its subject. A. H. Newman,

2 vols., Philadelphia, 190003, is, like Hurst, compact but less conservative in tone.

The reader in Church History will find three works constantly referred to; viz., J. Bingham,

10 vols., London, 170822,

often reprinted, unfortunately not seldom in abbreviated form (recognized by scholars as a

work of "profound learning and unprejudiced inquiry" and remaining one of the standards

in this department; best ed. in 8 vols. of his complete works in 10 vols., by R. Bingham,

Jun., Oxford, 1855); A. J. Binterim,

2d ed., 7 vols., Mainz, 183741 (a treasury of important notes on " things worthy

of remembrance"); and J. C. W. Augusti,

12 vols., Leipsic, 181731. Out of the number of works on the History of Dogma the one

likely to be most useful, though by no means the most philosophical, is A. Hamack, Lehr­

3d ed., 3 vols., Freiburg, 189497, Eng. tranal., 7 vols., London,

189499, and Boston, 18951900. A work of the first rank frequently referred to for the

history of Europe tillthe fall of Constantinople is E. Gibbon,

best edition by J. B. Bury, 7 vols., London, 18961900 (Gibbon is

said to be the only student who worked over thoroughly the Byzantine Histories; formerly

regarded as an opponent of Christianity, many of his positions are now taken by church


For the Church three works with the same title, are of supereminent worth and are generally used as works of reference: A. Hauck, vol. i., 4th ed., Leipsic, 1904, vol. ii., 2d ed., 1900, vol. iii., 3d ed., 1906, vol. iv., 2d ed., 1903 (contains rich bibliography); F. W. Rettberg, 2 vols., G6ttingen, 184648 (espe­cially good for origins); and J. Friedrich, 2 vols., Bamberg, 186769 (like Hauck, good in history of the dioceses). A handy help to the early sources of German Church History is W. Wattenbaeh, 5th ed., 2 vols., Berlin, 1885, 6th ed., 189394 (the changes are so great that both editions are frequently quoted side by side). A work of genius, learning, and attractiveness, but



avowedly from a strong Roman Catholic standpoint, is Johannes Janssen's German original ed. L. Pastor, 14th to 16th ed. completed in 8 vols.,1903, Eng. trawl. by Miss Mary A. Mitchell and Miss Alice M. Christie, London, 10 vols. having appeared up to 1907.

For the Church History of France a bibliography is furnished by A. Molinier, 2 vols., Paris, 190102. Besides Bouquet, already mentioned, there are available for early sources: F. Guizot, 31 vols., Paris, 182335; and 16 vols., ib., 17151865. An important work is J. N. Jager, 20 vols., ib., 186278. In Eng­lish there are: W. H. Jervis, 2 vols., London, 1872; H. M. Baird, 2 vols., New York, 1883; idem, 2 vols. ib., 188687; idem, 2 vols., ib., 1895.

A fair survey of the course of the Church in England is obtained by combining W. Bright, Oxford, 1906, with the series edited by W. R. W. Stephens and W. Hunt, 7 vols., London, 18991906, as follows: W. Hunt, (1899); W. R. W. Stephens, (1901); W. W. Capes, (1900); J. Gairdner, (1903); W. H. Frere, (1904); W. H. Hutton, (1903); J. H. Overton and B. Felton, (1906).

For the Church History of Ireland and Scotland the following are valuable: J. Colgan,

vols., Louvain,

164547; H. M. Luekoek, London, 1893; J. Lanigan,

2d ed., 4 vols., Dublin, 1829 (a very

important and essential work); J. O'Hanlon, 7 vols., Dublin, 1875­

1877; J. Healy, Insula Dub­

lin, 1890; and T. Olden, London, 1892. Consult particularly the

list of literature under CELTIC CHURO$ IN BRITAIN AND IRuLAND.

American Church History as a whole is treated in the 13 vols., New York, 189397, issued under the auspices of the American Society of Church History. The principal denominations receive extended treatment by some of their own specialists; for the minor denominations the provision made is only that given in vol. i. by H. K. Carroll, new ed., 1896. It is in respect to the minor sects that most difficulty is experienced in obtaining data. Another series of a more popular character York, 1904 sqq.

For the history of the Papacy an indispensable work is C. Mirbt,

2d ed., Tiibingen, 1901 (a guide to the history, giving citations from original

sources and a conspectus of the weightiest literature). The only work which covers nearly

the entire history of the popes is that of A. Bower, 7 vols.,

London, 174861, with 3 vols., Philadelphia,

1847 (the latter is the ed. cited in this work; the character of the is poor, as was

that of the author). H. H. Milman, 9 vols., new ed., London, 1883,

is excellent and brings the history to 1455; for its period (590795, $58891) a worthy

work is R. C. Mann, Lives vol. i., 2 parts, London,

1902; vol. iii., 1906; of great value is L. Pastor,

4 vols., 4th ed., Freiburg, 190107, Eng. trawl., 6 vols., London, 18911902

(a most industrious and honest work, based on research in the original archives, covers the


period 13051534; vols. i., iii., and v. of the English contain bibliographies); the period

13781527 is covered by M. Creighton's 6 vols., London, 1897 (an

invaluable work); L. von Ranke, 9th ed., 3 vols., Leipsic, 1889, Eng.

transl., 3 vols., London, 1896, is indispensable for the period 15131847; the story is con­

cluded by F. Nielsen, 2d ed., Gotha, 1880, Eng.

transl., 2 vols., New York, 1906. A work which parallels part of those mentioned is

F. Gregorovius, 8 vols., Stuttgart, 188696, 5th

ed., 1903 sqq., Eng. transl., from the 4th edition, 8 vols., London, 190102. The official

Catholic record, covering the early and middle period, is the best ed. of

the whole work by L. Duchesne, containing text, introduction, and commentary, 2 vols.,

Paris, 188692, though the ed. by Mommsen, in

vol. i, 1898, is even better so far as it goes. The bulls and briefs of the popes are best con­

sulted in

14 vols., Rome, 173348, supplemented by 4 vols., ib.,

175458, and Bullarii (Clement XIII.Gregory XVI.) by A. Barberi and

A. Spetia,19 vols., ib., 183557, the whole reedited by A. Tomassetti, 24 vols., Turin, 185772.

Consult also L. Pastor,

Freiburg, 1904.

A number of collections and discussions of the has been made. Those most cited are P. Labbe and G. Cossart, 17 vols. in 18, Paris, 1672; J. Harduin, 12 vols., Paris, 1715; J. D. Mansi, 31 vols., Venice, 1759­1798 (of the older collections the one most cited); C. J. von Hefele, 7 vols., Freiburg, 185574 (coming down to 1433; a 2d ed. was begun by the author and carried on by Cardinal Hergenrother to 1536, 9 vols. in all, 186390; apparently vol. vii. of the 2d ed. never appeared); the Eng. transl. of Hefele by W. R. Clark includes only vols. i.iii. of the German, down to 787 A.D., 5 vols., 188396. Of all these Hefele is the most accessible and now the oftenest cited.

On the subject of all students are most deeply indebted to C. F. de T. Montalembert, Paris, 186067, authorized Eng. transl.,' 7 vols., London, 186179. For the history of religious orders the old standard, rich in erudi­tion, is P. Helyot, 8 vols., Paris, 171419; the best modern work is M. Heim bueher, vols., Paderbom,189697, 2d and enlarged ed., 3 vols., 1907, utilized from Vol. IV. on; the one work in English to be cited, which, however, leaves much to be desired, is C. W. Currier, New York, 1896.

On the history of the Catholic Church the most important are the following: for the Jesuits, A. and A. de Backer, 7 vols., Liege, 185361, new ed. by C. Sommer­vogel, Paris, 1891 sqq. ; the by a number of hands, 6 parts in 8 vols., Rome, 16151759 ; J. A. M. CretineauJoly, 6 vols., Paris, 184446; for the Benedictines, J. Ma­billon, 9 vols., Paris, 16681702, and his 6 vols., Paris, 170339; for the Carmelites, J. B. de Lezana, Rome, 165166; for the Dominicans, in course of publication at Louvain since 1896 (the earlier works, now being superseded, are: A. Touron, 6 vols., Paris, 174349, and T. M. Mamaehi,


5 vols., Rome, 1754); for the Cistercians, A. Maurique, 4 vols., Lyons, 164259, and P. le Nain, citeaux, 9 vols., Paris, 1696­1697; for the Franciscans, the 3 vols., Freiburg, 188597, and the begun by L. Wadding, 8 vols., Lyons, 1625 sqq., continued by J. de Luca and various hands at Naples and Rome, 26 vols., and covering the period 12081611.

Somewhat akin to the foregoing is the subject of in which two works stand out as preeminent. The one is the J. Bolland, the issue which was begun in 1643, continued till the dispersion of the Jesuits compelled suspension of the work from 1794 (when vol. liii. was issued) till 1845. In all 63 vols. have been published, and a new ed. has appeared, Paris, 186394 (see ACTA MARTYRUM, ACTA SANGTORUM). This is supplemented by the edited by a number of Jesuits, Paris and Brussels, 1882 sqq. (still in progress; it includes documents unused or passed by in the newly discovered material, variant accounts, notes on the old accounts, and description of manuscripts). The other important work is the of J. Mabillon and T. Ruinart, 9 vols., Paris, 16681701, and Venice, 173340. Mention may be made of the of J. Ghesquiere and others, 6 vols., Brussels, 178394. J. Colgan's work on Scottish and Irish saints is noted above (p. xviii.). The plan of arrange­ment in these compilations is that of the Roman calendar, the substance is the lives and legends concerning the saints, and the value of the material varies greatly. A very large amount of the material is derived from contemporary sources and is therefore use­ful when sifted by the critical processes.

In the comparatively new and certainly interesting region of the

the series of first importance, making available to readers of English many

of the Bibles and Commentaries of the great religions, is that of the of

under the editorship of F. Max Miiller, 48 vols., Oxford, 18791904. A valuable set of his­

torical expositions of the historical religions is found in the

15 vols., MU** The

Paris, 1880 sqq., combine the features of the (translations

of native sources) and of the Hibbert Lectures (discussions of particular religions). The

Hibbert Lectures (q.v.) are a number of series, each series amounting to a treatise on some indi­

vidual religion or phase of religion, delivered in Great Britain between 1878 and 1902 by spe..

cialists of eminence. A corresponding series, known as the American Lectures on the History of

Religion (q.v.), has been in progress since 1895 and is planned ahead as far as 1910. A valuable

set is found in the edited by M. Jastrow, of which the

following have appeared, Boston, 18951905: E. W. Hopkins, 1895; M.

Jastrow, 1895; P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye,

1896; A. Wiedemann, 1897;

M. Jastrow, 1901; and G. Steindorff, 1905.

The best individual work on the whole subject is P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye,

3d ed., 2 vols., Tubingen, 1905 (in which the author had the coopera­

tion of numerous scholars). Next to this is C. P. Tiele,

2d ed., Amsterdam, 1900. Other important volumes are E. B. Tylor,

4th ed:, 2 vols., London, 1903; J. G. Frazer, 2d ed., 3 vols., ib.,1900; F. B.

Jevons, ib., 1896 (all dealing with primitive religion).



ABBEY: R. A. Cram, LondoD, 1906.

T. Perkins,

London and New York, 1907.

ABBoTr, E. A.: the Bible], London, 1907.

ABBoxT, L.: New York, X907.

New York, 1907.

ABGAR: F. C. Burkitt, pp. 11 eqq„ London and New York, 1904.



A:3RAaAMs, I.: [70178 A.D.], New York, 1907.

London, 1907.

ABYSSINIA: R. P. Skinner, London, 1906.

Lord Hmdllp, London, 1906.

F. Rosen, Leipsic, 1907.

ACTA MARTYRuM, AGTA SANCTORUM: A. Du­fourcq, Paris, 1906 sqq.

Henri Quentin, l e

Paris, 1907.

P. Saintyves, Paris, 1907.

AvroN, LORD: London, 1907.

London, 1908.

ADAMS, G. M.: by E. E. Strong, Boston, 1907.

ADDIS, W. E.: new ed., London, 1906.

ADENEY, W. F.: new ed., London, 1907.

ADLER, C.: ~elphia, 1907.

ADRIAN IV.: by J. Duncan Mackie, London, 1907.

AFRICA: In General: E. d'Almeida, Rome, 1907.

B. Alexander, Lon­don and New York, 1907.

A. H. S. Landor, London and New York, 1907.

A. B. Lloyd, Cannibal London and New York, 1907.

C. G. Schillings, New York, 1907.

AlgIers: Francs E. Nesbitt, London, 1906

M. W. Hilton Simpson, London, 1906.

Egypt: W. S. Blunt, London, 1907.

French Africa: G. FranVois, 1907.

A. Chevalier,

Paris, 1907.

L. Desplag~es, Pans, 1907.

Portuguese Africa: R. C. F. Maugham, London, 1806.

G. M. Theal, London, 1907.

South Africa: S. Passarge, Berlin, 1907.

idem, Leipsic, 1908.

J. P. Johnson, London, 1907

West Africa: R. E. Dennett,

London, 1907.

AGNES, SAINT: by A. Smith, New York, 1907, and by F. Jubaru, Paris, 1907.

AoNosTIcISM: W. H. Fitchett, Cincinnati, 1908.

AXED, C. F.:

New York 1908.

ALBERT oh BRANDENBURG: by H. 0. Nietsch­mann, Burlington, Ii,., 1907.

ALEXANDER IV.: by F. Tenckhoff, Pader­boim, 1907.

ALEXANDER SEVERUS: by R. V. N. Hopkins, New York, 1907.

ALFRED TEm GREAT: reed. from the MSS. by W. W. Skeat, London and New York, 1907.

ALLARD, PAUL: Eng. transl. of Lectures on the Martyrs," New York, 1907.

ALLEN, A. V. G.: new ed., Boston. 1907.

Boston, 1907.

cf. J. B. Johnson, New York, 1907.

ALLIES, TaoMAs WILLIAM: by Miss Mary H.

Allies, London, 1907.

AMBRoBE, SAINT, oh MILAN: J. E. Niederhuber,

Pader­born, 1907.

ANDREws, L.: new ed., London, 1907.

ANGUS, J.: rev. ed., 2d impression, 1907.

ANNA CoMNENA: L. Du Sommerard,

Paris, 1907.

ApILAmms: F. C. Burkitt, eqq., London and New York,


APOCRYPHA, The Old Testament: Berlin, 1906.

R. Smend, Berlin, 1907.

Berlin, 1907.

APOCRYPHA The New Testament: by Lonsdale and Laura Ragg, London, 1907.

APorroNiffs orr TYANA: T. Whittaker, London, 1906.

APoroaRTtcs: Jean Rivibre, Paris, 1907.

E.~ Scott,

S. Weber, n Freiburg, 1907.

O. Zoeckler, Giitersloh, 1907.

ARiANism: S. Rogala, Paderborn, 1907.

ARraToxr,E: Tranal. of the first book of his "Meta­physics," by A. E. Taylor, Chicago, 1907

New complete transl., ed. J. A. Smith and W. D. Ross, London and New York, 1908 sqq.

ARTHuR, W.: by T. B. Stephenson, London, 1907.

AsiA MINOR: W. M. Ramsay, London and New York, 1908.

As6YRu: H. Winekler, London and New York, 1907.

AxsaNAsius: F. Cavaliers, S. Paris, 19m.

AToNanrENT: John Scott Lidgett, 4th ed.. London, 1907.

posium, 3d ed., London, 1907

H. C. Beaching and A. Nairne,

London and New York,


J. M. Campbell, The London, 1907.

Avausxrmm, SArNT, oa Hippo:

by Rev. W. J.

Vashon Baker and Rev. Cyril Bickersteth,

London, 1907.

P. Friedrich, Cologne, 1907.

Aus: N. W. Thomas,

London, 1906.

London and New York, 1907.

B. L. Parker

London, 1906.

A. Buchanan, London, 1907. .

BABCoCB, M. D.: ed. Jessie B. Goetschius, New York, 1907.

BABYLONu: H. Winckler, London and New York, 1907.

R. J. Lau, London,1907.

J. D. Prince, New York, 1908.

E. Mayer, Berlin, 1907.

BAMP1bN LEcroRm: 1907: J. H. F. Peile, London and New York, 1907.

BANSs, L. A.: New York, 1907.

BAPn8M: R. Ayres,


London, 1907.

Philalethes, London, 1907.

BAPTrsm: H. C. Vedder, new ed., Philadelphia, 1907.

BARDESANEs: F. C. Burkitt, lect. v., London and New York,1904.

BARINGGOULD: series, London, 1907.

new ed., London, 1907.

London, 1907.

London, 1907.

London, 1907.

London, 1907.

BARToN, W. E.: Chicago, 1907.


[Abbreviations in common use or selfevident are not included here. For additional information con­

cerning the works listed, see CONCERNING BIBLIOGRAPHY, pp. viii.Ix., above, and the appropriate articles

in thy of the work. The editions named are those cited in the work.]

... .....

and in­


ed. J. Bolland and


V Authoriaed Version (of

Bensinger, I. Benainger,


and Foreign Bible Society

new ed.,

Bouquet, continued by





I Berlin,

COT . 8ee Schrader

be Halle,



. . . . . . . . . I

Dan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Daniel



ed. Schrader. Berlin, 1869

. $ee Wattenbach

Stephen and $.


cup lemeiit 3 vole., London, 18851901

Driver, ~rwer. Introduction to te Literature of the Odd Testament, 5th ad., New Lion . . .. . . . . . . ~ pork, 1894

T. K. Che a and J. $. Black,

adia ~ lies 4 vole., London end

NewYork 1891903

Boot .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Ecclssia, ' Church "; ecclesiaaticus, " so


Eccles Ecolesiaztes

Ecclue . . . . . Ecclesiaeticue

ed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edition; edidit, " edited by "

Ej . ElohistJahviat (Yahwiat)

Eph . . . . . . . Epistle to the Ephesiana

Epiat . Epistola,Epiatola:, "Epistle," "Epistles"

Erech and Gru I J. $. Erech and J. G. Gruber, Allpemcins

ber, Ti'ieaenachaftea and

paths . . . . . . . Kiinak, Leipaie. 1818 sqq.

EX . Engliah versions (of the Bible)

Ex . Eaodue

Book Ezekiel

faac faaeiculua

Friedrich, . I J• Friedrich, Rirchengeaehiehte Deutsch,

lands, 2 vole., Bamberg. 188769

Fritaxhe, Exe O• F. Fritasche and C. L. W. Grimm,

petisehss urape/aaetea exe0etieehea

,•...,. xu pacryp hen lea Atkn Teala

vnanta, 6 parts, Zurich, 185160

Gal . Epiatle to the Galatians

Gee and Hardy, ~ H'Itlwtrat and Ell English

Documsats ' ' " London, 1898

Gen . Genesie

Germ German

GCiA . ~ GattingierJis yelehrk Anaeipen, GSttingen,


Gibbon History the Decline and

Fall the Roman Empire, ed. J. B.

and Bury 7 vole., London, 1891900

Gk . Greek.Weciaed

C. Gross, The Sources of

Gross, Sources... . . to 11,85, London,


Haddan and fA• W. Haddan and W. Stubbs,

Stubbs, a"°1 Ell ocuments Relating

, • . . , to Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vols.,

Oxford, 188978

Refers to patrietio works on heresies or

Her . . . . . . . . heretics. Tertullian a Dopr sscriPtione,

the Pros haireseia of Irenaeus, the

Panarion of Epiphanius, etc.

Hag . . . . . . . .•. Haggai

Harduin, Con 1 J. Harduin, Conciliorum codlectio repia

cilia . . . I maxima 12 vole., Paris, 1715

A. HarnaaSc, History of Dogma . . from

Harnack, Dogma the 3d German edition, 7 vole., Boston,


Harnack, Littera

Hauok, KD .. . . . •~


A. Harnack, (3eschichte der altchriat• lichen Litteratur bin vole. in 3 Leipeia, 18931904

A. ffsuek, Kirehenpeechichte Deutsch­tanda, vol. i.. Leipeio. 1904; vol. ii., 1900; vol. iii., 1908; vol. iv., 1903

proteetantiaehe The­olopie and Kirche, founded by J. J. Herzog, 3d ed. by A. Hauck, Leipsia, 1898 eqq

Heb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ppiatle to the Hebrews

Hebr .. . . . . . . . . . . . Hebrew

Hefele,Concilien C• J. von Hefele, Concilienpeeehiehte, eon

by J. Hergenr6ther, 9 vote.,

Freiburg, 188393

Heimbuoher Or M. Heimbucher, Die Orden and Konpro

den on pationen der kaAwdiechan Kirche. 2

prcpationsn .. . . vole., Paderborn, 189897

Helyot, Ordres . . ~ P• Uelyot, Hietoire des ordrea monaa­

tiques, rlipitux et militairee 8 vole.,

h"°°' Paris, 171419; now ed., 183942

Henderson, Doe ~ E. F. Henderson, Select Historical Docu

umenta • . • . . • • mcn:s of the Middle Apes, London, 1892

Hiet . Hiatory, iatoirs,hietoria

Hint. eccl. ; Hiatorra ecc7esiaatica, eccleeiar, •. Church


Mom . . . . . . . . . . . Homilies, homiHai, " homily, homilies "

Isa . Ieaiah

Itsl Itslian

J Jahviat (Yahwiet)



fJeaclaichts ....

Labbe, Conciiia

Lev . ,Leviticue

LXX . The Septuagint

I Mace I Maccabees

II Deoo . . II Maocsbeea

Mai, eon ~ A. Ddai, Seriptorum roetsrum nova ool

ieetio . lectioR 10 voL home. 182638

Mil. . . . . . . . . . . . Malachl

Mean, popes .....~ R. 0. Mann, Lives vie Popee

G. D. Manai aprtf't.OTUm arneilsorum

Msnei. Concilia . ~ coilectio noes, 31 • vole.. Florence and


. . . . . . . . . . . Matthew

McClintock and (J' MoClintook and J. Strong, Cycloy adw

Strong. Cyclo jl of and kccdo

pcedia „ . , . • . , Sias" Literature, 10 vole. and sup­

plement 2 vole., New York, 188987

Monuments Omaania< hiatorioa, ed. G. A.

Parts and others, Hanover and Ber­

lin. 1828 eqq The following abbrevia­

tions ere used for the sections and sub­

sections of this work: AnR,

taka, Antiquities • Acct. ant., efuo­

Cores anliquieeimi, " Oldest Writers ;

Chron. mina CAronica miasma, Lesser

Chronicles • Dip.. Diplomats, Di­

plomas. Documents Bpi, Epia­

tola<, Letters Club punt. Rom,

Oeata ponMfietam honwnorum. .. Doeds

of the Popes of Rome 1~ Legal,

Laws • Lib. do Iitc. d inter reQnum et saeadotium aauulorum

xi et xir conecripti, Books concerning

MaH. • , . • • • • , . , the Strife between the Civil and Eoole­

eiaeticat Authorities in the Eleventh

and Twelfth Centuries ; Nee., No­

erolopia Oarmania<, Necrology of

Germany ~Poet; Let. anri car.,

Poets nn Carolina, " Latin

Poets of the Caroline Time Poet.

Let. vied. aroi. Poster eolii aroi,

Latin Poets of the Middle Agee,%

Script., Sn'ipt~,~e Writers Script.

rer. Germ. Beriplorea rerum Gfermani

faru "Vriters oa German Sub­

jects'; Script. rer. Scriptnrea

serum Italioarum.

Writers .on Lombard and Italian

Subjects 'm Script,: rer. Memo3erip­

fores rerun 'Writers


m, 'on Merovingian Subjects Mle Micah

H. H. Milman, History o/ Latin Chria

1lilmsn. Latin • • ~ tie.~yIndudi that o/ the to

irhoias ~., 8 vole., London,

C. Mirbt, Quelkn sw OearhiclH den Papettums ftimisehan Rafho­Lieiamw, TObingen, 1901

W. Moeller, History o/ the Christian Church, 3 vob., London, 18921900

J. P. Patro)opio euraua eompletw

series 1132 vole., Paris, 1857

J. P. Ml Pabnlopiar curaue comptelus aeries Lat;na, 221 vole., Paris, 1844a

MS.. >1iS$. . . . . . . . . Manuscript. Manuscripts

Muratori, $aip L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italioorum adrip

foree . . torw, 28 vole. 172"1

Neu" Arckia t

NA . . . . . . . . dsu4che Oe~ic~taku~


Nsh ..... . . . . Nahum

n.d. no date of publication

.Nesnder Chris~ A. Neander, General H tlrs.CW ia­

lia» Glburch... 8728tin Religion and Churo1% ~ vole, and

Neh . Nehemiah

Ii. P. Niaeron, M4"

Niaeron, ML` 1'hiatoire den hommea idlaatr~ evivi,r43

moiraa . . vs . pa17Z94B

NRZ . . . . . . . . . . N°u° "ZaiamLsipdo, 1890

Nowsok, ArenaI Wpowsok, Lbbudl der Aaoroiaehan

olopis . .... . . . . Archeo7opis: 2 vole., Feeiburg,1894

n.p no pleas of publication

The Nioerte and Fathers, 1st

. ..... • 14 vole., New York. 188792• 2d

series, 14 vole.. New York, 18901900

New Testament, Noawn Teatamentum,

N. T. .. . N TSnt, Neu" Tnbnant

Num ..... . . . . . . . . Numbers

06 0

bsdiah O.B . . . . . . OrdoBenaanetidiot " I'll.

O.S.B ... 'Bone 'diet T Old Testament

OTJC .. . . .See Smith

P Priestly document

... .Journoi A ~~ Paris, 1822 eqq.

•) P. JaH6, ~t~Oa rerum Oermani­

oarum, 8 vole., Berlin, 188473

P. Jam, Rpeefs pontilicum Romanorum

JaH(;, Repeals • • • • ad annum 1198, Berlin, 1861;

2d ed., Leipua 188188

Journal of Literature and Exepe­

eia, first a se Journal of the

SocieOy of ~ Zunl Literature and Exe­

DeaW. M~ddletown, 188288, then Boe­

l ton, 1890 eqq.

1 The Jewish Encyclopedia, li vale., New

JE t York, 190106

JE the cobined narrative of the Jahviet

(Yahwiet) and Elohiet

Jer . Jeremish

FlaviuaJoaephus, '• Antiquities of the

Joeephue, Ant. Jews

Joeephua, Avian.~ Flaviue Joeephue, " Against Apion "

Joeephue. Life Life of Flavius Joeephue

Jaeephue, War Flavins Joeephus, " The Jewish War "

Josh Joshuh

JPT 1 J°Pr'°t°afantiuhe Theolopie,

1 Lei ado, 1 76 eqq.

JQR The Y°'°44 fly Review, London,


JTS.. .. ... . ... . IJ°u^'°Z of Theological Studio, London,

Julian, Hym J 1J8u~lisn,qa! Dictionary of Hymnology.

nolopy. .... . . . J JNew York. 1892

KAT 8ee Schrader

KB See Schrader

KD . See Friedrich Haack, Rettberg

Weiser and Velte'e iehsnexikon, 2d

ed., bL!. H ther and F. Ksulen,

12 voFray 18821903

G. KrOgei, H 01 Early Christian

Krager. History.~ NeLsteroYturecii~ asst Three Centuries,

~ B. I3,rumbaoher, (iekhirhte der bysan­tirHaehen Litteratur, 2d ed.. Munich, 1897

P. Lsbbel 8aaorum coacsliorum moos et ampZusima mlkctio. 31 vola.. Flor­ence and Venice, 176998

IAm . . ~.Lsmentations

jaE~ ~ J. ~,a~a, Ecclesiastical History o1' Irodand to the IM Century, 4 vole.,

Hset Dbn182)

Las .Latin Lionised

Lg . Lepea; lepum

Mirbt, Queiden. .

Moeller, Chris­tian CAurcA..,



L. Pastor, The History the Popes from

Pastor, Popes . . . the Cloe of the M Apse, 8 vole.,

London 18 11902

PEA . . . . j Pubes J. A. Giles,

34 vole. London, 183848

PEF . Palestine Nploration Fund

I Pet First Epistle of Peter

II Pet . 8econd Epistle of Peter

Pliny, Hist. net. . . Pliny, Hietoria natwralia

Potthast, Wep I A. Potthaet, iaWriea madii

asvi. Wegvaiser durch die Geschidts­

va;ieer .. . . .. . . . works, Berlin, 1898

Prov . Pmverbe

Ps Psalms

PSBA ) the Society

I Archeology, London 1880

qq.v:9nod (quge) vide, ' which see

R . itedactor Ranks, ;Popes L. von Ranks. History the Popes, 1896

.Revue l~ Lo n,

Paris, 1831 eqq.


Reich, Do E. Reich, Select

Mte . I Madimval and Modern History, London,

an 1905

des Etudes Juivea, Paris, 1880 eqq

Rettberg, KD . . F' W' Rettberg, Kirchengesehichte Deutach

lands 2 vole., GSttingen, 184848

Rev . . . . . . Book of Revelation

Richter, Kirrhan­

recht ..........

Robinson, Euro­

peen History

Robineon, searches, and Later Re­search"

i A. L. Richter, Lehrbueh den katholiachen

i and evanpeliachan KircAenrechta, 8th

ed. by W. Kohl, Lei peac. 1888

J. H. Robineon, European

History, 2 vole., Boston, 190408

E. Robinson Biblical Researches in

Palestine, 13oeton, 1841 and Later

Biblical Researches in d ad.

of the whole 3 vole., 1887

Rom . ~ Epietle to the >'Iomane

thEoiopis et de philosophic, Lausanne, 1873

R. V.. . . . . . . . . . . . Revised Version (of the English Bible)

sac .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . aaeulum, " century "

I Sam ..... I $amael

II Sam . . . . . . . . .II Samuel

Sacred Socks of the Old Testament ("Rain

SBOT . bow Bible ), Leipsia, London, and

Baltimore, 1894 sqq.

Schaff, Christian P. Schaff, History of t~0

. i.iv. vi., vii ., New York 188292

Schaff, Creeds P' $°ff Croede

3 vole ~Tew York, 187784

E. Schrader Cuneiform

Schrader, Old Netamenf, 2 vole., London,


Schrader, KA T E• Schrader,. Die aa

AZte Testament, 2 vole Berlin, 190203

Schrader, KB. E'rer, Keiinachri/ tliche Bibliothek,

8 vole. Berlin, 18891901

E. $chilrer, Geadtichte den jfidischea

$oh~rer, Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 3 vole

GeecAichtc Leipeio. 18981901; Eng. travel., 5

vole., New York, 1891

Script. Scriptures, •• writers

sew . Sententim " Sentences "

$. J ...... . .Societas .f'esu, Society of Jeans "

SK i°n u"d Kritiken, Ham­

burg, 1828sqy~

Smith, Kinship.. W ' B" Smith, %inahip and Marriage in Early Arabia, London, 1903

Smith, OTJC... W. R. Smith, The OW Testament in the Jeudsn Church, London, 1892

Smith. Prophets. W• R. Smith, Prophets Israel . . to the • Londo 1895

Smith, of W. R. Smith, Religion of ~ Benito,

3em . London, 1894

$. P. C. K. . .. . . Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge

$• P. G. . . . . . .. • Society for the Propagation of the ( "Joepel

in Foreign Parts

eq.. eqq . . . . . . .. . . . and following

3b~om . Stromata, "Misoellaniea"

NX .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . sub voce, or sub verbo

Thatcher and O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal, A McNeal, Source ~ Source Book for MaliawaZ History

Book . . . . . . . . New York, 1905

I Then . Firet Epistle to the Thessalonians

II Then . $eoond~e~stle to the Thessalonians

ThT .... . . . . . . . . Thco~r~ TdidschrifR Amsterdam and Ley en, 1887 eqq.

Tillemont, Md ~ L' $• Is Nain de Tillemont, MEnwirea

moues . . . . . #acles. 1d0cBavole Birusaels, des six 189301712 s

I Tim . FireE Epistle to Timothy

II Tim .. . . . . . . . . . . Second Epistle to Timothy

Theoiopiacher JaAreaberirht, Leipaie, 1882­

TJB . 1887. Freiburg, 1888. Brunswick, 1889­

1897, Berlin, 1898 eq


TLZ . ~° 1ittensturzeitu"g• Le1Paio,


Tob . Tobit

TQ . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ The°Z°piache Quartalachrift, TVbingen,

1819eq q.

J. A. Robinson, Texts and Studies,

TS . . . . . . . . Cambridge, 1891 eqq

TSBA . . . . . ... . . ~ Transactions o~ ~ ~o~ °f Biblical Archao7ogy,~ndon, 187 eqq.

TSR . . . . . . . . . . ~ The°logische Studien and Kritiken, Hamburg

1828eq q.

( Texts und our Geachiehfa

TU . . . der aWh'"iatlichen Litte!'atuT, ed. O. von

Gebhardt sad A. Harnaok, Leipeio,

1882 eqq.

TZT. . . . . . . . . . . ~ Tilhi'ger ~°it°far Tlteotopia, Ttlbin­gen, 183840

1lgolini, ~ B. Ugolinus, antiquitatum

rue eacrarum 34 vole Venice, 174489



Heidentum .. . .

Zahn, Kanon....

Vetue TedainenH5m,Vieux Tesament, "Old


W. Wattenbaeh,

i flan, 5th ed., 2 vole., Berlin, 1885;

ed, 189394

J. Wellhaueen, arabischen Heiden­

tuma, Berlin, 1887

i Zeitechrift r Aaeyriolop, Leipeio, I 188888, far 1889 aqq.

I T. Zahn neuteatamenh

I lichen vole., Leipeic, 188892

i Zeitaekri#t f11r die aLtteata»aentiiche Wia

1881 eqq.

deutachen morgenldndi­

achen eipeic. 1847 aqq~


... . . . . . . ~ i,,, Leisio 1878 eqq.

Zeoh Zeohaiiab

Zeph Zephaniah

Zeitachnft far die hiatoriache Theolopie.

ZHT published successively at Leipeic,

Hamburg and Goths. 183275

ZRG . . . . . ~ Zft for RircAsnpeschichta. Goths,

1878 aqq.

ZKT. . . . . . . Z°itachrift far katAoZiache Thaolopie. Inne­

bruok, 1877 eqq.

~ ZeWchrift filr kirchlichs Wiasenac~t and

ZKW . Leipeie, 18808

( Zeilschrift tar uriaaenachafUiche Theolopia,

ZWT . jl Jens, 18b880, Halls, 188187, Leipsio,



The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew:

!t = ' or omitted at the T = Z v = .

beginning of a word. n = h g = p

Z b n= b=phorp

3=bhorb ,=y

I =g =k

a=ghorg 5=khork

1=d 5=1 tp=s

`t=dhord n =m



=n h=t

1=w p =s


The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, u, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Arabic and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. (reek is written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being used.


When the pronunciation is selfevident the titles are not respelled; when by mere division and accen­tuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, and the accented syllables indicated.

a as in sofa

4 « « arm a «"at

I' fare


" fate

i « « fin t « « machine o " « obey a « no

in not

" nor


'° rule


e as


u "


Q «

« r~ bum

41 « « pane au " « put

ei " " oil

iQ " " few

In as in duration

c= k " " cat

ch " " church

ew=qu as in queen

f it « fancy

g (haad) « « 90

" " loch (Scotch)

hw (toli) « " why

a « jgW

In aooe®ted qlLbles only; is nnaooented syllables it sppmzlmatee the sound pt a in over.



The political importance of the town of Aachen (Latin Aquis­French, under Charle­magne and his successors made it a favorite meeting­place for various assemblies. The first synod of Aachen (or Aix) is usually reckoned as having met on Mar. 23, 789, and there is no doubt that a gathering took place on that day; but its results are known only from two royal decrees, the so­called ed. A. Boretius, i., 1883, cap. 22), and the instructions for the royal repre­sentatives (cap. 23). The former repeats a summary of the earlier canonical legislation on the duties of the clergy, and adds further regulations for the improvement of clerical and social life, dealing with diligence in preaching, the education of the clergy, the observance of the Lord's Day, just judgment, equal weights and measures, hos­pitality, and the prevention of witchcraft and per­jury. The other document treats of monastic discipline and the regulation of civil society. It is questionable if this gathering can. be properly called a synod; and still less can the name be applied to that of 797 (cap. 27), which regulated the con­dition of the conquered Saxons. On the other hand, the assembly of June, 799, in which Alcuin disputed with Felix of Urgel (see ADorlzoxlsm) may be so called, and likewise the three meetings in the years 801 and 802. Their deliberations led to a series of decrees (cap. 3335 and 3641) which throw light on Charlemagne's endeavors to elevate clergy and laity. The most important is the great instruction for the misai dominict sent out in the spring of 802, dealing with the discipline of bishops, clergy, monks, and nuns, the faithful performance of their duties by public officials, and the establish­ment of justice throughout the empire, Among the results of the autumn synod of 802, cap. 36 and 38. deserve special attention; they deal with the duty of intercession for the emperor and bishops, the education of the people, tithes, divine worship and the sacraments, clerical discipline, and the system of ecclesiastical visitations. The neat synod (Nov. 809), was occupied with the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Ghost. In the autumn of 816, or the summer of 817, Louis le D6bonnaire


assembled his first synod at Aachen, when the bishops laid down new regulations for the com­munity life, both of canons and nuns. In the summer of 817 an assembly of abbots discussed the observance of the Benedictine rule. The diets of 819 and 825 and similar later assemblies can again scarcely be counted as synods, though the one held in the sacristy of the cathedral, Feb. 6, 835, has a synodical character. It adopted a thorough­going pronouncement on the life and teaching of bishops and inferior clergy, and on the position of the king, his family, and his ministers, with a view to regulating the confusion which the strife between Louis and his sons had caused. It also required of Ptspin of Aquitaine that he should restore the church property which he had appropriated. For the synod held at Aachen in connection with the question of Lothaire's divorce, see NICHOLAS I. The last two synods of Aachen were held under Henry IL, one in the year 1000 in connection with the restoration of the bishopric of Merseburg (see Wrlrlaw); the other, in 1023, when the contest between the dioceses of Cologne and Li6ge for the possession of the monastery of Burtscheid was decided in favor of the latter.

(A. HAuc$.)

BiawoonsmT: in Mabillon, Paris, and in Bouquet, Labbe, and in Bouquet, J. Binterim, Mains, ib. Hauck, Hefele,

The brother of Moses. In the Yah­wistic sources of the Pentateuch he is called " Aaron, the i.e., the priest. He is first mentioned when Yahweh appoints him as spokes­man for Moses in the mission to Pharaoh (Ex. iv. 1017, 2731); and consistently he always appears with Moses before the Egyptian king. Later Aaron and Hur support Moses during the battle with the Amalekites (Ex. xvii. 813). When the covenant was made at Sinai, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, with seventy elders, accompanied Moses, to the moun­tain; but Moses alone " went up into the mount


of God" (ER. xxiv. 12, 918; cf. xix. 24). While Moses delayed on the mountain Aaron made the golden calf; and later he sought to excuse him­self by saying that he had acted under compulsion of the people, who were impatient at the long absence of their leader (Ex. xxxii.). In the narra­tive of Num. xii., Aaron again appears in an un­favorable light. He is said to have died at Moeera, in the wilderness, and Eleazar, his son took his place as priest (Deut. x. 6). Finally, he is incidentally mentioned in Josh. xxiv. 5 and 33. The significant fact in all these notices is that the Yahwistic sources recognize Aaron as priest. In the Priest code Aaron's genealogy and family are given in detail (Ex. vi. 20, 23). He is three years older than Moses (Ex. vii. 7). He is made Moses's "prophet" before Pharaoh (Ex. vii. 12), and, accordingly, plays an important part in all transactions at the Egyp­tian court. By means of his rod the miracles are performed (Ex. vii., viii.). During the wandering Aaron retains his prominent position, although subordinate to Moses. The hungry people murmur against both brothers, and, at Moses's command, Aaron replies to them, and later preserves a pot of manna before Yahweh (Ex. xvi.). The priesthood is instituted at Sinai and solemnly conferred upon Aaron, his four sons, and their descendants (Ex. xxviii.). Of these four sons, only Eleazar and Itha­mar remain after the destructiop of Nadab and Abihu (Lev. x. 17). Aaron is not only original ancestor and type of the priests as distinguished from the Levites, but also, in narrower sense, prototype of the high priest, who was always from his family and apparently the firstborn son in direct line. A few of the laws of P are delivered to Aaron as well as Moses (Lev. xi. 1, xiii. 1, XIV. 33, xv. 1; Num. xix. 1). After the departure from Sinai, Korah and his followers rebel against Moses and Aaron; and Yahweh miraculously vindicates the supremacy of the latter (Num. xvi.xvii.; the narrative is amplified by an account of the up­rising of Dathan and Abiram and a contest between Levites and priests). Aaron dies on Mount Hor, and Eleazar becomes priest in his stead (Num. xx. 222g, xxxiii. 3839). Of other Old Testament passages in which Aaron is mentioned none is note­worthy except Mic. vi. 4, where he is joined with

Moses and Miriam. (F.

It is important for the history of the priesthood in Israel to notice that in the narratives of J and E (called '° Yahwistie" above) the priestly function of Aaron is quite subordinate, he being mainly represented there as the spokesman and the minis­ter of Moses and, along with Hur, as his represen­tativea "judge " of the people (Ex. xxiv. 13, 14). It is in the priestly tradition that the idea of Aaron's sacerdotal functions is elaborately developed.

J. F. M.


JULIUS: English Martyrs. See ALBAN,

ABADDOR, abad'en (" Destruction "): In the Old Testament a poetic name for the kingdom of the dead, Hades, or Sheol (Job xxvi. 6; Prov. xv. 11, where Abaddon is parallel to Sheol). The rabbis used the name for the nethermost part of hell. In Rev. ix. 11 the " angel of the bottomless pit " is called Abaddon, which is there explained as the Greek Apollyon (" destroyer "); and he is described as king of the locusts which rose at the sounding of the fifth trumpet. In like manner, in Rev. vi. 8, Hades is personified following after death to conquer the fourth part of the earth. In rabbinical writings Abaddon and Death are also personified (cf. Job xxviu. 22).



ABAUZIT, d"bb"A', FIRMIN: French Reformed scholar; b. of Huguenot parentage at Uz~s (20 m. w.n.w. of Avignon), Languedoc, Nov. 11, 1679; d. at Geneva, Mar. 20,1767. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) an attempt was made to bring him up as a Roman Catholic, but it was frustrated by his mother. After some hardships and sufferings, mother and son settled in Geneva, where Abauzit was educated and where, with the exception of visits to Holland and England in 1698, he spent his long life devoted to study and the service of the city library. He was one of the most learned men of his time, possessed much ver­satility, and enjoyed the friendship of scholars like Bayle, Jurieu, Basnage, and Newton. Neverthe­less, he published practically nothing; and after his death many of his manuscripts were destroyed by his heirs. A volume of appeared at Geneva in 1770; and a different edition in two volumes at London and Amsterdam in 177073. They include essays against the doctrine of the Trinity as commonly received, upon the Book of Daniel, and the Apocalypse. He rendered much service to a society for the translation of the New Testament into French (published 1726). Many of his theological writings are translated in E. Harwood's (London, 1774), with memoir; and seven essays are reprinted thence in Sparks's vol. i. (Boston, 1823).


ABBADIE, a"bs'dF, JACQUES: Protestant apol­ogist; b. at Nay (10 m. e. by e. of Pau), France, 1654 (?); d. at Marylebone, London, 1727. He studied in the French Reformed Church academies of Saumur and Sedan, and early showed much talent. On invitation of the elector of Branden­burg, he became pastor of the French Reformed congregation in Berlin in 1680; after the death of the elector (1688), he followed Marshal Schomberg to England; and became pastor of the French church in the Savoy, London, in 1689. In 1699 he was made dean of Killaloe, Ireland. His Traim de i. and ii.,



Rotterdam, 1684; vol. iii., 1689: Eng. transl., 2

vols., London, 1694), became one of the standard

apologetic works in French literature. Of his other

works, L'Art (Rotterdam,

1692), giving an outline of his moral system, at­

tracted much attention and was warmly defended

by Malebranche.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: For full list of his writings, consult

E. and E. Haag, Paris,

1846; for his life, the collection of his sermons, Am­

sterdam, 1760, iii., and D. C. A. Agnew,

223228. Edinburgh. 1886; on

his work, R. Elliott, The


don, 1777, and M. Illaire,

comme Strasburg, 1868.


ABBESS: The title of the head of many monastic

communities of women, even in some orders where

the head of the monasteries for men does not bear

the title of abbot. An abbess is commonly elected

by the community. Cases of appointment by

the pope on the nomination of the sovereign have

occurred less frequently than in the case of abbots.

By the ruling of the Council of Trent, only those are

eligible who have been eight years professed and

reached the age of forty, except, in exceptional

circumstances, when a dispensation is granted by

the pope. An absolute majority on a secret ballot

is required. The election must be confirmed by

the bishop (or, in certain cases of exemption, by

the pope, or the head of the order), before the new

abbess possesses full jurisdiction. A formal bene­

diction, for which there is a form in the

also given by the bishop in many

cases. The power thus assigned to the abbess is

merely that requisite to rule her community, and

in no sense a spiritual jurisdiction; she can not

commute or dispense from vows, laws of the Church,

or statutes of the order. She may inflict light

punishments in the spirit of the rule; but the more

severe ones are reserved to the ecclesiastical su­

perior of the convent, who has jurisdiction in the

In general it may be said that

the power of an abbess has been and is much more

restricted than that of an abbot. For the pecul­

isily wide jurisdiction of abbesses over men as

well as women in the order of Fontkvraud (not

without precedent in the Celtic monastic system),



ABBEY: A monastic house under the rule of an

abbot or an abbess. The name is strictly appli­

cable only to the houses of those orders in which

these titles are borne by the superiors. While in

the East the free form of a group of scattered cells

(known as a laura) continued side by side with the

common dwelling of a cenobite community, the

West developed a distinct style of its own in monas­

tic architecture. The extant plan of the monastery

of St. Gall (820) may be taken as typical of the

construction of Weatern monasteries in the early

Middle Ages. The center of the entire group of

buildings was occupied by an open rectangular

space, on the north side of which was the church,

while on the other three sides ran the cloister or

ambulatory, a vaulted passage open on the inner

side, and serving both as a means of communication and as a place for exercise in bad weather. Con­nected with the cloister, on the ground floor, were the refectory and kitchen; the chapterhouse, in which the reading and exposition of the rule and the chapter of faults took place; the or winter diningroom; and the or receptionroom of outsiders. On the floor above, opening on a similar passage which connected with the choir of the church or the organloft, were the where the clothes were kept, the library, the dormitory, the infirmary, the rooms for the novices, and the apartments of the abbot, which were supposed to be accessible from outside without passing through the enclosure into which strangers were not allowed to penetrate. The kitchen, which lay within this enclosure, had in like manner a connection with the house for the reception of pilgrims, and with the various farmbuildings, which usually formed a separate quadrangle. The entire group of buildings was surrounded by a high, solid wall, which in some cases was fortified against the dangers of rude times by towers and strong gates. The monks' buryingground was also within the enclosure.

This system was preserved, with slight modifi­cations, throughout the Middle Ages, the Ciaterciana adhering to it with especial closeness, as may be seen at Clairvaux and Maulbronn. Sometimes it was enriched by architectural decoration, as in the highvaulted double refectories of St. Martin at Paris and of Maulbronn, or adorued with painting, as the worldfamous " Last Supper " of Leonardo da Vinci in the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie at Milan. In houses occupied by female religious the extensive fqTTnbuildings were natu­rally lacking. The combination of hermit add community life among the Carthusians required a larger space, which was obtained by adding to the original quadrangle on the basis of the church a second larger one, commonly surrounded also by a cloister, with an open space or garden (containing a cemetery) in the center, and with individual dwellings for the monks around it. The mendicant orders strove for simplicity in building as in other things, and were forced by their situation in towns to a more restricted plan. The teaching orders added a wing or a separate house for their pupils. The Jesnits completely abandoned the traditional plan, and built themselves large palatial houses, while modern monasteries have little to differen­tiate them froth other large institutions. For a more detailed treatment of the structural system of abbeys and monastic buildings, consult the ex­haustive monograph by Venables in the Bncyclo­See MONAsTICwM.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: In general: DCA, ii. (1880) 124388

(gives a list of 1,481 monasteries founded before 814);

2639; A. Ballu, Le Monaste de Tebeasa,

Paris, 1897 (valuable for detailed description of a typi

cal abbey) AUwmrA: G. Wolfagruber, A. HOW, and O.

Schmidt, Abteien ster Osterraich, Vienna,

1902. FRANCE : L. P. H6rard, nudes archlopiques our

lee i'ancisn diocese de Parts. Paris, 1862;

M. F. de Montrond, abbayiss st

monastsres, ib. 1866; J. J. BouraseB,

tea; Aistaire, monuments, souvenirs st ruines, ib. 1869;

E. P. M. Sauvage, Hiatoire liMmire des

Normandea, ib. 1872; A. PeigaeDelaeourt, Tableau de#

des ib. 1875; Besse, Premiers nonastires Revue dee questions ., 1902. GraseANY: 0. Grote, eutacher Stitte, Kl6ster, und Ordens­huuser, 5 parts, Oeterwick,187480; H. G. Hasse, Oeschich­tO der der Mark Meissen and Ober­lausits, Gotha, 1887; H. H. Koch, Die der 1889; H. Hauntinger, Kldster eor Jahren, Cologne, 1889; L. Butter, Die Oebiete is jahrhundert, Lucerne, 1893; A. Hohenegger, 1898; F. M. Herhagen, Die Kloster­der Treves, 1900. GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND: M. Archdall, Hiber­nieon ; . . the Abbeys, Priories . . in Ireland, Lon­don, 1788, ed. by P. F. Moran, Dublin, 1871; W. Beattie, Castles 2 vole., London, 1851; M. Walcott, Minster and Abbey Ruins the b. 1880; W. and M. Howitt, Ruined Abbeys Great Britain, 2 ser., ib. 188284; ib. 1887; G. Bonney, Cathedrals, Abbeys 2 vole., 188891 (revised, 1898); Lefroy, ib. 1890; J. Timbs, Abbeys, Castles ib. 1890; A. J. Archbold, Somerset Rellpious ib. 1892.

ABBO OF FLEURY, fl0"ri': French abbot of the tenth century, one of the few men of that time who strove to cultivate learning and led the way for the later scholasticism; b. near Orl6ans; d. Nov. 13, 1004. He was brought up in the Bene­dictine abbey of Fleury (25 m. e.8.e. of Orldans); studied at Paris and Reims; in 985987 was in Eng­land, on invitation of Archbishop Oswald of York, and taught in the school of the abbey of Ramsey; was chosen abbot of Fleury in 988, and brought the school there to a flourishing condition. He upheld the rights of his abbey against the Bishop of Orleans, and at the synod of St. Denis (995) took the part of the monks against the bishops. He twice represented King Robert the Pious as ambassador at Rome, and gained the favor of Pope Gregory V. He upheld strict monastic discipline; and an attempt to introduce reforms in the monas­tery of LaRole (in Gascony, 30 m. s.e.of Bordeaux), a dependency of Fleury, led to a mutiny by the monks in which he was fatally wounded. He wrote upon such diverse subjects as dialectics, astronomy, and canon law; and his extant letters are of much value for the history of the time.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: For his works, and his life by his Aimoin, consult for his Bpistolae, Bou­quet, Recuea; for his life, Pardiae, de St. Paris, 1872.

The head of one of the larger houses in the Benedictine and other older Western monastic orders. The term originated in the East, where it was frequently used as a title of respect for any monk (being derived from the Aramaic abba, " father "); but there it was replaced, as the title of the superior of a monastery, by archimandrite and other titles. In the Western orders founded before the end of the eleventh century the title is still in use. According to the present system, abbots are divided into secular and regular; the former are secular clerics who are incumbents of benefices originally bearing 'the title of abbey but since secularized; the latter are classified accord­ing as they have authority only over the mem­bers of their house, or over certain of the faithful, or enjoy a quasiepiscopal jurisdiction

over a definite territory, or are merely titular

abbots, their houses having fallen into decay.

They are further divided according to the term of

their office, which may be either for life or for three

years. A special class known as mitered abbots

have permission to wear episcopal insignia. The

election of an abbot is commonly by vote of the

professed brothers, in most cases only those in holy

orders. The candidate mupt be twentyfive years

of age, a professed brother of the order, and a priest.

Actual jurisdiction is not conferred until his con­

firmation either by the bishop or, in the case of

exempt abbeys, by the superior in the case, fre­

quently the pope. His benediction is the next

step, which takes place according to the office in

the Ponti usually at the hands of

the bishop of the diocese. He has the power to

regulate the entire inner life of the abbey in accord­

ance with the rule, and to require obedience from

his subordinates; according to the rule of St.

Benedict, however, abbots are required not to

exercise their authority in an arbitrary manner,

but to seek the counsel of their brethren. In many

particulars a quasiepiscopal jurisdiction has in

course of time been conceded to them. Since the

eighth century they have been allowed to confer

the tonsure and minor orders on their subjects, to

bless their churches, cemeteries, sacred vessels.

etc., to take rank as prelates, and, if generals ex­

ercising quasiepiscopal jurisdiction, to sit and vote

in general councils.

The practise of granting abbeys in to deserving clerics, or even to laymen, led to the creation of a class of merely titular abbots, who had nothing of this character but the name and the revenues. This practise, which was the source of many abuses, was regulated'by the Council of Trent: From it sprang the custom in France of Applying the title to any prominent clergyman who might, according to the custom of the time, lay claim to such an appointment, and then to the secular clergy in general. A somewhat analogous custom existed in Italy, where many professional men, lawyers, doctors, etc., though laymen and even married men, retained some marks of the clerical character which had earlier distinguished the majority of acholarg in their dress and in the title of In some Protestant countries the title of abbot still clung to the heads of institutions that had grown out of monasteries suppressed at the Reformation. See MONABMCIBM.

Unitarian layman; b. at Jack­son, Waldo County, Me., Apr. 28, 1819; 'd. at Cam­bridge, Mass., Mar. 21, 1884. He was fitted for college at Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H., and was graduated at Bowdoin, 1840. He then taught in Maine and, after 1847, in Cambridge, Mass., also rendering service in the Harvard and Boston Athenaeum libraries. In 1856 he was appointed assistant librarian of Harvard University, in 1871 he was university lecturer on the textual criticism of the New Testament, and in 1872 he became Bussey professor of New Testament criticism and interpretation in the Harvard Divinity School. From 1853 he was secretary of the American Orien


New Testament Revision Company (1871), and in 1880 he aided in organizing the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis. He was a scholar of rare talents and attainments. He stood first and foremost among the textual critics of the Greek Testament in America; and for microscopic accuracy of biblical scholarship he had no superior in the world. On account of the extreme attention he paid to minute details, the number of his independent publications was small, and the results of his labors have gone into books of other writers, to which he was willing to con­tribute without regard to reward or adequate recognition. His first published as an appendix to Alger's (Philadel­phia, 1864), and afterward separately (New York, 1871), is a model of bibliographical accuracy and completeness, embracing more than 5,300 titles. He enriched Smith's (Am. ed., 186770) with careful bibliographical lists on the most important topics, besides silently correcting innumerable errors in references and in typography. His most valuable and independent labors, how­ever, were devoted to textual criticism and are in part incorporated in Gregory's to the of Tischendorf's Greek Testa­ment; the chapter 167182) is by him, and he read the manuscript and proofs of the entire work. His services to the American Bible Revision Committee were invaluable. The critical papers which he prepared on disputed passages were uncommonly thorough, and had no small influence in determining the text finally accepted. His defense of the Johannean author­ship of the fourth Gospel Boston, 1880; reprinted by his successor in the Harvard Divinity School, J. H. Thayer, 1888) is an invaluable con

tribution to the solution of that question.

Of his writings, besides those already adduced,

may be mentioned: an edition of

(New York, 1866); work upon G. R.

Noyes's (posthumous)


work upon C. F. Hudson's



Mar. 1875;

ib. June 1875;


the Apr. 1876 (like the preceding,

first privately printed for the American Bible

Revision Committee);

an exhaustive article on the punctuation

of this passage in

June and Dec. 1883.

The four articles mentioned last, together with that

on the fourth Gospel and seventeen others, were

published in 1888, under the editorship of J. H.

Thayer. (PHILIP SCHAFF t.) D. S. SC14AFF.

Ears Abbot, a memoir edited by $. J. Bar

rows, Cambridge, 1884; Andover Review, i. (1884) 554; Literary World, xv. (1884) 113.

Archbishop of Canterbury; b. at Guildford (30 m. s.w. of London) Oct. 29, 1562; d. at Croydon (10 m. s. of London) Aug. 4, 1633. He studied at Balhol College, Oxford (B.A., 1582; probationer fellow, 1583; M.A., 1585; B.D., 1593; D.D., 1597), took orders in 1585, re­mained at Oxford as tutor, and became known as an able preacher and lecturer with strong Puritan sympathies. He was made master of University College 1597; dean of Winchester 1600; vicechan­cellor of the university 1600, 1603, 1605; bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 1609; bishop of London 1610; archbishop of Canterbury 1611. His learn­ing and sincerity can not be questioned; but he was austere, narrow, almost a fanatic. His one great idea was to crush "popery," not only in England, but in all Europe; and popery to him meant every theological system except that of Calvin. To further his purposes abroad, he meddled persistently in the foreign policy of the State and chose arbitrary, highhanded, and cruel means to accomplish his ends at home. His principles allowed him to flatter the king, to help him gener­ously in money matters, and to serve him in certain political undertakings, such as the restoration of episcopacy in Scotland in 160810. At other times his conscience compelled him to be just, and con­sequently he could not retain the royal favor. A Presbyterian at heart, he accepted episcopacy only from a love of order and sense of loyalty to constituted authority; and his appointment as archbishop was displeasing to the Anglican party, who had wanted Launcelot Andrewes (q.v.). His undiplomatic course incensed his opponents, and they pursued him relentlessly and cruelly. In 1621 he killed a gamekeeper while hunting. It was purely accidental, and he was deeply shocked and grieved; nevertheless, William Laud (his successor as archhishop and his personal enemy for years) and others seized upon the incident to annoy him and weaken his influence. Charles I., after his acces­sion, favored Laud, whd brought about Abbot's sequestration for a year (162728) because he had refused to sanction a sermon by Dr. Robert Sib­thorp, vicar of Brackley, indorsing an unlawful attempt by the king to raise money, and showing little sympathy with Abbot's favorite policy of support to the German Protestants. After this his public acts were few. But with all his faults and disappointments he was faithful to duty as he understood it; and he was generous with money, charitable to the poor, and a patror of learning. He was a member of the Oxford New Testament Company for the version of 1611 ; and through him Cyril Lucar (q.v.) presented the Codex to Charles I. With other works, he pub­lished (London, 1599; 5th ed., 1664), a geography pre­pared for his pupils at Oxford, containing an inter­esting description of America; and (1600), which was reprinted in 1845 with a life by Grace Webster.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Fuller, parts, Loadon, 1655 (ed. Brewer, 1845); 6 vole., ib. 174766 (contains his life by W. Oldys, reprinted by Arthur Onalow,lGuildford, 1777); W. F. 8 vols., London, 184552; idem, Lives of



R. Gardiner. 10 vole., ib.

1. Bishop of Salisbury; elder brother of George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury; b. at Guildford (30 m. s.w. of London) about 1560; d. at Salisbury Mar. 2, 1618. He studied at Balliol College, Oxford (fellow, 1581; M.A., 1582; D.D., 1597), and held several important livings. In 1609 he became master of Balliol; in 1612 regius pro­fessor of divinity at Oxford; in 1615 bishop of Salisbury. He was a learned man, an able preacher, and a prolific writer, holding in general the same views as his brother, but advocating them with more discretion and tact. His works include two treatises in reply to Bellarmine, (London, 1594), and (1603) ; and (3 parts, 160609), which won him royal favor and a promise of preferment.

BIRLIOGRAPRY: Thos. Fuller, London, (ed. W. Nichols, dem, pts., ib. (ed. by Brewer, ; A. Wood, (life reprinted by A. Onslow, Guildford, ib. (deals with Abbot's part in the controversy over the Gunpowder Plot);

2. Vicar of Cranbrook, Kent, 161643 ; b. probably, 1588; d. about 1657. He studied at Cambridge (college unknown), took the degree of M.A. there, and was incorporated at Ox­ford. Parliament having decided against plurali­ties of ecclesiastical offices, he resigned his Ccan­brook vicarage in 1643, retaining that of South­wick, Hampshire, although much smaller. He was afterward rector of St. Austin's, London. He was a strong churchman; and engaged in many con­troversies, particularly with the Brownists, to whom he was not always fair. Many of his writings, as his a (London, 1646), were very popular.

BIBLIOGRAPsY: A. Wood, appended to London, (ed. P. Bliss, i. Oxford, John Walker, Lon­B. Brook, Lives

Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Farmington, Me., July 15, 1841. He was educated at the University of the City of New York (B.A., 1860) and at Andover Theological Seminary (186062; did not graduate). In 186263 he was an agent of the United States Sanitary Commission, and in the latter year was ordained to the Congre­gational ministry. Two years later he founded the Steams Chapel Congregational Church (now the Pilgrim Church) at Cambridge, Mass., of which he was pastor four years. In 187273 he was chap­lain of the Massachusetts Senate. In 1879 he was ordered deacon in . the Protestant Episcopal Church, and priested in 1880, his parish being that of St. James, Cambridge, which he still holds. He refused the proffered missionary bishopric of Japan in 1889. At various times he has been a member of the Board of Visitors of Wellesley College, trustee of the Society for the Relief of the Widows and Or


phans of Clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church, director and president of the Associated Charities of Cambridge, vicedean and dean of the Eastern Convocation of the Diocese of Massachu­setts, president of the Cambridge Branch of the Indian Rights Association, member of the Mission­ary Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, secretary of the Standing Committee of the Diocese of Massachusetts, member of the Provisional Committee on Church Work in Mexico, president of the Indian Industries League, president of the Cambridge City Mission, and has been active in other religious and philanthropic movements. His theological position is that of the Broad Church, sympathizing neither with the extreme of medi­evalism nor higher criticism. In 186978 he was associate editor of the Boston and was joint proprietor and editor of the from 1877 to 1888, again editing it in 18951903. His principal works are (New York, 1871); (Boston, 1875); (1876); (1876); (1880); (Cambridge, 1900); and

Church of Eng­

land, author and educator, b. in London Dec. 20,

1838. He studied at St. John's College, Cambridge

(B.A., 1861), where he was elected fellow in 1862.

He was assistant master at King Edward's School,

Birmingham, in 186264, and at Clifton College in

the following year, while from 1865 to 1889 he was

headmaster at City of London School. He was

Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge in 1876 and select

preacher at Oxford in the succeeding year. His

works include (London, 1872);


(1877); (1879); the article

in the 9th ed. of the

(1884; in collaboration with W. G. Rush­



(1877); (1878);



Works (1885); (1886);



(Edinburgh, 1898);

(1901) ; From

to Spirit (1903) ; P(1904) ; J

(1905); and


American Congregationalist; b. at Hallowell, Me., Nov. 14, 1803; d. at Farming­ton, Me., Oct. 31, 1879. He was graduated at Bowdoin, 1820; studied theology at Andover, 182224; was tutor and professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Amherst, 182429; principal of the Mount Vernon School for Girls. Boston, 182933; ordained evangelist and pastor


of the Eliot Congregational Church, Roxbury, Mass., 1834. In 1839 he removed to Farmington, Me., and spent the remainder of his life there and in New York devoted to literary work and teaching. He wrote many storybooks which had a wide cir­culation, such as the series (4 vols.; new edition of the with life, New York, 1882), the (14 vols.) and vols.), the

ABBOTT, JUSTIN EDWARDS: Presbyterian; b. at Portsmouth, N. H., Dec. 25, 1853. He was educated at Dartmouth College (A.B., 1876) and Union Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1879. He was ordained to the Con­gregational ministry in the following year, and after acting as stated supply at the Presbyterian church at Norwood, N. J., in 188182, went to India under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Since that time he has been stationed at Bombay in the Maratha Mission, and has contributed a number of monographs to scientific periodicals on the epigraphy and numismatics of India, in addition to preparing religious works in Marathi for the use of Hindu converts.

American Congregational­ist; b. at Roxbury, Mass., Dec. 18, 1835. He was educated at New York University (B.A., 1853), and after practising law for a time was ordained a minister in the Congregational Church in 1860. He was pastor in Terre Haute, 3nd., from 1860 to 1865, after which he held the pastorate of the New England Church, New York City, for four years, resigning to devote himself to literary work. In 1888 he succeeded Henry Ward Beecher as pastor of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, but resigned in 1898. He was secretary of the American Union Commission from 1865 to 1869, and later was a mem­ber of the New York Child Labor Committee and of the National Child Labor Committee. Among other societies, he is a member of the Bar Asso­ciation of New York, New York State Historical Association, National Conference of Charities and Correction, Indian Rights Association, New York Association for the Blind, Association for Improv­ing the Condition of the Poor, The Religious Educa­tion Association, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, American Institute of Sacred Literature, American Peace Society, New York State Conference of Religion, and the Universal Peace Union. His theological position is that of a Congregationalist of the Liberal Evangelical type. In addition to editing the " Literary Record " of edited (187176) and since 1876 (with Henry Ward Beecher till 1881; name changed to 1893). He has written (New York, 1869); Old (1870); (New York, 1875); (Bos­ton, 1876; in collaboration with T. J. Conant); (1877); (New

York, 1886); (Boston, 1896); (1897); (1897); (1898); (New York, 1900); (Boston, 1900); (1901); (1903); (New York, 1903); (1904); (Boston, 1905); (New York, 1905); and (Philadel­phia, 1905).

Church of

Ireland, author and professor; b. at Dublin Mar.

26, 1829. He was educated at Trinity College,

Dublin (B.A., 1851; M.A., 1856; B.D., 1879),

where he was elected fellow in 1854. From 1867

to 1872 he was professor of Moral Philosophy at

Trinity College, of Biblical Greek from 1875 to

1888, and of Hebrew from 1879 to 1900, and has

also been librarian of the College since 1887. He

has been chairman of the Governors of Sir P. Dun's

Hospital since 1897. In theology he is a Broad

Churchman. His works include

(Dublin, 1864);

(1880); (1883);

(2 vols., 1884);





1897 );

(Dublin, 1900); and

in addition to

a translation (1873).

Officials of the papal chan­cery whose duty it is to prepare apostolic letters expedited through that office. The name is derived from the fact that part of their work consists in taking minutes of the petitions addressed to the Holy See and of the answers to be returned. For­merly they were divided into two classes, and but the latter class has long been abolished. In the College of Abbre­viators at the present time there are twelve clerics and seventeen laymen. Legislation of Feb. 13, defines their duties anew. The office dates from the early part of the fourteenth century, and has been filled by many distinguished prelates. In 1466 Paul II. abolished it because it had been corrupted, but it was restored by Sixtus IV. in 1471. There is also an attached to the datary, who prepares minutes of papal letters addressed to the entire Church.


ab'dias: Legendary first bishop of Babylon. Under the title, there exists a collection of myths, legends, and traditions relating to the lives and works of the apostles, and pretending to be the Latin trans­lation of the Greek translation of the Hebrew work of Abdias. Neither the book nor its author was known to Eusebius or to Jerome, nor do they find mention before Ordericus Vitalis (12th cent.).

e~ esd


BIRLIOGRAPR7: W. Lazinon, Paris, 1560, and often reprinted; Fabrieius, (lot ed., 1703), and ii., iii. (2d ed., 1719); C. Oudin, 418421, Leipeic, 1722; G. J. p. 243, ib. 1838; J. A. Giles, London, 1852; Migne, (66 vols., Paris, 185566); S. C. Malan, London, 1871; 14.

Missionary; b. at New Bruns­wick, N. J., June 12, 1804; d. at Albany, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1846. He was graduated at the New Brunswick Theological Seminary in 1826; in 1829 he went to Canton as chaplain of the Seaman's Friend Society; and in 183133 he visited Java, Singapore, and Siam for the American Board. Returning to America by way of Europe in 1833, he aided in founding in England a society for pro­moting the education of women in the East. He went back to China in 1838 and founded the Amoy mission in 1842. He published a of his first residence in China (New York, 1835), (1838), Chinas (1838).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. R. Williamson, New

York, 1849.

ABEL ("Breath"): Second son of Adam and Eve and the brother of Cain, who, according to Gen. iv. 116, killed him from envy.

ABELARD, ableldrd.

I. Life.

Student Life and Lecturer on Philosophy (§ 1).

Heloise (§ 2).

Monk and Abbot (§ 3).

Second Condemnation for Heresy (§ 4).

Last Days (§ 5).

II. System.

Philosophy (§ 1).

Theology (§ 2).

III. Writings.

Abelard is a name used as the common desig­nation of Pierre de Palais the first notable representative of the dialecticocritical school of scholasticism founded by Anselm of Canterbury, but kept by him within the limits of the traditional orthodoxy. The meaning as well as the original form of the byname is uncertain; it has been connected with the Latin bajulus, " teacher," and with the French ." The ending " and " is Frankish, and the entire name may be.

I. Life: Abelard was born at Palais (Le Pallet), a village of Brittany, about 12 m. e. of Nantes, in 1079; d. in the Priory of St. Marcel, near ChalonsurSafte (36 m. n. of MAcon), Apr. 21, 1142. He voluntarily renounced his rights as firstborn son of the knight Berengar, lord of the village, and chose a life of study. His first teacher was Roseelin, the Nominalist, at Locmenach, Brit­tany, now Loemin€, 80 m. s. w. of Brest. Then he

wandered from one teacher to another

z. Student until he came to Paris, where William Life and of Champeaux, the Realist, was head Lecturer on of the cathedral school and attracting Philosophy. great crowds. Young as he was,

Abelard was bold enough to set him­self up as William's rival; he lectured, first at Melun (27 m. s.s.e. of Paris), then at Corbeil (7 miles nearer


Paris), and, after a few years, in Paris itself at the cathedral school. His success was sufficient to make William jealous, and he compelled Abelard to leave the city. About 1113 he betook himself to Anselm of Laon at Laon (86 m. n.e. of Paris) to study theology, having hitherto occupied himself wholly with dialectics. His stay at Laon was short and was followed by a few years at Paris, where crowds flocked to hear his lectures and brought him a considerable income.

This brilliant career was suddenly checked by the episode of Heloise, a young girl of eighteen, said to have been the natural daughter of a canon of Paris, living with her uncle, Canon Fulbert of Paris. Her education was confided to Abelard, and a passionate love sprang up between them. When Fulbert attempted to separate them, they fled toward Brittany, to the home of Abelard's sister, Dionysia, where Heloise bore a son, Astra­labius. To satisfy Fulbert the lovers were married,

Abelard asking that the marriage be Z. Heloise. kept secret out of regard for his eccle

siastical career. Fulbert disregarded this request and also treated his niece badly when she returned to his house. Abelard accordingly removed her to the Benedictine nunnery of Argen­teuil (11 m. n.e. of Versailles), where she had been brought up, and where later she took the veil, a step which Fulbert interpreted as an attempt by her husband to get rid of her. In revenge he had Abelard attacked by night in his lodgings in Paris and mutilated, with the view probably of rendering him incapable of ever holding any ecclesias­tical office. Abelard retired to the Benedictine abbey of St. Denis in Paris (probably about 1118), where he became a monk and lived undisturbed for a year or two, giving instruction in a secluded place (the " cello ").

He received much sympathy and had many pupils. In 1121 a synod at Soissona pronounced heretical certain opinions expressed by him in a book on the Trinity (De unitate et trinitate divina ; discovered by R. St6lzle and published, Freiburg, 1891). He

was required to burn the book, and 3. Monk to retire to the monastery of St. Med

and Abbot. ard, near Soisaons. In a short time,

however, he was allowed to return to St. Denis, but was ill received there; and his assertion that the patron saint of the monastery and of France was not the same as Dionysius the Areopagite (see DENI$, SAINT) made more trouble with the abbot, the monks, and the court. He fled, but was compelled to return and recant his opinion concerning St. Denis. Afterward he was allowed to retire to Champagne, near Nogentsur­Seine (60 m. s. e. of Paris) where he built an oratory to the Trinity. Pupils again gathered about him and the original building of reeds and sedges was replaced by one which he called the Paraclete. But he was still under the jurisdiction of the abbot of St. Denis and suffered much annoyance. He accepted the election as abbot of the monastery of St. Gildas in Brittany (on the peninsula of Ruis, 10 m. s. of Vannes), and stayed there ten years, but he found it impossible to control the unruly monks and they tried to poison him. He found refuge


from time to time at the Paraclete, which he had presented to Heloise after the nunnery of Argen­teuil was closed (c. 1127); but his visits as spiritual director of the nuns who gathered about his wife caused scandal, and he had to give them up. An­other attempt was made on his life; and once more he sought safety in flight, whither is not known.

For several years his life is obscure; it is only known that in 1136 John of Salisbury heard him lecture in the school on the hill of St. Genevicve in Paris, and that during this period he wrote his autobiography, the Historia calamitatum. In 1141 a council, instigated mainly by Bernard of Clair­vaux, a man thoroughly antipathetic to Abelard, who had long considered his teaching wrong and his influence dangerous, met at Sens (61 m. sx.e. of Paris). Certain extracts from Abelard's writings were pronounced erroneous and hereti

4. Second cal (June 4, 1141). Abelard declined Condemna to defend himself; he appealed to the

tion for pope, and with his followers left the

Heresy. council. His former pupil, Cardinal

Guido de Castello (afterward Pope

Celestine II.), took his part at Rome; but Bernard

wrote a letter denouncing Arnold of Brescia,

another pupil, as one of the champions of Abelard,

and thereby influenced the decision of Pope Inno­

cent II., who condemned Abelard to silence, ex­

communicated his followers, ordered hum and

Arnold to retire to a monastery, and their books to

be burned (July 16, 1141). Abelard wrote an

apology defending himself against the action of the

council, and sent a letter to Heloise maintaining his

orthodoxy. He wrote a second apology submitting

to the Church, and made peace with Bernard.

By the friendly intervention of Peter the Vener­able, Abbot of Cluny, permission was given him to spend the rest of his days at Cluny. He continued his studies, " read constantly, prayed

g. Last often, gladly kept silence." But, bro

Days. ken by his sufferings and misfortunes,

he did not live long there. With a

view to his physical betterment Peter sent him to

the neighboring priory of St. Marcel, at Chalons

and there he died. His body was taken to the

Paraclete; and on the death of Heloise (May 16,

1164) her body was placed in the same coffin. In

1817 their remains were removed to the cemetery

of P6re Lachaise, Paris, and a monument was

erected of stone from the ruins of the Paraclete.

II. System: Abelard belonged to the school of Anselm of Canterbury, but he did not follow him slavishly; and he was more critic than apolo­gist of any system. He borrowed much from Augustine, Jerome, and older Church Fathers, as well as from Agobard, Claudius of Turin, Engena, and Fredegis. His originality is seen in his doc­trine of the Trinity and the Atonement and, as a philosopher, particularly in his teaching concerning the principia and his position toward the question of universalia. The latter is not quite :. clear; but it appears that he was

phy. neither nominalist, realist, nor con­

ceptualist. William of Champeaux,

the extreme realist, declared the universalia to be

the very essence of all existence, and individuality

only the product of incidental circumstances. To this Abelard objected that it led to pantheism; and he pursued his criticism so keenly that he forced William to modify his system. He rejected nomi­nalism also, according to which the unaversalia are mere names, declaring that our conceptions must correspond to things which occasion them. This view is not conceptualism in so far as it does not in onesided fashion emphasize the assertion that the general ideas are mere conceptus mends, mere sub­jective ideas.

As theologian Abelard is noteworthy for his doctrine of revelation, his attitude toward belief on authority, and his conception of the

a. The relation between faith and knowl­ology. edge. Concerning revelation he em­phasizes the inner influence on the human spirit rather than its external manifestation, and does not limit inspiration to the writers of the Scriptures, but holds that it was imparted also to the Greek and Roman philosophers and to the Indian Brahmans. He teaches that the Scriptures are the result of the cooperation of the Spirit of God with the human writers, recognizes degrees of inspiration, and admits that prophets and apostles may make mistakes. He does not hesitate to disclose the contradictions in tradition, and distinguishes like a good Protestant between the authority of the Scriptures and that of the Fathers. Faith means to him a belief in things not susceptible to sense which can be grounded on rational demon­stration or satisfactory authority. He opposes the compulsion of authority, will have free dis­cussion of religious things, and everywhere follows his own conviction; but he sets narrow limits to what can be known. An adequate knowledge of the unity and trinity of God he declares impossible, as well as a scientific proof that shall compel belief in the existence of God and immortality. Here he asserts merely a possibility of belief. He con­demns the acceptance of formulas of belief without knowing what they mean, and will have no one required to believe anything contrary to reason; he found nothing of the kind himself in the Scrip­tures or the teaching of the Church, and does not mean to exclude the supernatural. The doctrine of the Trinity he always treats in connection with the divine attributes; and in spite of all precautions the Trinity always becomes in his thought one of the attributes. He qualifies omnipotence by teaching that God does everything which he can, and therefore he could not do more than he has done. He can not prevent evil, but is able only to permit it and to turn it to good. AS for his ethics, he teaches that moral good and ill inhere not in the act but in the motive. The evil propensity is not sin; it is the pwna merely, and not the culpa, which has passed from Adam upon all. His theory of the Atonement is moral. The aim of the of this highest revelation of the divine love. The love thus awakened frees from the bondage of sin, enables to fulfil the law, and impels to do the will of God, no longer in fear, but in the freedom of the sons of God. By law he understands the natural law which Christ taught and fulfilled, giving thereby



the highest example. By his love, faithful to death, Christ has won merit with God; and because of this merit God forgives those who enter into communion with Christ and enables them to fulfil the law. It is in personal communion with Christ, therefore, that the real Atonement consists. Only such as let themselves be impressed with the love of Christ enter into this communion. By the curse of the law from which Christ frees, Abelard under­stands the Mosaic religion with its hard punish­ments. Inasmuch as Christ made an end of the Mosaic religion, he abolished its punishments also. III. Writings: A practically complete edition of the works of Abelard (including certain writings which are spurious or of doubtful origin) was fur­hished by Victor Cousin in the (Paris, 1836) and vols., 184959); the from the edition of A. Duchesne and F. Amboise (Paris, 1616), with published later, are in (lacks the Sic that brilliant piece of skeptical writing). Par­ticular works have been published as follows: the and the ed. Mar­t6ne and Durand, in the (Paris, 1717); the ed. B. Pez, in the (1721); the and the or ed. F. H. Rheinwald (Berlin, 1831,1835); the Sic ed. T. Henke and G. S. Lindenkohl (Marburg, 1851; incomplete in Cousin's edition, 1836); the ed. Orelli (Zurich, 1841); the filia ed. W. Meyer and W. Brambach (Munich, 1886); the ed. G. M. Drevea (Paris, 1891); the ed. R. Stolzle (Freiburg, 1891). The letters have been often published in the original Latin and in translation (Latin, ed. R. Rawlinson, London, 1718; Eng., ed. H. Mills, London, 1850; ed. H. Morton, New York, 1901; Germ., with the ed. P. Baumgartner, Reclam, Leipsic, 1894; French, with Latin text, ed. Gr6rard, Paris, 1885); and selections will be found in some of the works cited in the bibliography below.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Berington, 2d ed., Birmingham, 1788; C. de Rkmusat, 2 vols., Paris, 1845 (the standard biography); J L. Jacobi, Berlin, 1850; F. P. G. Guisot, Paris, 1839, 1853; C. Prantel, 160204, Leipsic, 1861; O. W. Wight, New York, 1861 ; E. Bonnier. Paris, 1862; Hefele, 321326, 399­435; A. St6ek1, i. 218272, Mains, 1864; H. Reuter, 183259, Berlin, 1875; E. Vaeaudard. Paris, 1881; S. M. Deutsch, Leipsic, 1883; A. S. Richardson, New York, 1884; J. G. Compayne, London, 1893• A. Ifauarath, Leipsie, 1895; Joe. McCabe, New York, 1901 (an excellent book); Hauck, KD, iv. 409 sqq.


A sect mentioned by Augustine 87) as formerly living in the neighborhood of Hippo, but already extinct when

he wrote. Their name was derived from Abel, the son of Adam. Each man took a wife, but refrained from conjugal relations, and each pair adopted a boy and a girl who inherited the property of their fosterparents on condition of living to­gether in like manner in mature life. They were probably the remnant of a Gnostic sect, tinged perhaps by Manichean influences. [The name grew out of a widespread belief that Abel though mar­ried had lived a life of continence.]


C. W. F. Walch, 607808, Leipsie, 1762.

ABELLI, obel'li, LOUIS : French Roman Catholic; b. 1603; d. at Paris Oct. 4, 1691. He was made bishop of Rhodez, southern France, in 1664, but resigned three years later and retired to the monastery of St. Lazare in Paris. He was a vehement opponent of Jansenism. His numerous works include: vola., Paris, 1651), a treatise on dogmatics; La (ed. Cheruel, and two volumes of meditations,

ABER EZRA (Abraham ben Neir ibn Ezra): Jewish poet, grammarian, and commentator; b. in Toledo, Spain, d. Jan. He left Toledo about and is known to have visited Bagdad, Rome Mantua and Lucca Dreux m. w.s.w. of Paris; and Lon­don in he was in southern France. His poems show a mastery of the metrical art but have no inspiration, his grammatical works are not logically arranged, and his commentaries lack religious feeling. His exegetical principle was to follow the grammatical sense rather than the alle­gorical method of the Church; yet he resorts to figurative interpretation when the literal meaning is repugnant to reason. His critical insight is shown by hints that the Pentateuch and Isaiah contain interpolations (cf. H. Holzinger, Freiburg, sqq.; J. Fiirst, Leipsie, though he lacked the courage to say so openly. His chief importance is that he made the grammatical and religiophilosophical works of the Spanish Jews, written in Arabic, known out­side of Spain. His commentaries (on the Penta­teuch, Isaiah, the Minor Prophets, Job, Psalms, the five Megilloth, and Daniel) are usually found in rabbinic Bibles. His introduction to the Pen­tateuch has been edited by W. Bacher (Vienna, the commentary on. Isaiah, with Eng. trans. and two volumes of Essays by M. Friedhinder London, His poems have been pub­lished by D. Rosin parts, Breslau, and J: Egers (Berlin, DALMAN.)

BIBLIOORAPHT: L. Zuna, Die Berlin, 1855; S. I. Kampf, 213240, Prague, 1858; M. Eisler, i. 113120, Vienna, 1876; W. Bacher, Strasburg, 1882; J. S. Spiegler, 263265, Leip


H. Gr$tZ, Eng. transl., London, Winter and A. Wiinsche, Berlin,


ABERCROMBIE, ablercrambi, JOHN: Scotch physician and writer on metaphysics; b. at Aber­deen Oct. 10,1780 ; d. at Edinburgh Nov. 14, 1844. He studied medicine at Edinburgh and London, and settled in the former city as practising physician in 1804. He became one of the foremost medical men of Scotland, but is best known as the author of (Edinburgh, 1830) and (London, 1833), works which he wrote from a belief that his knowledge of nervous diseases fitted him to discuss mental phenomena.. The books long enjoyed great popularity, but were not written in the real spirit of a truthseeker, have little originality, and are now superseded. A volume of Essays mainly on religious subjects, was published post­humously (Edinburgh, 1847).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Anderson. Edin


ABERNETHY, ablernethi, Irish Pres­byterian; b. at Brigh, County Tyrone, Oct.19,1680; d. at Dublin Dec., 1740. He studied at Glasgow (M.A.) and Edinburgh, and became minister of the Presbyterian congregation at Antrim in 1703. In 1717, following his own judgment and desire. he chose to remain at Antrim, although the synod wished him to accept a call from a Dublin congre­gation. To disregard an appointment of the synod was an unheardof act for the time, and the Irish Church was split into two parties, the " Subscri­bers " and " NonSubscribers," Abernethy being at the head of the latter. The NonSubscribers were cut off from the Church in 1726. From 1730 till his death he was minister of the Wood Street Church, Dublin. Here he again showed himself in advance of his time by opposing the Test Act and "all laws that, upon account of mere differences of religious opinions and forms of worship, ex­cluded men of integrity and ability from serving their country." His published works are: Dis­(2 vols., London, 174043); (4 vols., 174851), with life by James Duchal; (1751).


2 vols., Edinburgh,

ABERT, 8'bert, Roman Catholic archbishop of Bamberg; b. at Miimierstadt (35 m. n.n.e. of Wtirzburg) May 1, 1852. He was educated at the Passau Lyceum (187071) and the University of Wiirzburg (Ph.D., 1875), and from 1875 to 1881 was active as a parish priest. In the latter year he was appointed an assistant at the episcopal clerical seminary at Wurzburg, and four years later was made professor of dogmatics at the Royal Lyceum, Regensburg. In 1890 he was appointed professor of dogmatics and symbolics at Warzburg, where he was dean in 189495,18991900, and rector in 190001. In 1905 he was consecrated archbishop of Bamberg. He has written

(Regensburg, 1889); (Wurzburg, 1893); (1895); and (1901).

(Lat. Name (or title) of

eight of the kings (toparchs) of Osrhoene who

reigned at Edessa for a period of.three centuries

and a half ending in 217. The fifteenth of these

kings, Abgar V., Uchomo (" the black," 946 A.D.),

is noteworthy for an alleged correspondence with

Jesus, first mentioned by Eusebius 13),

who states that Abgar, suffering sorely in body

and having heard of the cures of Jesus, sent him a

letter professing belief in his divinity and askihg

him to come to Edessa and help him. Jesus wrote

in reply that he must remain in Palestine, but that

after his ascension he would send one of his dis­

ciples who would heal the king and bring life to him

and his people. Both letters Eusebius gives in

literal translation from a Syriac document which

he had found in the archives of Edessa. On the

same authority he adds that after the ascension

the Apostle Thomas sent Thaddaeus, one of the

seventy, to Edessa and that, with attendant

miracles, he fulfilled the promise of Jesus in the

year 340 (of the Seleucidan era=29 A.D.). The

(Addaeus = Thaddaeus; edited and

translated by G. Phillips, London, 1876), of the

second half of the fourth century, makes Jesus

reply by an oral message instead of a letter, and

adds that the messenger of Abgar was a painter and

made and carried back with him to Edessa a por­

trait of Jesus. Moses of Chorene (c. 470) repeats

the story (Hilt. Armeniaca, ii. 2932), with additions,

including a correspondence between Abgar and

Tiberius, Narses of Assyria, and Ardashes of Persia,

in which the " king of the Armenians " appears

as champion of Christianity; the portrait, he says,

was still in Edessa. Gross anachronisms stamp

the story as wholly unhistorical. Pope Gelasius

I. and a Roman synod about 495 pronounced the

alleged correspondence with Jesus apocryphal. A

few Roman Catholic scholars have tried to defend

its genuineness (e.g. Tillemont, Yltmoires, i., Brussels,

1706, pp. 990997; Welts, in TQ, Ttibingen, 1842,

pp. 335365), but Protestants have generally re­

jected it. See AND IM­


BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. A. Lipsius, Brunswick, 1880; K. C. A. Matthes, Leipsic, 1882; 702 eqq.; L. J. Tiaeront, Paris, 1888; Lipsius and Bonnet, vol. i., Leipeie, 1891; W. T. Winghille, 1891; Harnack, 533540, ib. 1893; TU, new aer. iii., 1899, 102196.

dbed"anandd', Hindu leader of the Vedanta propaganda in Amer­ica; b. at Calcutta Nov. 21, 1866. .He was educated at Calcutta University, and after being professor of Hindu philosophy in India went to London in 1896 to lecture on the Vedanta. In the following year he went to New York, where he has since


remained, succeeding Swami Vivekananda as head of the Vedanta Society in America. Theologically he belongs to the pantheistic and universalistic Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. His works include, in addition to numerous single lectures, (New York, 1899); (1901); (1902)• (1902); (1903); (1905); India. (1906); and an edition of Sayings ).


ABIJAH, abai'jd (called Abijam in I Kings xiv.

31, xv. 1, 7, 8): Second king of Judah, son of Reho­

boam, and, on his mother's aide, probably a great

grandson of David, since his mother Maachah is

called a daughter of Absalom (II Chron. xi. 20;

" Abishalom," in I Kings xv. 2). In I Kings xv.

10, however, Maschah, the daughter of Abishalom,

appears as mother of Asa; and in 11 Chron. xiii.

2 the mother of Abijah is called Michaiah, the

daughter of Uriel. " Michaiah " here is probably

a scribal error for" Maachah," the addition "daugh­

ter of Abishalom " in I Kings xv. 10 probably a

copyist's mistake; and it is possible that Ilriel was

soninlaw of Absalom, and Maachah, therefore,

his granddaughter. Abijah reigned three years

(957955 B.C. or, according to Kamphauaen, 920­

918). The Book of Kings says that he walked in

all the sins of his father, which probably means that

he allowed idolatrous worship, and adds that the

war between Judah and Israel, which followed the

division, continued during his reign. According

to II Chronicles xiii., Abijah gained some advantages

in the war, which, though soon lost, were not unim­

portant. He may have been in alliance with

Tabrimon of Damascus (I Kings xv. 1819). His

history is contained in I Kings xiv. 31xv. 8, and

II Chron. xnl. 122. (W. LOTZ.)

According to the more correct chronology Abijah

reigned 918915

ABILENE, ab"iline: A district mentioned in Luke iii. 1 as being under the rule of the tetrarch Lysanias. It is evidently connected with a town Abila, and Josephus 5, xii. 8) indicates that the town in question was situated on the southern Lebanon. Old itineraries ed. Weaseling, Amsterdam, 1735, p. 198; Tabula d. Miller, Ravenaburg, 1887, x. 3) mention an Abila, eighteen Roman miles from Damascus, on the road to Heliopolis (Baalbek), the modem Suk Wady Barada, on the south bank of the river, in a fertile and luxuriant opening surrounded by precipitous cliffs. Remains of an ancient city are found on both banks of the river, and the identification is confirmed by an inscrip­tion (CIL, iii. 199) stating that the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus repaired the road, which had been damaged by the river, " at the expense of the Abilenians." The tomb of Habil (Abel, who is said to have been buried here by Cain), which is shown in the neighborhood, may also preserve

a reminiscence of the ancient name, Abila. It

has generally been assumed that the Lysanias

intended by Luke was Lysanias, son of Ptolemy

who ruled Iturea 4036 B.C. (JOsephus,

xiii. 3; If this be correct, Luke,

is in error, since he makes Lysanias tetrarch of

Abilene in 2829 A.D. It may be noted, however,

that the capital of Iturea was Chalcis, not Abila;

and Josephus does not include the territory of

Chalcia in the tetrarchy of Lysanias. Furthermore,

there is an inscription ~CIG, 4521) of a certain

Nymphaios, " the freedman of the tetrarch Lysa­

nias," the date of which must be between 14 and

29 A.D. Hence it is not improbable that there

was an earlier and a later Lysanias and that the

latter is the one who is mentioned as tetrarch of

Abilene. (H. GUTHE.)

abish'aai: Elder brother of Joab

and Asahel (I Chron. ii. 16); like them the son

of Zeruiah, David's sister (or halfsister cf. II

Sam. xvii. 25, where Zeruiah's sister Abigail is

called daughter of Nahash; not of Jesse). His father

is not mentioned. He was David's companion in

his time of persecution (I Sam. xxvi. 6 sqq.), saved

his life (II Sam. xxi. 17), and served him faithfully

to the end of his reign. He was the first among

the " thirty " in the catalogue of David's mighty

men (xxiii. 1819, reading " thirty " instead of

" three;" cf. Wellhausen,

Gottingen, 1871, and Klostermann's

commentary on Samuel ad loc.). While Joab

was commanderinchief Abishai often commanded

a division of the army (against the Ammonites,

II Sam. x. 1014; against Edom, I Chron. xviii. 12;

against Absalom, II Sam. xviii. 2; against Sheba,

II Sam. xx. 6). He was valiant and true, but

severe and passionate toward David's enemies

(cf. I Sam. xxvi. 8; 11 Sam. iii. 30, xvi. 9, xix. 21).

A formal renunciation of heresy required of converts to the Roman Catholic Church. The First and Second Councils of Nica'a insisted on a written abjuration from those who, after having fallen into the religious errors of the time, desired to be restored to membership in the Church. The necessity of abjuration is reaffirmed in the Decree of Gratian and in the Decretals of Gregory IX., and found an important place in the procedure of the Inquisition. This tribunal distinguished four kinds of abjuration, according as the heresy to be renounced was a matter of notoriety or of varying degrees of suspicion,de Abjuration of notorious heresy or of very strongly suspected heretical inclinations took the form of a public solemn cere­mony. In modern times the Roman Inquisition requires that a diligent investigation shall be con­ducted regarding the baptism of persons seeking



admission into the Church. If it is ascertained

that baptism has not been received, no abjuration

is demanded; if a previous baptism was valid, or

was of doubtful validity, abjuration and profession

of faith are necessary preliminaries to reception

into the Church. A convert under fourteen years

of age is in no case bound to abjure. The act of

abjuration is attended with little formality,all

that is necessary is that it be done in the presence

of the parish priest and witnesses, or even without

witnesses if the fact can otherwise be proved.

The modern formula of abjuration found in Roman

Catholic rituals is really more in the nature of a

profession of faith, the only passages savoring of

formal renunciation of heresy being the following,­

" With sincere heart and unfeigned faith I detest

and abjure every error, heresy, and sect opposed to

the Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic, Roman Church.

I reject and condemn all that she rejects and con

demns." JOHN T. CREAGH.

Village on the left bank of the Seine,

about 9 m. s. of Paris, noteworthy as the place

where public worship was first conceded to the

Protestants of Paris. Notwithstanding the edict

of Nantes (May 2, 1598), the Protestants of the

capital were not allowed a church within the city

itself, but had to travel to Ablon. In 1602 they

petitioned the King for a place nearer the city,

alleging that during the winter forty children had

died from being carried so far for baptism. In

1606 their petition was granted and the church

was removed to Charenton, at the junction of the

Seine and Marne, six or seven miles nearer the city.

The toilsome and sometimes dangerous " expe­

diticns " to Ablon are often spoken of by Sully

and Casaubon.


the mass prescribe that immediately after com­

munion the celebrant shall' purify the chalice with

wine, and his fingers with wine and water. These

ablutions, as they are called, are drunk by the priest

unless he is obliged to celebrate a second time on

the same day, in which case he pours the wine and

water of the last ablution into a special vessel,

kept for the purpose near the tabernacle, and

consumes them at the next mass. Pope Pius V.

in 1570 introduced into his Missal the rubrics on

this matter as they exist today. The first clear

references to the ablutions as practised today are

found in the eleventh century. Ablution of the

hands is also prescribed before mass, before the

canon, and after the distribution of communion

outside of mass. JOHN T. QuEAGH.





The last Jewish exegete

of importance; b. of distinguished family, which

boasted of Davidic descent, at Lisbon 1437; d. in

Venice 1509. He was treasurer of Alfonso V. of

Portugal, but was compelled to flee the country

under his successor, John II., in 1483. He lived in

Spain until the Jews were expelled thence by Fer­dinand and Isabella (1492), when he went to Naples. In both countries he rendered important services to the government as financier. From 1496 till 1503 he lived at Monopoli in Apulia, southern Italy, occupied with literary work, and later settled in Venice. He wrote commentaries on the Penta­teuch (Venice, 1579) and on the earlier and the later Prophets (Pesaro, 1520 [?]) which show little origi­nality, and are valuable chiefly for the extracts he makes from his predecessors. In his Messianic treatises Salvation of his Anointed," Carlsruhe, 1828; " Sources of Salvation," Ferrara, 1551; Salvation," Salonica, 1526) he criticizes Christian interpretations of prophecy, but with no great insight. His religiophilosophical writings are less important. In the interest of Jewish orthodoxy he defends the creation of the world from nothing (in of God," Venice, 1592) advocates the thirteen articles of faith of Ma nides (in " The Pinnacle of Faith," Constantinople, 1.505). His eschatological computations made the year of salvation due in 1503. (G. DALMAN.)

Abrabanel held a place of some importance in the history of Christian exegesis due to the facts that he appreciated and quoted freely the earlier Christian exegetes and that many of his own writings were in turn condensed and translated by Christian scholars of the next two centuries (Alting, Bud­dicus, the younger Buxtorf, Carpzov, and others). J. F. M.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. H. Majus, Vita Giessen(?), 1707(?); C. F. Bischoff. ... Altdorf,

1708; M. Schwab, Paris, 1865;

(1888) 3752; H. Graetz,

324334, ix. 57, ii. 208, 213, Eng. transl., London, 1891

98; Winter and Wtinsche,

333, 339, 443, 451, 791792, Berlin, 1894; D.

Cassel, Leipsic, 1879,

pp. 321 sqq., 427, 425 sqq.

6'braham or d'brGhdm. Sources of his Biography Analyzed (§ 1). Historicity of Abraham Defended (§ 2).

Historicity of the Patriarchs Defended (§ 3).

Impossibility of Fully Reconstructing the Sources (§ 4).

This article will be limited to an attempt to establish the credibility of the tradition which represents Abraham as the first ancestor of the Israelites, against the arguments of those who doubt or deny the existence of the patriarch as an histori­cal personage.

Knowledge of Abraham's history must be derived

exclusively from Gen. xi. 26xxvi. 10. Other



the haggadie

narratives (collected by B. Beer,

r. Sources

of His Leipsic, 1859); the notices

Biography in Eusebius,

Analyzed. 1620are all excluded by their late

origin. Many maintain that the Bib­

lical narrative is also discredited for the same reason.

It is true that the beginnings of the patriarchal.


history cannot be dated later than about 1900 B.C., and even if Genesis was written by Moses (c. 1300 B.C.) its account is from 500 to 600 years later than the life of Abraham. If, as so many believe, the present Genesis originated between 500 and 400 B.C., a period of from 1,400 to 1,500 years inter­venes. Whenever it may have been written, however, the Book of Genesis presents the concep­tion of the life of Abraham current in the pious circles of Israel at the time of composition; and this conception may be shown to have been handed down from earlier periods. The narrative is a piecing together of the sources (E, J, and P) without essential additions by R. For the present purpose it matters little when P originated, since this por­tion of the narrative is a mere sketch, barren of details. It is generally assumed that E and J origi­nated between the time of Jehoshaphat and Uzziah (850750 B.C.); others think it more probable that E belongs to the time of the Judges (c. 1100 B.C.), J to that of David (B.C.). If the latter assumption be correct, a combination of E and J (which are supplementary rather than contra­dictory) gives what passed for the history of Abra­ham at the end of the period of the Judges and at the beginning of the monarchy. The Book of Deu­teronomy contains passages which imply facts and conceptions written down in EJ (cf. vi. 3, 10, 18; vii. 7, 8, 12, 13; viii. 1, 18; ix. 5, 27; xiii. 18; xix. 8; xxvi. 3, 7, 15). If, then, Deuteronomy be Mosaic, the history of Abraham is traced back to the Mosaic time. It can not be the product of the inventive fancy of Israel during the sojourn in Egypt; for during the first half of the sojourn the patriarchal period was too near to admit of fancies, and during the oppression there was no thought of migrating to Canaan and settling there. It is thus quite improbable that fancy transformed wishes into promises once given to the fathers.

Most of the critics ascribe Deuteronomy to the

last century of the monarchy of Judah. The

narrative of EJ is, then, the oldest

s. Historic written attestation of Abraham; and

ity o: the question arises, how far can this Abraham narrative be accepted as historical?

Defended. If it is not historical the origin of its

conception of Abraham must be ex­

plained. It has been suggested that Abraham

was a deity adored in antiquity and afterward

humanized (Dozy, Noldeke, E. Meyer). But in

all Semitic literature no god named Abraham is

found; and no indication exists that Abraham

was ever conceived of in Israel as a deity or higher

being. More plausible is the view that Abraham,

Isaac, and Jacob were ethnographic collective

names (Wellhausen, Berlin, 1895,

pp. 322 sqq.). Abraham in particular was a com­

bination of Israelitic, Edomitic, Moabitic, and

Ammonitic nations. These collective names were

afterward conceived of as names of individuals of

views wishes

But there is little to prove

that the names of the patriarchs were originally

collective names; and against the supposition is

the Israelites did not call themselves

after the name of Abraham but after that of Isaac, Jacob, Israel. Moreover, the picture of Abraham presented by EJ is not what one would expect Israel's fancy of the time of the Prophets to paint as the portrait pf a patriarch Well­hausen says of the patriarchs as they appear in EJ: " They are not courageous and manly, but good housemasters, a little under the influence of their more judicious wives." It is hardly conceivable, that the Israel of the monarchy should have im­agined as the type of an Israelite indeed a man without courage, devoid of manliness, and ruled by his wife.' Abraham's faith and obedience are emphasized and he is depicted as interceding with Yahweh; but EJ also makes him marry his half­sister, which was incest according to the Israelitic conception; he took Lot with him against Yah­weh's command; though Yahweh had promised him Canaan as his abode, he went thence to Egypt; more than once he endangered the honor of his wife; his faith is occasionally, though only momen­tarily, not free from doubt (Gen. xv. 8, xvii. 17, 18). If, then, the origin of Abraham as a fictitious per­sonage can not be explained and traced, nothing remains but to conclude that his history rests upon traditiotl. Like all tradition, that of Abraham may contain inaccuracies, amplifications, or gaps; but the less it answers the expectation of an ideal form or can be proved to be a product of later times developed from the past, the greater is its claim to credibility.

Another point raised against the historicity of the Biblical narratives of the patriarchs is that in the

time of Moses, and later, Yahweh was 3. Historic a thundergod dwelling on Sinai and ity of the was worshiped in a fetishistic manner patriarchs by the Israelitic tribes, which at the

Defended. same time were devoted to totemism.

But this objection reste upon a rash inference, from single phenomena of the religious life at the time of Moses and the subsequent period, that the religious conceptions and usages of the Israelites were identical with those of the Arabs who lived two thousand years later in the time before Mohammed's appearance. The Israelites were not conscious of any special relationship with the Arabs, and the religion of the latter before Mohammed can not be proved to be a petrifaction of former millenniums.

The effort to prove the patriarchs unhistorical from the narrative of the sending of the spies (Num. xiii.xiv.)because it appears questionable in that narrative whether it was worth while or possible for Israel to take Canaan, whereas on the basis of the history of the patriarchs both were certain­falls to the ground when it is remembered that the authors who wrote the story of the spies were fully convinced that Yahweh had promised Canaan to the fathers, and that they wrote with the supposition that no intelligent reader would see in their narra­tive a contradiction of this conviction. The most plausible objection to the historicity of the narra­tives of the patriarchs is the length of time between the events recorded and the origin of the documen­tary sources extant in Genesis. But that tradition may preserve a faithful record of former events


Abraham A sanots alars

especially where matters of a religious nature are

concerned, will be denied only by those who judge

the remote past by the conditions of the present.

The Indians and the Gauls for centuries handed

on their religious conceptions by means of oral

tradition; and it is very possible that the authors

of the documents of Genesis bad records from very

ancient, even preMosaic, time. The possibility

once admitted, that a faithful tradition concerning

Abraham may have been preserved to the time

when the documents of Genesis originated, the

last reason for considering him a product of later

Israelitic fancy, is removed.

No one of the three sources which are pieced

together in the present Genesis can be fully re­

constructed. The document P must

4. Impos have contained much more material

sibility of than the sum total of all the excerpts

Fully Re from it. The source E appears first

construct with certainty in chapter xx. ; and J,

ing the especially for Abraham's later years,

Sources. is preserved only in fragments. There

is thus no means of knowing all that

the sources originally contained; and, furthermore,

many passages of Genesis can be assigned with

certainty neither to one nor another of the sources.

Hence the accuracy and completeness of our knowl­

edge of Abraham s history is dependent on the

fidelity and good judgment with which the compiler

of Genesis has done his work; and in attempting

to delineate the true story of Abraham's life it is

an imperative duty to weigh carefully the possi­

bility and probability of each detail.

(A. K6M.Eat.)

The historicity of the personal as distinguished

from the tribal Abraham is still held by a wide

though perhaps narrowing circle of scholars. In the

above article the difficulties are too lightly treated.

The embarrassing question of Abraham's date

is disposed of (§ 1) by the assumption that it can

not have been later than 1900 B.c. But Gen. xiv.,

by its Babylonian synchronism, puts it in the

twentythird century Bx., at least one thousand

years before Moses, and fifteen hundred years

before the generally accepted date of Abraham's

first biographer. Moreover, practically nothing

is known of the history of his descendants until

the era of Moses. When we seek for at least a

substantial personality amid the vagueness, incon­

sistencies, and contradictions direct or inferential,

that mark the several accounts, we are thrown

back upon the fact of the persistent general tra­

dition, which evidently had a very early origin,

and to which great weight should in fairness be

attached. J. F. M.

Biswoaasrex: Besides the histories of Israel and commen­

taries on Genesis, ooneult W. J. Desne,

and Tin", London, 1886; H. C. Tomkine, Abraham

and ib. 1897; C. H. Cornill, Gesdti" des Vollces

leipsia, 1898, Eng. tranel., Chicago, 1898; P.

Dornetettir. ; Studies fiber die Anfanpe des he­

brdiaeAes Volkes, FInibum 1992. For the extraBiblical

traditione: G. Wail, B>'blische Lependen der

Frankfort. 1846; H. Beer, Laden Auflas­

suso de' ifldisdaes Sage. feipsio, 1869; T. P. Hughes.

Diagonary London, 1898 (gives Abra­

ham passages in the Horan); B. W. Bacon.

Heir Yahweh, in the New World, vol. viii. (1899); JR.

i. 8392.


Monastic name by which a famous German preacher, Ulrich Megerle, is usually known; b. at Kreenheinstetten (20 m. n. of Constance), Baden, July 2, 1644; d. in Vienna Dec. 1, 1709. He was the son of an inn­keeper, and received his education from the Jesuits at Ingolstadt and from the Benedictines at Salz­burg. In 1662 he entered the order of the bare­footed Augustinians, and rose to positions of authority, becoming prior of his house, provincial, and definitor. After 1668 or 1669, with the ex­ception of seven years (168289) spent at Graz, he was attached to the Augustinian Church in Vienna. He was primarily a preacher, and his first published works were reprints of sermons. His definite literary activity dates from the plague of 1679, which called forth three small books; but these, as well as similar occasional writingssuch as Auf, (1683), inspired by the danger of the Turkish invasion and imitated by Schil­ler in the Capuchin's address in (1685), a book for pilgrims; (1704)are of com­paratively slight importance. His principal work, (4 parts, 168695), is an imaginary biography of the betrayer of Christ, written from the standpoint of a satirical preacher. About the same time he wrote a compendium of moral theology, Grammatica religiosa (1691) in which the more dignified Latin precludes the characteristic pungent flavor of his vernacular works.

Abraham represents the Catholicism of his age not in its noblest, but in its most usual form. He is fanatical, eager to make converts, intolerant; constant in praise of the Jesuits, full of the bitterest reproaches %gainst Protestants and Jews. He has the most childish notions of science; but he makes very skilful use of his scanty equipment of learning. He has a perfect command of every rhetorical artifice, and knows how to play upon the feelings of his hearers, to appeal to their weaknesses, and to call up vivid pictures before their minds, not disdaining to raise a laugh. Satire is his strongest weapon; and he is a direct inheritor of the old German satiric tradition. He exercises the func­tions of a critic with the fearlessness of a mendicant friar; neither his audience, nor the court, nor his brethren of the clergy are spared. The burlesque manner which he uses in treating the most serious subjects was popular in the fifteenth century, and may have suited that age; but it was out of place in the second half of the seventeenth. The force of the contrast becomes when it is =em. bered that Abraham was appointed court preacher in 1677, sixteen years after the same title had been conferred on a Bossuet. It is only fair, however, to recall what the general level of education was in Roman Catholic Germany at the time, and to see in Abraham rather a popular entertainer than a preacher.

A complete edition of his works in twentyone volumes was published at Passau and Lindau

Abraham Bcchellensis


(183554), and selections at Heilbronn (7 vols.,

184044) and Vienna (2 vols., 1846). Single works

are accessible in many editions

Stuttgart, 1882; Auf,

Vienna, 1883). (E. STEIrtniEYEa.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. G. von Haraian, Vienna, 1867; W. Scherer, Berlin, 1874; H. Mareta, Vienna, 1875; A. Silberstein, 1879; E. Schnell, Munich, 1895; C. Blanckenburg, Halle, 1897.

ek"elen'sis: A

learned Maronite; b. at Eckel, Syria, in the latter

part of the sixteenth century; d. at biome in 1664.

He was educated in the college of the Maronites at

Rome and was promoted to doctor of philosophy

and theology. For a time he was professor of

Arabic and Syriac at Pisa, and afterward at Rome,

where he was called by Urban III. He was one

of the first to promote Syriac studies in Europe,

and his Syriac grammar (Rome, 1628) was long

used. In 1640 he was called to Paris by Le Jay to

assist in the Paris Polyglot. The Arabic and Syriac

texts for this work had been entrusted to Gabriel

Sionita, a Maronite professor at Paris, who per­

formed his work in an unsatisfactory manner.

Abraham agreed to undertake the books of Ruth,

Esther, Tobit, Judith, Baruch, and Maccabees, on

the ground that he possessed better codices than

Gabriel. The latter, however, took offense; where­

upon Abraham resigned the work and returned to

Rome (1642), having edited only the books of Ruth

and III Maccabees. He was attacked in four

letters (Paris, 1646) by Val6rien de Flavigny, who

wrote on the side of his friend Gabriel, and a sharp

controversy ensued (cf. A. G. Masch,

Halle, 1778, p. 358). During a second resi­

dence in Paris (164553) Abraham taught at the

Sorbonne, and published the concluding volume

of an edition of the works of St. Alithony (1646;

vol. i., containing the letters, had appeared in 1641),

as well as

(1653) and (1653),

a history of the patriarchate of Alexandria, trans­

lated from the Arabic of Ibn alRahib, with an

appendix treating of Arabia and the Arabs before

Mohammed. In 1653 he returned to Rome. He

published two works in answer to the views of John

Selden (q.v.) concerning the early position of the

episcopate, viz., (Rome,

1660) and

(1661). (A. JEREMIAs.)

BIBLIOasAPHY: For his life consult J. 8. Ersch and J. G. Gruber, 360, Leipsie, 1818; 457458, Paris, 1814.

: A deistic sect which appeared in the district Of Pardubitz, eastern Bohemia, after 1782. They claimed to hold to the faith of Abra­ham before his circumcision; rejected most of the Christian doctrines, but professed belief in one God, and accepted, of the Scriptures, only the Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer. The govern­ment took measures against them, and they were


soon suppressed. The name was also applied to the followers of one Abraham. (Ibrahim) of Anti­och at the beginning of the ninth century; they were charged with idolatrous and licentious prac­tises, probably on insufficient grounds, and may have been related to the Paulicians.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: LP. A. Winkoppl, Leipsic, 1785; J. G. Meusel, Erlangen, 1818; H. Grdgoire, 419 Hqq., 6 vols., Paris, 182845.

English rabbinical schol­ar and author; b. at London Nov. 26, 1858. He was educated at Jews' College and University College, London (M.A., 1881). After teaching at Jews' College for several years, he was appointed senior tutor there in 1900, but in 1902 accepted a call to Cambridge as reader in Talmudic and Rab­binic Literature. He has been a member of the Committee for Training Jewish Teachers, the Com­mittee of the AngloJewish Association, was the first president of the Union of Jewish Literary Societies, and has been successively honorary secretary and president of the Jewish Historical Society.

Abrahams has been one of the editors of the since 1889, and contributes each week to the works include (London, 1895; in collaboration with Claude G. Montefiore); (1896); (1899); (Philadelphia, 1903; in collaboration with D. Yellin); and (London, 190506).


theran; b. at Medaker, Sweden, Mar. 2, 1856. He was educated at the public schools of his native country, and at Augustana College and Theological Seminary (Rock Island, 111.), graduating in 1880. He entered the Lutheran ministry in the same year, and in 1886 was called to the pastorate of the Salem Lutheran Church, Chicago, where he has since remained. He was associate editor of the official organ of the Augustana Synod, from 1885 to 1896, and for six years was president of the Illinois Conference of the same synod. He is also a member of the board of directors of Augustana College and Theological Seminary, president of the board of directors of Augustana Hospital, Chicago, a member of the board of missions of the Augustana Synod and the Illinois Conference, and was a dele­gate to the International Lutheran World's Con­gress at Lund, Sweden, in 1901. In 1894 he received the Swedish decoration of Knight Royal of the Order of the Polar Star from King Oscar II. In theology he belongs to the historic Evangelical Lutheran Church, and adheres to its original un­altered creeds. He has written (Chicago, 1893).

ABRASA%, .ab'rasax (ABRAXAS, abraxras).

Various Explanations (¢ 1). The Abrasax Gems (§ 2).

Abrasax (which is far commoner in the sources than the variant form Abraxas) is a word of mystic meaning in the system of the Gnostic Basilides, being there applied to the " Great


Archon " (Gk., the of the

365 spheres (Gk., cf. Hippolytus,


7). Renan considers it a designation of the most

high, unspeakable God lost in the greatness of his

majesty; but he has probably been misled by

erroneous statements of the Fathers, such as Jerome

on Amos iii. (" Basilides, who calls the omnipotent

God by the portentous name ` abraxas ' "), and


" he [Basilides] affirms that there is a supreme God

by the name ` Abraxas ' ").

Much labor has been spent in seeking an explana­

tion for and the etymology of the name. Salmasius

thought it Egyptian, but never gave the proofs which

1. various he promised. Munter separates it into

Explana two Coptic words signifying " new­

tions. fangled title. Bellermann thinks it

a compound of the Egyptian words

and meaning " the honorable and

hallowed word," or " the word is adorable." Sharpe

finds in it an Egyptian invocation to the Godhead,

meaning " hurt me not." Others have endeavored

to find a Hebrew origin. Geiger sees in it a Grecized

form of "the blessing," a meaning

which King declares philologically untenable.

Passerius derives it from

" to create," and negative" the uncreated

Father." Wendelin discovers a compound of the

initial letters, amounting to 365 in numerical value,

of four Hebrew and three Greek words, all written

with Greek characters:

Father, Son, Spirit, holy;

salvation from the cross "). According to a note

of De Beausobre's, Hardouin accepted the first

three of these, taking the four others for the ini­

tials of the Greek "sa­

ving mankind by the holy cross." Barzilai goes back

for explanation to the first verse of the prayer

attributed to Rabbi Nehunya ban harKanah, the

literal rendering of which is " O [God], with thy

mighty right hand deliver the unhappy [people],"

forming from the initial and final letters of the

words the word (pronounced

with the meaning " the host of the winged ones,"

i.e., angels. But this extremely ingenious theory

would at most explain only the mystic word

whose connection with by no

means certain. De Beausobre derives Abrasax

from the Greek and beautiful, the

glorious Savior." It is scarcely necessary to

remark upon the lack of probability for all these

interpretations; and perhaps the word may be

included among those mysterious expressions

discussed by Harnaek

1891, 8689), "which

belong to no known speech, and by their singular

collocation of vowels and consonants give evidence

that they belong to some mystic dialect, or take

their origin from some supposed divine inspiration."

That the numerical value of the letters amounts to

365, the number of the heavens of Basilides and

of the days of the year, was remarked by the

early Fathers (Irenaoous, Hippolytus, the pseudo­

Tertullian, and others); but this does not explain

the name any more than it explains and

of which the same is true. And the num­ber 365 is made use of not only by Basilides, but by other Gnostics as well.

The Gnostic sect which comes into light in Spain and southern Gaul at the end of the fourth century and at the beginning of the fifth, which Jerome connects with Basilides, and which (according to his used the name Abrasax, is con­sidered by recent scholars to have nothing to do with Basilides. Moreover, the word is of frequent occurrence in the magic papyri; it is found on the Greek metal among other mystic words, and still more often on carved gems. The fact that the name occurs on these gems in connection with representations of figures with the head of a cook, a lion, or an ass, and the tail of a serpent was formerly taken in the light of what Irenaeus says I. xxiv. 5) about

2. The the followers of Basilides: " These

Abrasax men, moreover, practise magic, and

Gems. use images, incantations, invocations,

and every other kind of curious art.

Coinine also certain names as if they were

those of the angels, they proclaim some of these

as belonging to the first, and others to the

second heaven; and then they strive to set forth

the names, principles, angels, and powers of the

365 imagined heavens." From this an attempt

was made to explain first the gems which bore the

name and the figures described above, and then all

gems with unintelligible inscriptions and figures

not in accord with pure GrecoRoman art, as

Abrasaxstones, Basilidian or Gnostic gems. Some

scholars, especially Bellermann and Matter, took

great pains to classify the different representations.

But a protest was soon raised against this inter­

pretation of these stones. De Beausobre, Passe­

rius, and Caylus decisively declared them to be

pagan; and Harnack has gone so far as to say that

it is doubtful whether a single Abrasaxgem is

Basilidian. Having due regard to the magic

papyri, in which many of the unintelligible names

of the Abrasaxgems reappear, besides directions

for making and using gems with similar figures

and formulas for magical purposes, it can scarcely

be doubted that these stones are pagan amulets

and instruments of magic. (W.




vol. ii., Vienna,1886. Worth consulting are B. de Monfaucon, 356, Paris 171924. Eng. transl., 10 vols., London, 172125; R,. E. Raspe,

. 2 vols., London, 1791; J. M. A. Chabouillet, Paris, 1858; 127155. Plates of the socalled Abrazaegems are to be found in the works of Count de Caylus, Matter, King, and in the



ABSALON (AXEL): one of the principal figures in Scandinavian medieval history; b. on the island of Zealand, then under his father's government, probably in Oct., 1128; d. in the abbey of Sorb (on the island of Zealand, 44 m. w.s.w. of Copenhagen) Mar. 21, 1201. He was brought up with the future king Waldemar, amid surroundings which befitted his birth. When he was eighteen or nineteen, his father retired from the world to the Benedictine monastery of Sorts, which he had built, and the lad went to Paris to study theology and canon law. He came back to Denmark to find civil war raging among the partizans of three princes. As he was already a priest, he probably took no part in the bloody battle of Gradehede near Viborg (1157) which finally decided the strife in favor of his old playmate Waldemar; but in the following spring he and his retainers repelled an attack of Wendish pirates who were ravaging Zealand. When Bishop Asser of Roskilde died (on Good Friday, 1158), the chapter and the citizens quarreled over the choice of a successor, and the armed intervention of Waldemar became necessary. At an election held in his presence, Absadon was unanimously chosen, and soon showed that he considered the defense of his country not the least among his episcopal duties. The Danes now assumed the offensive against the pagan Wends, rind two cam­paigns were made against them in 1159. The next year Waldemar joined forces with Henry the Lion, with the result that Mecklenburg was added to the German territory, and the island of Ragen to the Danish.

All this time Absalon was busy building fort­resses and providing guards for the coasts, some­times undertaking perilous winter voyages to inspect the defenses, with the aspect of a Viking but the spirit of a crusader. At the same time he was laboring for internal peace by endeavoring to attach the partizans of the defeated factions to the king, and busily providing for monastic reform and ex­tension. He brought to Denmark his old fellow student William, canon of St. Genevie at Paris, and placed him over the canons of Eakilab near Roskilde, whose house he later removed to Ebel­holt near Arresb, helping them to build their new church and richly endowing it. After his father's death (c. 1157) discipline had decayed among the Benedictines of Sorb, and Absalop brought Cister­cian monks from Earom to restore it, making it one of the richest of Cistercian abbeys. He and his kinsfolk were buried in the great church there which he began to build after 1174. In 1162 he accompanied Waldemar to St. Jean de Laune on


the Saane, where Frederick Barbarossa solemnly recognized Victor IV. as the legitimate pope and banned Alexander III. and his adherents. Absa­lon was much dissatisfied with this result; he desired Waldemar to refuse the oath of allegiance to the emperor, and induced him to withdraw from the sitting in which Alexander was denounced. He also protested later when Victor IV. undertook to consecrate a bishop for Odense, and was sup­ported in his attitude by the bishops of Viborg and B6rglum and by most of the monastic communities, while Archbishop Eskil of Lund took the same position so strongly that he had to spend seven years in exile at Clairvaux. The bishops of Sles­wick, Ribe, Aarhus, and Odense were on the side of the imperial pope.

In the fresh campaigns against the Wends,

between 1164 and 1185, Absalon took an active

part, winning from his contemporaries the name of

pater patrice. In 1167 the king gave him the town

of Havn (Copenhagen), and he erected a strong

fortress, which was of great importance for the

development of commerce. He was active in es­

tablishing a system of tithes, which aroused much

opposition. The disturbances in Eskil's juris­

diction (he had now become reconciled with the

king) induced him to resign his archbishopric,

naming Absalon as his successor. The latter

accepted his promotion unwillingly, and was allowed

to retain the see of Roskilde for thirteen years

after his assumption of the higher office in 1178.

As archbishop he withdrew more and more from

political activity to devote himself to the interests

of the Church. The part taken by the Danes in

the third crusade was no doubt due to his influence.

He was a strong upholder of clerical celibacy, and

the purity of his own life was universally admired.

He is also credited with having done much for

liturgical uniformity; and it was at his wish that

Saxo, one of his clergy, undertook to write his

one of the most important sources

for Danish history. (F. NIELSEN.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Langebek [continued by P. F. Suhm and Others], Copenhagen, 177487; H. J. F. Estrup, (in Danish), Some, Germ. tranel., Leipsic, Saxo Gramma­ticue, part i., ed. P. E. Miiller, part ii., ed. J. M. Velsohow, Copenhagen,



com­monly called ; his real name was Gregory): Syriac writer and bishop; b. in the Cappadocian town of Melitene (200 m. n.e. of Anti­och) 1226; d. at Maragha (60 m. a. of Tabriz), Azerbaijan, Persia, July 30, 1286.. He belonged to a Jewish family which had gone over to Jacobite Christianity, but whether his father or a more remote ancestor made the change is uncertain. He finished his studies at Antioch and lived for a time there as a monk in a cave; he went to Tripoli, Syria, to perfect himself in medicine (his father's profession) and rhetoric; became bishop of Gubos, near Melitene (1246), of Lakabhin (1247), of Aleppo (1253); (primate) of the Jacobites in



Abravanel Abyssinia

Chaldea, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, with his seat at Takrit on the Tigris (1284). It was the time of the Mongol inroads under Hulaku, and the country was sorely devastated; but by his discretion and the high repute in which he was held at the Tatar court, Abulfaraj was able to do much to ameli­orate the condition of the Christians. As a writer his importance is due to his wide acquaintance with the knowledge of his time; his works are exceedingly numerous upon the most diverse subjects. A few of them are in Arabic, but the greater number in Syriac.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Nestle, pp 4050 Berlin 1888 (givespublished works of Abulfaraj); life by T. N51deke, in pp. 250 sqq., Berlin, 1892, Eng. tranel., London, 1892; W. Wright, of pp. 265­281, London, 1894 (reprinted, with additions, from gives complete list of works of Abulfaraj); HauckHerzog, i. 123124, ii. 780; E. A. W. Budge, London, 1897.

See ABYSSINIA AND THE AByssimAN CHuxcH, §§ 2, 5.

Worthlessness of Traditional History (§ 1.)

Introduction of Christianity (§ 2).

Close Connection with Egypt in Doctrine (¢ 3). The Canon and Creed ($ 4).

Organization of the Church (§ 5). Beliefs and Practises (5 B).

The Falashas (§ 7).

Christian Missions (§ 8).

The modern Abyssinia is a country of East Africa, between the Red Sea and the Blue Nile, to the southeast of Nubia. Its boundaries are not defi­nite, and its area is variously given from 150,000 to 240;000 square miles. Estimates of the popu­lation vary from 3,500,000 to 8,500,000. In an­tiquity the term " Ethiopia " was used rather vaguely to signify Abyssinia (with somewhat wider extent than at present), Nubia, and Sennar. These were the lands of the Ethiopian Church, of which the Abyssinian Church is the modem rep­resentative. Christianity is now confined to the plateau and mountain regions of Abyssinia.

Native tradition ascribes the name of the country and the foundation of the state to Ethiops, the son of Cush, the son of Ham. The queen

I. Worth of Sheba who visited Solomon is Isnags of identified with an Abyssinian queen, Traditional Makeda; and her visit is said to have History. led to the conversion of the people to Judaism. The tradition continues that she bore to Solomon a son, Menelik, who was educated in Jerusalem by his father. He then returned to the old capital, Axum, and brought with him both Jewish priests and the ark, which was carried away from the Temple in Jerusalem and deposited in the Ethiopian capital; and from that time to the present Abyssinia is said to have been ruled by a Solomonic dynasty, the succession having been broken only now and then by usurpers and conquerors. Of course, all this has no historic value. That Judaism preceded Christianity in the land is not proved by the observance of certain j Jewish customs (such as circumcision, the Mosaic laws about foods, the Sabbath, etc.) ; these may

have been introduced from ancient Egypt or the Coptic Church. A Jewish immigration, however, must have taken place, as it is proved by the presence in the land of numerous Jews, the so­called Falashas (see below, §7); but the time, manner, and magnitude of this immigration can not be ascertained.

There is no independent native tradition of the conversion of the Abyssinians to Christianity.

According to the Greek and Roman

2. Intro Church historians (Rufinus, i. 9;

duction of Theodoret, i. 22; Socrates, i. 19;

Christi Sozomen, ii. 24), in the time of Con­anity. stantine the Great (about 330), Fru

mentius and Edesius accompanied the uncle of the former from Tyre on a voyage in the Red Sea. They were shipwrecked on the Ethiopian coast and carried by the natives to the court at Axum. There they won confidence and honor, and were allowed to preach Christianity. Edesius afterward returned to Tyre; but Frumen­tius continued the work, went to Alexandria, where Athanasius occupied the patriarchal see, obtained missionary coworkers from him, and was himself consecrated bishop and head of the Ethiopian Church, with the title " Father of Peace," which is still in use along with the later " Our Father." It is not improbable that Christianity was known to the Abyssinians before the time of Frumehtius (whose date has been fixed by Dillmann at 341); but he is properly re­garded as the founder of the Ethiopian Church. In the fifth and sixth centuries the mission received a new impulse by the immigration of a number of monks (Monophysites) from upper Egypt.

The close connection between the Abyssinian Church and Egypt is very apparent in the sphere

of doctrine. Like the Coptic Church,

3. Close the Abyssinian holds a monophysitic

Connection view of the person •of Christ. This with question has long been settled; but

Egypt in it is still debated whether Christ had

Doctrine. a double or threefold birth. The

Abuna and the majority of the priests hold to the twofold view, which is the more purely monophysitic. The threefold view was introduced by a monk about 100 years ago, and is prevalent in Shoa (the southern and southeastern district). Also the questions of the person and dignity of Mary, whether she really bore God, or was only the mother of Jesus; whether she is entitled to the same worship as Christ, etc.,are eagerly debated thoilgh it seems to be the general view that an almost divine worship is the Virgin, and that she and the saints are indispensable mediators between Christ and man. Some even assert that the saints, who died not for their own sins, died like Christ for the sins of others.

The church books are all in the Ethiopic language, which is a dead tongue, studied only by the priests, and not understood by them. For the Ethionio Bible translation see BIBLE VERSIONS, A, VIII. The Abyssinian canon, called Samanya Ahadu, " Eightyone," because it consists of eightyone sacred books, comprises, besides the sixtyfive books of the usual canon, the Apocrypha, the


Epistles of Clement, and the Synodus (that is, the decrees of the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem;

cf. W. Fell, The Leipsic, 1871). Only a very slight difference, however, is

Creed. made between this canon and some

other works of ecclesiastical literature,

the or (text

and transl. by T. P. Platt, published by the Oriental

Translation Fund, London, 1834); the

giving quotations from the councils and the

Fathers; the writings of the Eastern Fathers,

Athanasius, Cyril, and Chrysostom; and the

the royal lawbook. On the whole, the

tradition of the Church has the same authority

'as the Scriptures. Of the councils, only those

before the Council of Chalcedon (451) are recog­

nized, because at Chalcedon the monophysite

heresy was condemned. The Apostles' Creed is

unknown; the Nicene is used.

At the head of the Church stands the Abuna, who resides in Gondar. He is appointed by the

Coptic patriarch of Cairo; and, ac­s. Organi cording to a law, dating from the

zation of thirteenth century, no Abyssinian,

the Church. but only a Copt, can be Abuna. He

alone has the right to anoint the king and to ordain priests and deacons. Both in secular and in ecclesiastical affairs he has great power. The duties of the priests are to conduct divine service three or four times daily and for three or four hours on Sunday, to attend to the church business, and to purify houses and utensils. Priests, monks, and scholars celebrate the Holy Com­munion every morning. The deacons bake the bread for the Lord's Supper and perform menial duties. Any one who can read may be ordained deacon, and a priest is merely required to recite the Nicene Creed. To learn the long liturgies, however, is often a matter of years. It is usual to marry before ordination, as marriage is not allowed afterward. Besides priests and deacons each church has its who looks after church prop­erty and attends to secular business. The sing at divine service; and the larger churches have a who settles disputes among the clergy. Beside the secular clergy stand the monastic under the head of the who ranks next to the Abuna and decides many ecclesiastical and theo­logical questions in common with him. The num­ber of monks and nuns (living after the rule of Pachomius) is very great. At Debra Damo, one of the chief monasteries, about 300 monks live together in small huts. A part of their duties is the education of the young. The church build­ings are exceedingly numerous, generally small, low, circular structures, with a conical roof of thatch and four doors, one toward each of the cardinal points. Surrounding the building is a court, occupied during service by the laymen, and often serving at night as a place of refuge to travelers. The interior, dirty and neglected, is divided into two apartments,the holy for the priests and deacons, and the holy of holies, where stands the ark. This ark is the principal object in the whole church. Neither the deacons, laymen, nor non


Christians dare touch it; if they do, the church and the adjacent cemetery become unclean, and must be purified. Indifferent pictures of the numerous saints, the Virgin, the angels, and the devil adorn the interior; but statues are forbidden. Crosses are found, but no crucifixes.

Service consists of singing of psalms, recitals of parts of the Bible and liturgy, and prayers, especially to the Virgin and the wonderworking saints; it is undignified and unedifying. They believe that every one has a guardian spirit and

therefore venerate the angels. The 6. Beliefs archangel Michael is consdered es­and pecially holy, They divide the good

Practises. angels into nine classes, of which there

were originally ten, but one fell away under Satanael. Relics are preserved and ven­erated as by the Roman Catholic Church. Of sacraments, the Church numbers two, baptism and the Lord's Supper. Both adults and children are baptized, the former by immersion, the latter by sprinkling. For boys the rite is performed forty days after birth; for girls, eighty days. The purpose of baptism is the forgiveness of sins. The Lord's Supper is preceded by a severe fast; and offerings of incense, oil, bread, and wine are usually brought. The Jewish Sabbath is kept as well as the Christian Sunday; and altogether there are one hundred and eighty holidays in the year. Fasting, observed with great strictness, plays a prominent part in the discipline, and about half the days of the year are nominally fastdays.

Not all the inhabitants of Abyssinia are Chris­tians; and not all Christians belong to the State Church. The Zalanes, a nomadic tribe, consider themselves to be Jews, and keep aloof from the

Christians, thdugh they are described The as being really Christians. The Cha

Falashas. mantes are baptized, and have Chris

tian priests; but in reality they are nearly pagans, and celebrate many thoroughly pagan rites. The real Jews, the Falashas, live along the northern shore of Lake Tsana, in the neighborhood of Gondar and Shelga, where they pursue agriculture and trade. They are more industrious than the Christians, but also more ignorant and spiritually more forlorn. Moham­medanism is steadily progressing. In order to distinguish themselves from all nonChristians, the Christians receive at baptism a cord of blue silk or cotton, called mateb, which they always wear around the neck.

The first missionary work which the Western Church undertook in Abyssinia was the Jesuit mission of 1555, which labored there for nearly a century; but the missionary activity of the Jesuits was deeply mixed with the politics of the country; and their main purpose seems to have been to establish there the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. At last they reached the goal. After a frightful massacre of the opposite party, King Sasneos declared the Roman Catholic Church the Church of the State. In however, the Jesuits, with their Roman archbishop, were com­pelled to leave the country, and the old religion with its old Church was reestablished. With the


new Abuna who followed after this Roman Catholic interregnum, Peter Heyling, from Lubeck, a Protes­tant missionary, came into the country, but his great zeal led only to small results. The Church Missionary Society had more success in the first half of the nineteenth century. The circumstance that a pious Abyssinian monk, AbiRuch or Abre­ka, who had been guide to the traveler Bruce, translated the whole Bible into the Amharic lan­guage (180818), gave the first occasion to this attempt. The British and Foreign Bible Society bought and printed the translation, and in 1830

the missionaries Gobat and Kugler 8. Chris were sent to Abyssinia. The latter tian Mis was succeeded by Isenberg, and Gobat

sions. by Blumhardt in 1837. Later came Krapf. The work was partly spoiled by the opposition of the native priests and the intrigues of newly arrived Roman Catholics, and the missionaries were expelled in 1838. Krapf then spent three years in Shoa, but was driven thence in 1842. The Roman Catholics were ex­pelled in 1854. In 1858 a Coptic priest who had frequented the school of a Protestant missionary in Alexandria, and favored the Protestant mission, became Abuna, and the St. Chrischona Society of Basel now sent a number of Protestant missionaries into the country. They labored with considerable success; but the disturbances of the reign of King Theodore overtook them, and almost destroyed their work. They were thrown into prison and were only released after the victory of the British. Since that time, few missionary attempts have been made in Abyssinia. The Swedes have one or two stations in the country; and during the past ten years there has been some effort to resume work on the part of the Roman Catholics (mainly French). There is a vicar apostolic for Abyssinia with residence in Alitiena, Tigre; and a Uniat " Geez Church " is said to number 10,000 members. See AFRICA, II., ABYRsINIA.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Makrisi (d. 1441), ad. T. Wiietenfeld, G6ttingen, 1845; H. Ludolf, and Frankfort, 1681, 1693; J. Lobo. (Eng. transl.,

London, 1735; J. 8taacklein, Auge­burg, 1728; V. de la Croze, Hague 1739; J. Bruce, Edinburgh, 1790 (often reprinted); G. A. Hoskins, London, 1835; C. W. Isenberg and J. L. Krapf, London, 1843; C. W. Isenberg, Bonn, 1844; J. L. Krapf, London, 1860; idem, ib. 1867; Lady Mary E. Herbert, ib. 1868; J. M. Flad, ib. 1869; idem, Zwdlf 2 vols., Basel, 186987; A. Dillmann, Berlin, 1879; A. Raffray, Paris, 1882; T• Waldmeier, London, 1890; J. T. Bent, ib. 1893; A. B. Wylde, ib. 1901; H. Vivian, ib. 1901• M. Fowler, ib. 1901. For the liturgy, etc.: J A Giles, ib. 1852; E. Trumpp Dos Munich, 1878; C. A. 8wainson. Cambridge 1884; C. von Arnhsrd, Munich. 1888.

: A monk

of the monastery of Gindanus near Antioch, after­

ward abbot of a monastery near Bercea (Aleppo),

and from 378 bishop of that city; d. about 435.

He took an active part in the ecclesiastical con­

troversies of the East, and was one of the principal

complainants against Chrysostom at the synod

hell in 403 in a suburb of Chalcedon known as

Ad' Quercum. For this reason he fell out with

Rome, but was acknowledged again by Innocent I.

in 415. In the Nestorian controversy he occupied

a mediating position. The Syrian Balseus wrote

five songs in his praise. His extant writings are

a letter to Cyril of Alexandria and two to Alexander

of Hierapolis, as well as a confession of faith (MPG,

lxxvii. 144548). G. KRIJGER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Le Quien, Oriem 782­783, Paris, 1763; G. Biekell, Kempten, Hefele, passim;

ACACIUS OF CSAREA: One of the most influ­ential bishops in the large middle party,which opposed the Nicene Creed during the Arian controversy. He was the disciple of Eusebius, and his successor in the bishopric of Caesarea. He took part in the Eusebian synod at Antioch in the spring of 341, and in another at Philippopolis in 343. By the orthodox council of Sardica in the same year he was regarded as one of the heads of the opposing party, and threatened with deposition. Common oppo­sition to the Nicene doctrine held the pasty together until about 356. Thus, on the death of Maximus of Jerusalem (350 or 351), Acacius helped to get the vacant see for Cyril, who belonged rather to the opposite wing of the party, the later Ho­moiousians or SemiArians. That he fell out with Cyril and procured his deposition (357 or 358) was due partly to jealousy between the two sees, partly to the changed attitude of parties under Conatantius (351­361). The two wings fell apart, and Acacius became the leader of the court party, the later Homoians, in the East. In 355 he seems to have been one of the few Easterns who represented the emperor at the Council of Milan; and, according to Jerome, his influence with Constantius was so great that he had much to do with setting up Felix as pope in the place of the banished Liberius. After the so­called Second Council of Sirmium (357) had avoided the controverted terms altogether and said nothing about the ousia (`i substance "), it was undoubtedly Acacius who at the Council of Antioch (358) influ­enced Eudoxius to accept this compromise for the East. At the Synod of Seleucia (359) he took a prominent part. In obvious concert with the im­perial delegates, he seemed to favor what Ursacius and Valens tried to carry in the Synod of Ri­mini, the acceptance of the socalled third $irmian formula (`° similar [ho»wios] according to the Scrip­tures . . similar in all things "). He and his party, it is true, expressly condemned the anomoim (" dissimilar ") theory, but they omitted the "in all things," which agreed as little with the real views of Acacius as with those of the Western Homoians. The council ended in a schism; the Homoiousian majority, in a separate session, deposed Acacius

and other leading Homoians. But he was in touch with the court; and at the discussions in Con­stantinople which continued those of Seleucia, the imperial wishes, represented by Acacius, Ursacius, and Valens, prevailed. He was able to celebrate his victory the next year at the Council of Constantinople, and commanded the situation in the East. With the death of Constantius the Jay of this imperial orthodoxy was done; and uner Jovian (363364) Acacius succeeded in accepting the Nicene orthodoxy which was now that of the court. His name appears among the signatures of those who, at the Synod of Antioch presided over by Meletius (363), accepted the Nicene formula in the sense of similar as to substance "). With the accession of the Arian Valens (364), the situation changed once more; and apparently Acacius changed with it. He and his adherents were deposed by the Homoiousian Synod of Lampsacus (365), after which he is heard of no more; probably he soon died. He was a voluminous writer, but nothing remains except the formula a,rSeleucia, a fragment in Epiphanius 610; xlii. 589596) of his polemic against Marcellus, and scattered quotations in some of the Catena3. (F. Loops.)

Along with Eunomius and Aetius, Acacius may be said to have given dialectic completeness to Arianism. In their polemics against the Nicene Symbol they laid chief stress on the fact that the Father was " unbegotten," depending for his being neither upon himself nor another, which could not be said of the Son. They insisted also upon the complete comprehensibility of God. A. H. N.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Tillemont, 1699; M. Le Quien, iii. 559, Paris, 1740; FabriciusHar­lee, vii. (1801) 336, ix. (1804) 254, 256; James Rains, Newcastle, 1864; Hefele, 677, 712, 714 sqq., 721 eqq., 734735;


ACACIUS OF MELITENEE, meliti'ne: A bitter opponent of Nestorius in the Council of Ephesus in 431; d. after 437. A homily delivered by him at Ephesus and two letters to Cyril are in lxxvii. 146772. Melitene was a town of Armenia Secunda, the modern Malatie. G. KRt)GER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Le Quien, i. 441, Paris, 1762; Hefele, 271, 275, 314; 1415.

ak'ka: Fifth bishop of Hexham (18 m. w. of Newcastle, Northumberland); d. there 740. He was the devoted friend of Wilfrid of York (q.v.), shared his missionary labors in Friesland and Sussex, accompanied him to Rome in 704, and succeeded him as bishop in 709. He was also the intimate friend of Bede, who received help and encouragement from Acea in his scholarly labors, and dedicated to him his and several of his commentaries. Aces seems to have been worthy of his friends. He completed and adorned the buildings begun at Hexham by Wilfrid and collected there a large and excellent library. He was a good musician, and induced a famous singer, Maban by name, to come to Hexham and instruct



the rude Northumbrians. In 732 he was expelled from his bishopric for some unknown reason, but returned before his death.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bede, 1920; J. Rains, 3136, Newcastle, 1864; W.

Bright, pp. 447448, Ox

ford, 1897.

See BABYLONIA, IV., § 11.

ACCEPTANTS: The name of that party which in the Jansenist controversy accepted the bull See JANSEN, CoRNELIus; JANSENISM.

ACCOLTI, akkel'tf : The name of two cardinals who have sometimes been confused.

1. Pietro Accolti : " The Cardinal of Anco­na "; b. at Florence 1455; d. at Rome Dec. 12, 1532. He studied law, but later entered the Church, and was made bishop of Ancona and cardinal by Julius 11. He was the author of the famous bull of 1520 against Luther.

2. Benedetto Accolti : " The Cardinal of Ra­venna," nephew of the preceding; b. at Flor­ence, Oct. 29, 1497; d. there Sept. 21, 1549. He belonged to the college of abbreviators under Leo X., and was made a cardinal by Clement VII. in 1527. In 1535 Paul III. for some obscure reason imprisoned him in the castle of St. Angelo; and he obtained his release after some months only by payment of a large sum of money. He left some Latin writings including a few poems (published in Florence, 1562).

Greek Philosophical and Theological Usages (§ 1). Required by Ethics (§ 2). Negative Accommodation (§ 3). Positive Accommodation ($ 4). Modern Theory of Accommodation (¢ 5). Untenabienese of the Theory (¢ 6). When Accommodation is Admissible ($ 7). Accommodation and the New Testament (§ 8). Controversy in the Roman Catholic Church (§ 9).

The word " Accommodation " is used in the­

ology in two senses : (1) the wider, that of

a general ethical conception; and (2) the nar­

rower, by certain writers of the latter half

of the eighteenth century, in reference to a

particular method of Biblical exegesis.

I. Greek The ethical reserve denoted by this Philosoph term was known to the Greek phiioso

ical and pliers as and the same Theological word is used by the Greek Fathers

Usages. for that method of teaching which

adapts itself to the needs or to the

preconceived ideas of the scholars; the expression

also employed, whence

the word " economy" is often applied to this

method by later writers.

Such accommodation or economy is required by ethics in two cases: (1) when, in a spirit of love, it spares a condition of ignorance s. Re existing in another's mind, or (2) when,

quired by in the same spirit, it keeps back some Ethics. truth which the imperfect state of development of the other is not ready to receive. Love bids to have patience with erring or weak consciences, so long as they are uncon­scious of their error or weakness, and therefore


might be more injured than helped by a too hasty attack (I Cor. viii. 913). The aim must be im­provement, not punishmentthat one may " by all means save some." This consideration, how­ever, is not due to conscious and obstinate sin­ners, in which case it would be a denial of duty for the sake of pleasing men. But this duty has its limits; it imports and enforces certain ethical requirements and certain spiritual truths; and in both cases its action must be adapted to the ca­pacity of the receiver. The very nature of the human mind prescribes gradual progress in knowl­edge; and thus Christian teaching often requires reserve and silence, where strict enforcement of the command or full unfolding of the truth might give offense. Thus Christ kept back from his disciples certain things which they could not yet bear (John xvi. 12); and thus Paul does not exact the same requirements from all members of the churches under his care (I Cor. vii. 17, 26, 35 sqq.), feeding the " babes in Christ " with " milk, and not with meat " (I Cor. iii. 2). The Christian teacher can not, indeed, preach a different gospel to different hearers; but the manner of the preaching and the selection of material will vary with the stages in spiritual growth attained by the hearers. To this manner belong such things as the popular exposition of the truth, the use of comparisons and examples, and This kind of accommodation is not only not blameworthy, but is prescribed by the example of Christ.

The use of accommodation in matter, as dis­tinguished from manner, is more disputable. It may be either negative, when the teacher passes over in silence the existence of erroneous ideas in his scholars; or positive, when he distinctly approves such erroneous ideas or consciously sets them forth as the truth, with the purpose in both cases of thus leading by an indirect road to the truth. Negative accom­modation may be justified pedagogically by the fact that no teacher is in a position to remove all obstacles at one stroke, the gradual process being equivalent to a toleration of a certain amount of

error for the time. Thus no reproach 3. Rega can lie against Christ because in some tive Accom particulars he allowed his disciples

moda to remain temporarily under the in­

tion. fluence of false impressions, as long

as he did this not by declared approval

and with the distinct looking forward to the time

when the Spirit of Truth should lead them into all

truth; this covers the Jewish beliefs and prac­

tises which they were allowed to retain in his very

presence. The apostles also tolerated the con­

tinued existence of numerous ancient errors in their

converts, being sure that these would fall away

with their gradual growth in Christian knowledge

(I Cor. ix. 20 sqq.; Rom. xiv. 1 sqq.; Heb. v. 11


The case is quite different, however, with regard to positive accommodation in the matter of the teaching. There is no purely objective system of commandments, the same for all alike. Ethical law is subjective, varying with the individual and

his circumstancesposition, calling, age, sex, and the like. One is not to be a slave to prevailing customs, but is bound to take them into account, so as not to offend others. The same thing applies to prevailing beliefs and views; a

;. Positive man has to consider that he will be

Accommo judged by his contemporaries accord

dation. ing to the standards of the time and

place; nay, that if he is to be under­

stood by them at all, he must accommodate himself

to their standpoint, and speak to a certain extent

as they speak. This leads to a point which has

been in the past vehemently discussed by theo­

logians. The truth just stated was pressed by cer­

tain writers for the purpose of rendering more

acceptable their doctrines in regard to revelation.

It is their attitude which gave rise to the narrower

meaning of the word " accommodation."

A transition to the theory that many things in

the Bible are to be taken as spoken only in this

accommodated sense is to be found in the treatise

of Zaeharia, zu

(Schwerin, 1762): it asserted that

the revelations of God in the Old Testament, the

establishment of the old and new covenants, the

incarnation of Christin other words, the facts of

revelation in generalwere only set forth as an

" accommodation " of God to men. It was seen

that this struck at the very root of the Christian

faith; and the question was hotly discussed how

far many Biblical expressions were mere conces­

sions to the ideas prevalent at the

g. time. The controversy lasted until the

Theory of rise of the modern critical school,

Accommo early in the nineteenth century, af

dation. forded an easier way of meeting the

difficulties which these theologians

had thus sought to avoid. With the help of their

theory, such writers as Behn, Senf, Teller, Van

Hemert, and Vogel sought to bring about a harmony

between their views of reason and the Scriptural

expressions. Thus, for example, they got rid of

the Messianic prophecies which, they said, Jesus

referred to himself merely to convince the Jews

that he was the Messiah, without himself believing

that they were written of the Messiah; the doc­

trine of angels and devils was simply a use of the

common conceptions; that of the atonement be­

comes only a condescension of the to

popular ideas, intended to reconcile the Jews to

the loss of their sacrifices.

In more recent times this theory has been in­

creasingly recognized as scientifically and theo­

logically untenable. It is. of course,

6. Unten obvious that many expressions of

ableness Christ and the apostles relate to merely

of the local and temporal circumstances,

Theory. and do not contain permanent rules

of conduct. The apparent contra­

dictions between revelation and the facts of physics

and chemistry offer no more difficulty; Christ did

not come to teach natural science; and he was

obliged to adapt himself to current forms of ex­

pression in order to be understood, just as one

speaks of the rising and setting of the sun, when

he knows it is the motion of the earth



of the sun which is referred to. But there is no case of concession to real error, still less of assertion of error, in any of this accommqdation.

As to the general ethical use of accommodation, a case may arise in which one is

7. When bound by the law of love not to make

Accommo use of a liberty which in the abstract

dation is he possesses, lest the weaker brethren

Admissible. should be scandalized. From this

point of view Paul lays down his rule

in regard to the eating of meats offered to idols

(I Cor. viii. 13). In like manner one may be bound,

like Paul again, by the love of his neighbor to

do something he would not otherwise do (Acts

xvi. 3, xxi. 17 eqq.). Paul's acceptance of Tim­

othy's circumcision was no concession to error;

he did not cease to teach that the rite was unnec­

essary for Gentile converts; and he stoutly resisted

an attempt to impose it on Titus (Gal. ii. 35).

Limitations which he willingly imposed on his own

personal liberty in the accommodation of pastoral

wisdom would have been unworthy weakness if

he had yielded to them when imposed by others

when the circumstances did not justify them.

This is the standpoint of the

(art. x.) in reference to the Adiaphora (q.v.). In

such matters, what in itself is innocent and may

be used with Christian freedom becomes, when it

is sought to be imposed as an obligation, an attack

on evangelical liberty which must be resisted.


The theory of theological accommodation, so

far as it is drawn from the New Testament, grows

out of a particular conception of the knowledge of

Christ and the scope of inspiration. (1) If one

holds that Christ possessed complete knowledge

of all matters relating to the natural

8. Accom world. the Old Testament, the events

modation of his own time, and the future of the

and the kingdom of God on earth, he may

affirm either that all of Christ's teach­

ing on these subjects is authoritative

and final, or else that in many instances he fitted

his teaching to the immediate needs of his hearers;

in the latter case, one could not be sure as to the

precise nature of the objective fact. (2) If, how­

ever, it be alleged that Jesus's intelligence followed

the laws of human growth, that he shared the

common scientific, historical, and critical beliefs of

his day, and that for us his knowledge is restricted

to the spiritual content of revelation, then his

allusions to the natural world, to persona, events,

books, and authors of the Old Testament, to demons,

and the like are to be interpreted according to

universal laws of human intelligence; thus the

principle of accommodation drops away. (3) In

like manner, inspiration may be conceived of either

as equipping the sacred writers with an accurate

knowledge concerning all things to which they

refer, and yet leading them to fit their communica­

tions to the temporary prejudice or ignorance of

their readers, or as quickening their consciousness

concerning spiritual truth, while they were left

unillumined about matters which belong to literary,

historical, or scientific inquiry. It is thus evident

that the question of theological accommodation in

the New Testament turns in part on a solution of

two previous questionsthe content of our Lord's

knowledge, and the scope of inspiration in the au­

thors of the various books (cf. C. J. Ellicott,

London, 1892; J. Moorhouse,

ib. 1892; H. C. Powell,

ib. 1896; G. B. Stev­

ens, New York,

1899; L. A. Muirhead,

London, 1904). C. A. B.

Under the title " Accommodation Controversy " is also frequently understood the long and bitter dispute between the Jesuits and the Dominicans as to the extent of lawful con­cessions to the prejudices of their 9. Contro pagan hearers by missionaries. The versy is the Jesuits were the first to preach Chris­Roman tianity in ChinaXavier went there Catholic in 1552. They were attacked by the Church. Dominicans and Franciscans, when, forty years later, these orders entered the same field, on the charge of having made an improper compromise with Chinese beliefs, espe­cially in regard to the practise of ancestor worship and to the name adopted to designate the Supreme Being in Chinese. They maintained, however, that such concessions were an inevitable condition of the toleration of Christian missions in the em­pire. The " Chinese rites " were provisionally forbidden by Innocent X. in 1645, but were again tolerated by Alexander VII. in 1656, on the ground that they might be regarded as purely civil cere­monies. Clement IX. took a middle course in 1669; but at the end of the century the controversy broke out with renewed violence, to be terminated only by a bull of Clement XI. in 1715, absolutely prohibiting the " Chinese rites." The legate Mezzabarba attempted to mitigate the strict en­forcement of this ruling; but Benedict XIV. con­firmed it in 1742, with the result of provoking a severe persecution which almost exterminated Christianity in China. A somewhat similar contro­versy raged in the eighteenth century over the socalled Malabar rites, terminated in the same sense by the bull of Bene­dict XIV. (1742), the pope refusing, even at the cost of imperiling the future of missions, to per­mit any compromise with paganism. A heated con­troversy on the general subject of accommodation was provoked in England by the publication of No. 80 in the Oxford written by Isaac Williams (q.v.), which caused the author to be accused of Jesuitical and unEnglish insin­cerity, and provoked additional antagonism to the Oxford movement.





Church of Germany; b. at Bremen Jan. 13, 1838.

He studied theology at Heidelberg and Halle from

1857 to 1860, and was pastor successively at Arsten

near Bremen (186062), Hastedt, a suburb of Brem­

en (186275), and BarmenUnterbarmen (1875­

82). Since 1882 he has been professor of practical

theology in the University of Marburg. He is

president of the Marburg branch of the

a member of the

and since 1888 has been the

representative of the University of Marburg at the

Hessian General Synod at Cassel, while in 1897 he

was appointed a royal He was

created a knight of the Order of the Red Eagle,

fourth class, in 1896 and of the Order of the Prus­

sian Crown in 1905. His theological position is

that of " the ancient faith, but modern theology."

His writings, in addition to numerous articles in

the Allgemefine deutsche and other stand­

ard works of reference, as well as monographs in

theological magazines, include:

(Goths, 1869);

(Bremen, 1871);

(Bielefeld, 1875);

(Barmen, 1878);

(Marburg, 1884);

eine G(1887); Aus


a collection of sermons delivered in 188688);



(2 vols., Gotha, 1888);

(3 vols., Freiburg, 189097; new edition,

in 1 vol., Leipsic, 1898; collected sermons);

(2 vols., Freiburg,

189091; revised edition, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1898);

(Berlin, 1892);

(Freiburg, 1893; 5th ed.,


(Berlin, 1901);

(1902); and

(Giessen, 1905).

ACHELIS, HANS: Reformed Church of Ger­

many; b. at Bremen Mar. 16, 1865. He studied

at Erlangen, Berlin, and Marburg (Ph.D., Marburg,

1887); became privatdocent at Gbttingen in 1893;

was appointed professor there in 1897; went to

K6nigaberg in 1901, and to Halle in 1907. His

theological position is that of a " ° modern

sentative of the ancient faith." He has published:

(Marburg, 1888);

Leipsie, 1890);

(1891), 11.

(1903; in col­

laboration with J. Flemming);


(Berlin, 1900);

(Leipsie, 1902); and an

edition of the works of Hippolytus, in collabora­

tion with G. L. Bonwetsch (Leipsic, 1897).

d' (Dom LUC d'Achery; Lat. Benedictine; b. at St. Quentin (80 m. n.e. of Paris), Picardy, 1609; d. in Paris Apr. 29, 1685. He entered the Bene­dictine order while still very young, and in 1632 joined the congregation of St. Maur at Vend6me. He was of weak constitution and suffered much physically, which led his superiors to send him to Paris. There he became librarian of St. Ger­maindesPr6s, and for fortyfive years lived solely for his books and scholarly work. He took es­pecial delight in searching out unknown books and bringing unprinted manuscripts to publication, and was ever ready to help others from his vast store of learning. His chief work was the Spici­(13 vols., Paris, 165577; 2d ed., by De la Barre, with comparison of laterfound manuscripts by Baluze and Marthne, 3 vols., 1723, better arranged but less correct). He edited the first edition of the (1645), the life and works of Lanfranc (1648), the works of Guibert of Nogent (1651), and the of a certain priest Grimlaic (1656); he compiled a catalogue of ascetic writings (1648); and he gathered the material for the which was published by his scholar and assistant, Mabillon (9 vols., 16681731), and for which the latter has usually received the credit. (C. PFENDER.)

L. E. Dupin, Bibliotheque dea auteura eeclE­siastiquea, xviii. 1445, Amsterdam ed.; Tassin, Hietoire

litt,4raire de la congregation do $t. Maur, pp. 103

sels, 1770.



ACCEMETI, asem'etai of d"ceim6'tf,t6 (" Sleep­

less"): An order of monks who sang the divine

praises in their monasteries night and day without

cessation, dividing themselves into three choirs

for the purpose and undertaking the service in

rotation. A certain Alexander (ASB, Jan., i.

101828) founded their first monastery on the

Euphrates about the year 400, and a second at

Constantinople. The abbot Marcellus spread the

custom in the East. Monks from his monastery

were transferred in 459 by the consular Studius

to the monastery newly founded by him in Con­

atantinople and called, after his name, the Studium,

which later became famous. The members of the

order are sometimes called Studites. In the con­

troversy with the Theopaschites (q.v.) they opposed

the views of the papal legate, and in 534 they were

disavowed and excommunicated by Pope John II.


ACOLYTE: A member of the highest of the minor orders of the Roman Catholic Church. The order was established in the fourth or fifth decade of the third century, at the same time as the other minor orders, probably by Pope Fabian (236250), but was not known to the East. The name (from the Gk. '° a follower, attendant ") indicates that the acolyte was originally the per­sonal attendant of the bishop or of the presbyters. In this capacity he appears in Cyprian's epistles, where acolytes carry letters and fraternal gifts as

Aeolyu 26


directed by their bishop; and the same thing is

seen in Augustine's time. This close connection

with the higher clergy explains the position of the

acolytes at the head of the minor orders. In the

year the local Roman Church had not less than

fortytwo acolytes (Eusebius,

11). When the canonical age for the different

orders was fixed, acolytes were required to be under

thirty (Siricius, A.D.). In

the Middle Ages the liturgical functions of the

acolyte assumed greater prominence, including the

charge of the altarlights and the eucharistic wine.

In Rome the acolytes were divided by special assign­

ment among the various churches and

the city. Since the close of the Middle Ages, the

order has had only a nominal existence, though

the Council of Trent (Session xxiii.,

xvii.) expressed a desire to see it restored to

its former practical activity. In his investigation

of the origin of the minor orders, Harmck has

given Fabian as the founder of that of the acolytes;

but he considers that it was an imitation of the

pagan ritual system, in which special attendants

were assigned to the priests. However,

this and the other minor orders may perfectly well

have grown out of the needs of the Church without

any copying of the pagan system. H. AcHEms.

Since the Middle Ages the order has been under­

stood as conferring the right to act as official assist­

ant of the subdeacon in a solemn mass. No

canonical age is now explicitly prescribed, but

the requirement of a knowledge of Latin excludes

the very young. J. T. C.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bingham, Oriyinu, book i.; J. Mabillon,

Museum ItaEieam, ii. 84, Paris. 168789; L. A. Muratori

liturpia Romans roetus, ii. 407, Venice, 1748; A. Harnsek,

Die Quallen der aopenannten apoetoliacltsn Kirchenordnunp

ne6st einer Untsranchunp fiber die Ursprunp des Lectomta

and der anderen niadersn Weihsn, TU, ii. b (1888), 94 eqq.;

Ii. 3ohm, . 128137, Leipsic, 1892.

ACOSTA, JOSE DE: Jesuit; b. at Medina dal

Cameo m. s.s.w. of Valladolid), Spain, about

d. at Salamanca as rector of the university

Feb. 11, 1800. He joined the Jesuits as early as

he went to the West Indies and

later became second provincial of Peru. He wrote

in Keehua

and Aymara perhaps the first book printed

at Lima; a catechism in Spanish and the native

tongues (Lima,


which he afterward translated into Spanish

and incorporated in the

(Seville, Eag. transl.,

London, one of the most valuable of the

early works on America;



drid, (Salamanca,

ACOSTA, URIEL (originally Gabriel da Costa)

Jewish rationalist; b. at Oporto, Portugal,

d. at Amsterdam He belonged to a noble

family of Jewish origin but Christian confession,

and was educated as a Roman Catholic. In early

manhood he wished to return to the faith of his

to Judaism was not allowed in Portugal, he fled to Amsterdam, where he was circumcised and admitted to the synagogue. Disappointed in the teaching and practise of the Amsterdam Jews, he criticized them unsparingly; in particular he aroused their resentment by declaring that the Law made no mention of the immortality of the soul or a future life. After the publication of his they put him out of the synagogue and brought him to trial before the magistrates on a charge of atheism. He was imprisoned, fined, and his book was burned. After some years he made public recantation of his alleged errors, was scourged in the synagogue, and trampled upon at the door. According to rumor, he died by his own hand. He left an autobiography, published by Philip Limborch (Gouda, lished in Latin and German, with introduction, Leipeic,

BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Whiaton. The Uriel Acosta, an 1740; H. Jel­linek, U. Acosta's Zerbat, 1847; I. da Costa, Israel en de eolka, Haarlem, 1849, Eng. tranel., London, 1850: H. Greets, (iuclvichte der Juden, 3d ed., x. 120128, 399401.

ac'ta sent"t8'ram. I. Acts of Martyrs.

• Acts, msrtyrum since U I).

Legendary Acts (¢ 2).

Calendaria and Geata msrtyrum (¢ 3).

II. Histories of the Saints.

In the Churches of the East (¢ 1).

In the Western Church (¢ 2):

English Lives of Saints (13).

By Acts Martyrum and Acts. Senctorum are meant collections of biographies of holy persons, especially of the older Church. The former title refers par­ticularly to those who have suffered death for the faith; the latter is more general, including all " saints," i.e., Christians canonized by the Church on account of their eminently pious and pure lives.

I. Acts of Martyrs (Acts sive paasiortea mar­tyrum ; Martyrologia): The oldest authentic sources for the history of the early martyrs are the court records of the Roman empire (Ads procon­atilarie, prnsidialia)., They are not preserved in their original form, but more or less complete extracts from them constitute the kernel of the passion histories recorded by Christian hands; and they are acknowledged to be the authentic bases of these histories (cf. the works of Le Blant and Egli cited below), which, so far as they are based upon these official documents and thus demonstrate that they belong to the

:. Acts class of actc mttrtyrum sinters, are Martyrtim either written in the form of a letter Sisters. or are devotional narratives without the epistolary character (Irasaiortea, geata marEyram). The former claw includes the oldest of these histories; the chief examples are: the Pasaio Polycar~i., in a letter of the congregation of Smyrna, of which extracts are given by Euse­bius (Hint. eccl., IV. xv.). while the complete text is handed down in five Greek manuscripts; the letter of the churches of Lyons and Vienna to the Chris.


tians of Asia and Phrygia concerning their sufferings under Marcus Aurelius in 177 (Eusebius, the report of the Alexandrian bishop Dionysius to the Antiochian Fabianus on the suf­ferings of the Christians of his church during the persecutions under Decius (Eusebius, VI. xli.xlii.); and certain reports concerning NorthAfrican martyrs and confessors of the same time, in Cyprian's collection of epistles (xx., xxi., xxii., xxvii., xxxix., xl., etc.).

Passions in narrative force are more numerous. Among the oldest and historically most important are: From the second century, the (cf. Eusebius, IV. xv. 48); the of the year 180, a report of the martyrdom at Carthage of six Numidian Christians under the proconsul Vigellius Saturni­nus July 17, 180, distinguished by its strictly objective form, reproducing the official proconsular acts without Christian additions; the belonging to the time of Commodus (cf. Eusebius, V. xxi.). To the third century be­long the covering the martyrdom of certain Carthaginian Christians, belonging probably to ~Tertullian's congregation, Mar. 7, 203; the martyrdom of Pionius (cf. Euse­bius, IV. xv. 47), of Achatius, and of Conon, all three belonging to the epoch of Decius; the which record the trial and execution of Cyprian of Carthage under Valerianus, Sept. 14, 258. Finally, belonging to the beginning of the fourth century (the time of persecution under Dio­cletian and his coemperors, 303323), there are the records collected by Eusebius, which now form an appendix to book VIII. of his church history, and treat of the Palestinian martyrs of that time, as well as somewhat numerous of the period, to which must be ascribed a greater or less histor­ical value (such as the from Sebaste in Armenia, belonging to the time of Licinius, the newly discovered Greek text of which has full documentary value).

Much greater than the number of such that of the nonauthen­tic histories of martyrs which contain z. Legend little or nothing of contemporaneous

ary Acts. notices and have an essentially leg­

endary character. To these belong,

among others: two accounts of the martyrdom of

Ignatius of Antioch; the

and the

the legends of

St. Agnes, St. Cecilia, St. Catherine, St. Maurice

(qq. v.), and others.

After the cessation of persecutions the memory of the martyrs was cherished mainly by two kinds of written records: (1) i.e., lists of the names of martyrs in calendar form for the purpose of fixing their memorial days for the liturgical use of individual congregations or greater church dioceses; (2) more detailed memorial books for the purpose of private devotion and instruction, incorporating also longer passion nar­ratives, and avoiding as much as possible the

putting together of mere names in calendary statis­

tical form. Of the latter kind may have been that

copious collection of martyrological material from

all branches of the Eusebius cOm­

posed in addition to the booklet on the Palestinian

martyrs already mentioned (cf. his references to

this collection, xv. 47; V.

iv. 3; also V. xxi. 5), but which was

3. Calen lost at a very early period (cf. Greg

viii. 29). Bio­Gesta Mar graphical and other notices were

tyrum. gradually added to the names of the

martyrs in many of the

and by such inclusion of general hagiological matter

they somewhat approached the character of the

devotional readingbooks. This enrichment of the

with material not strictly martyr­

ological in its nature (i.e., additions of a nar­

rative character, not mere names) commenced in

the West. While a of the Syriac

Church from the year 412 (ed. W. Wright, 1$65)

still shows a strictly martyrological character, the

old calendar of the Roman congregation from the

year 354 (ed. Xgidius Bucher, Antwerp, 1633;

T. Mommsen, in

1850) gives, besides

the names of martyrs, those of Roman bishops

(twelve in number). The same is true of the

from the year 500,

edited by Mabillon

The of the Church of Rome men­

tioned by Gregory the Great in his epistle to Eu­

logius of Alexandria consisted of

martyrological and nonmartyrological (especially

papal) elements, and had even admitted the older

Roman festival calendar. The socalled

an enlarged revision of

this Roman calendar. In its present form it is a

compilation edited about the year 600 at Auxerre

in Gaul; but it was previously recast in upper

Italy, as is indicated in the correspondence of the

alleged author Jerome, with the bishops Chroma­

tius of Aquileia and Heliodorus of Altinum, which

stands at the beginning. It is a medley of names

of places and saints, data of martyrs, and the like,

collected from older local and provincial calendars.

The Syriac already mentioned was

used (in a somewhat erlarged form) by the com­

piler as a source of information for the East; for

North Africa a (proba­

bly from preVandalic times) was used; and for

Rome, no doubt, the Roman to

which Gregory the Great referred. Jerome proba­

bly contributed nothing to the collection (cf. the

critical edition of the work, ed. J. B. de Road and

L. Duchesne, from numerous manuscripts, in

and the criticism of B. Krusch


still later times belong

similar compilations ascribed to the Venerable

Bede, to Florus Magister of Lyons (c. 840), to the

abbot Wandelbert of Prilm (848), and others (see

below, II., 2).

II. Histories of the Saints race : From the end of the fourth century, under the influence of the dissemi

Acts Xastyrum Acton


nated at first from the Eastern but soon also from the Western monasteries, true biographies of the saints became much more numerous. The bi­ographies contained in the of Rufinus, the of Palladius, the of Theodoret, as well as in other works like the of Johannes Moschus, and the and of Gregory of Tours, furnish much more devotional matter than the histories of martyrs of former centuries. This hagiological literature, of monastic origin, had the advantage that it was not so much exposed to suspicion of falsification by heretics or the incompetent as were pro­ductions of the older passion literature (the reading of which in divine service in the Roman Church was forbidden by edict of Gelasius I. in 494). Under the influence of the new kind of biographies of monks and hermits a general hagiological ele­ment entered also to an everincreasing degree into the martyrological collections of the older type, and thus brought about their constant expansion.

In the Churches of the East, the older calendary statistical form of the compilations, confining itself to martyrological material proper

r. In the and serving only liturgical purposes,

Churches was still cultivated, especially in the of the socalled or monthly regia­East. ters, as well as in the liturgical

collections "). But besides

these arose hagiological collections of considerable

copiousness: the arranged in a calendary

form and divided according to months; and shorter,

condensed (from

gathering ") or extracts. In the Byzantine Church

the large collection of legends by Simeon Metar

phrastes (10th cent.), which is preserved in a

greatly revised and corrupt form, exercised much

influence tree SIMEON MyTAPHRABTF$). Of the

editors of the martyrologies and literature

of the Syriac Church in the earlier time, Stephan

Evodiua Asaemani (q.v.) deserves mention, more

recently Paul Bedjan

7 vols., Paris, 189097); of those of the

Russian Orthodox Church, Joseph Simonius Asse­

mani (q.v.), and in recent times J. E. Martinov

Brussels, 1863,

Oct., xi. 1385) and V. Jagic (" The Menaefl

of the Russian Church from Manuscripts of 1095­

97," St. Petersburg, 1886, Russian); of those of the

Armenian Church, the Mekhitarists (q.v.), who

published a in two volumes at Venice

in 1874; and of those of the Coptic Church, H.

Hyvernat Paris,

1886 aqq.).

In the Western Church, during the Middle Ages `,he hagiological literature, critically con­sidered, deteriorated. Ado of Vienne and Usuardus (both c. 870); the author of the 900); Wolfard of Herrieden (c. 910); later, especially Jacobus de Voragine (d. 1298), author of the socalled " Golden Legend," and Petrus ~e Natalibus (d. 1382), author of a (often reprinted since 1493), are the main representatives of the writers of this legendary literature, of whose eccentricities and extravagan

cies humanists and reformers often complain. Since tfie end of the fifteenth century efforts

have been made to publish critically

z. In the genuine and older texts. Early at­

tempts were: the of

Boninus Mombritius (Venice, 1474;

Rome, 1497); the first (and only) vol­ume of the of Jacobus Faber Stapu­lensis (1525); and the of the Carthusian Laurentlus Surius (d.1578; arranged according to the calendar; 6 vols. folio, Cologne, 1570 aqq.; 2d ed., 7 vols., 1581 eqq.). As concerns the abundance of matter and critical treatment of the documents, these. first labors of modern times are far surpassed by the gigantic hagiological work the the publication of which began at Ant­werp in 1643. It was conceived by the Jesuit Heribert Rosweyde (q.v.); and after his death (1629) was undertaken by Jan Bolland and others. From the name of the first actual editor it is gen­erally known as the or (cited in this encyclopedia as With the exception of a period somewhat leas than fifty years, consequent upon the disturbances of the French Revolution, the labor of preparation and publication has proceeded continuously to the present time, when the editors (following the calendary arrangement) are engaged upon the month of November (see BOLLAND, JAN, BoLLAND­iaTS). More or less valuable are the extracts from the $aliandist main work in collections like that of Alban Butler vols., London, 175659; see BUTLER, ALBAN), his French imitator, the Abb6 J. F. Godescard vols., Paris, 1763 aqq.), and A. Rass and N. Weiss, the German successors of both Butler and Godescard 23 vols., Mainz, 1823 aqq.); mention may also be made of a later French work by Paul Gu6rin, (7th ed., 18 vols., Paris, 1876). In lexical form the lives of the saints are treated by the Abb6 Pdtin 2 vols., Paris, 1850) and J. E. Stadler and F. J. Heim 5 vols., Augs­burg, 1858 sqq.). There are also hagiological collections devoted to the members of particular orders, of which the of J. Mabillon and others (9 vola., Paris, 1668­1701) is the most important. O. Z6C%LERt.

The bestknown work in English is that of Alban . Butler, already mentioned. It is written in a heavy eighteenth century style. Much pleasanter reading is the work of Sabine BaringGould, (15 vals., London, 187277; new illustrated ed., revised and enlarged, 16 vols., 189798). The author is a Highchurch Anglican, not untouched by the modern critical spirit. He states in his introduction that his work is not intended to supplant Butler, being prepared on somewhat different lines. Butler " confined his attention to the historical outlines of the saintly lives, and he rarely filled them in with anecdote. Yet it ie the little details of a man's life that give


it character and impress themselves on the mem­ory. People forget the age and parentage of

St. Gertrude, but they remember

3. Eng the mouse running up her staff." The style is diversified by occasionally in­of Saints. troducing translations and accounts by

other writers. The by Robert Owen (London, 1880), is a single octavo volume of 516 pages, pro­vided with critical, exegetical, and historical notes. (3 vols., London, 1901­04), by Mrs. Arthur George Bell (nt;e Nancy Meu­gens, known also by the " N. d'An­vers "), contains sketches of the lives of the saints treated, written with little discrimination as to sources and in an uncritical, credulous spirit. a series of lives, origi­nal and translated, edited by Frederick William Faber and continued by the Congregation of St. Philip Neri (42 vols., London, 184756). A second series was begun in 1873, in which the lives for the most part are translations of those drawn up for the processes of canonization or beatification. Another series, consisting of singlevolume lives of various saints, specially prepared by modern writers, is being issued in authorized English trans­lation under the editorship of Henri Joly for the original (French) volumes, and of the Rev. Father George Tyrrell, S.J., for the translations (Paris and London, 1898 sqq.).

A number of works are devoted to saints of the British Isles. As to the older works of this charac­ter BaringGould remarks (Introduction, i., pp., ed. 1897):

" With regard to England there is a Martyrology of Christ Church, Canterbury, written in the thirteenth century, and now in the British Museum; also a Martyrology written between 1220 and 1224 from the southwest of England; this also is in the British Museum. A Saxon Martyrology, incomplete, is among the Harleian MSS. in the same museum; it datep from the fourteenth century. There is a transcript among the Sloane M$8. of a Martyrology of NorthEnglish origin, but this also is incomplete. There are others, later, of less value. The most interesting is the Marhloge lyaahe after use of charche of Salisbury, printed by Wynkyn de Words in 1526, reissued by the Henry Brad­ahaw Society in 1893. To these Martyrologies must be added the John of Tynemouth, 1350; that of Capgrave, 1450, his Yoroa lependa, printed in 1516; Whitford's Martyr­ology, 1526; Wilson's Martyrologe, let ad., 1608, 2d. ed., 1640 and Bishop Challoner's Memorial of


Bishop Challoner's larger (2 parts, London, 1745) may also be mentioned. by D. C. O. Adams (2 ser., Oxford, 18971901), is a collection of brief and popular lives brought down to Queen Margaret of Scotland (d. 1093). of compiled by Richard Stanton, priest of the Oratory, London (London, 1887; Supplement, 1892), is probably the fullest list in existence of names of English and Welsh saints, with brief bio­graphical notices. It is a scholarly work based upon sources (calendars, martyrologies, legends, his­tories acts) many of which were previously in­edited. A somewhat wide interpretation is given to the terms " English "

by John O'Hanlon, is an exhaustive work, in somewhat florid style, arranged according to the calendar, one volume being devoted to each month (Dublin, 1875 sqq.). Scottish calendars have been edited, with brief biographies of the saints, by A. P. Forbes in his (Edinburgh, 1874). For Wales there is W. J. Rees's (Llandovery, 1853), Cardinal John Henry Newman's (15 vols., London, 184445, and often) is more interesting now for the history of the movement which called it forth than as a contribution to hagiology. See also the bibliography of the article CELTIC CHuRcs IN BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: For elaborate bibliographical lists of acts and lives of saints: A. Potthast, aetorua medii mva, pp. xxxiixxxv., 11311646, Berlin, 1898 (the most complete list yet made in which the editions are accu­rately given); Index volume, Hanover, 1890; T. Ruinart, Actor primorum martyrum aincera et aelecta, Paris, 1689 (latest ed., Ratisbon, 1859) ; Gross, 8489. 213222, 245249, 390400. 442, 517525; R. Knopf, Tilbingen, 1901; O. von Gebhardt, Leipsic, 1902. For history and criticism: A. Ebert, 3 vols., ib. 1874­87 (2d ed. of vol. i., 1889, perhaps the best survey of the subject); C. Jauningus, Antwerp, 1695; A. Scheler, Leipsic, 1846; J. B. Pitra, Paris, 1850; J. Carnandet and J. Fbvre, ib., 1866; Dehaienes, Douai, 1870; A. Tougard, Paris, 1874; C. de Smedt, Ghent, 1876 (contains a bibliography in pp. 111197); E. le Blant, Paris, 1880; idem, 1882; E. Egh, A Zurich, 1887; A. Ehrhard, 539592, Freiburg, 1900; Harnack, ii. 2, 463482.

Roman Catholic layman; b. in Naples, Italy, Jan. 10, 1834; d. at Tegern­see (31 m. s. of Munich) June 19, 1902. He was educated at Oscott College, Birmingham, from 1843 to 1848, then at Edinburgh, finally at the University of Munich. At Oscott the president, Nicholas Wiseman, afterward archbishop and cardinal, greatly influenced him, but at Munich the greater scholar, Dr. Dbllinger, still more. These men fostered his love of truth and passion for accurate historical knowledge. Being wonder­fillly gifted and highly trained, he set forth upon a career of learned acquisition which made him the admiration of his associates. But in his own communion he soon became unpopular because he was a pronounced liberal. He conducted the " Home and Foreign Review "from 1862 to 1864 in the interest of antiUltramontanism, and so was condemned by the hierarchy and his journal vir­tually suppressed. He then pursued the same course in the " North British Review "from 1868 to 1872. His chief object of attack was the doc­trine of papal infallibility, and he did. all he could


Adalbert of Prague


to prevent its adoption, but when it was promul­gated by the Vatican Council of 1870 he did not follow his preceptor and friend Dollinger into the ranks of the Old Catholics, but remained in the Roman obedience. He showed that he had neither altered his views nor would he give up his independ­ence when in 1874 he criticized with learning and candor the views of his patron and friend Glad­stone upon Vaticanism. From 1859 to 1864 he represented Carlow in Parliament. In 1869 Mr. Gladstone raised him to the peerage. In 1886 he founded "The English Historical Review." with Professor (afterward Bishop) Mandell Creighton as editor. In 1895 he was made regius professor of modern history at Cambridge. He planned the Cambridge Modern History series, but did not live to see any of it published.

Lord Acton possessed vast stores of accurate in­formation, but he wrote very little except review articles and booknotices. So his list of separate publications is singularly short for so great a scholar. He edited the work of Frederick the Great (London, 1863); made a great sensation by his (N6rdlingen, 1870); by his (Munich, 1871); and by his letters as correspondent of the London " Times " during the Council. His lectures, (London, 1871), and especially those masterly ones on and on (both Bridgnorth, 1877), fragments of that complete history of freedom which he dreamed he should one day write, and finally his inaugural lecture at Cambridge on (London, 1895), show his range of knowledge and love of truth. Since his death his (now Mrs. Drew), (1904), edited with a memoir by Herbert Paul, his Cambridge Lectures (1906), and (1906) have been published.

BIRLIoaaAPHT: Wm. A. Shaw's London, Royal Historical Society, 1903; edited by F. A. Gasquet, London, 1906 (178 letters, mostly on literary subjects, by Lord Acton, with introduction by Gasquet).

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. See LUKE II. For Apocryphal Books of Acts, See APOCRYPHA, B, II.

ADALBERT(ADELBERT,ALDEBERT): Frank­ish bishop; contemporary of Boniface (q.v.). He is known only from the letters of Boniface, who was his bitter opponent, and from the accounts of the proceedings instituted against him for heresy, which represent him as a dangerous misleader of the people, a skilful impostor, and arrogant block­head, who thought himself equal to the apos­tles, declared himself canonized before birth, and claimed the power of working miracles and of re­mitting sins. It is said that he pretended to have a letter from Jesus, which the archangel Michael had found in Jerusalem, and other relics brought to him by angels. He disregarded confession, not thinking it necessary for the remission of sins, and planted crosses and founded chapels on the hills

and by the streams, inducing the people to come thither for service instead of going to the churches of the apostles and martyrs. In his prayers un­known and suspicious names of angels were found. At the instigation of Boniface two Frankish synods (744 and 745) deposed Adalbert and condemned him to penance as a " servant and forerunner of Antichrist." A Roman synod confirmed his sen­tence and added excommunication. In 747 a gen­eral Frankish synod received a command from the pope to apprehend Adalbert and send him to Rome. The Pepin, burned his crosses and chapels; but the people seem to have sympa­thized with their bishop, who did not acknowledge the authority of his judges and who was not allowed to defend himself. His fate is unknown. Mainz tradition relates that he was defeated in a discus­sion with Boniface, that he was imprisoned at Fulda, and was killed by a swineherd while trying to escape. Opinions concerning him differ. Some look upon him as mentally unsound, as an impostor, or as a fanatic. Others see in him, as in his coun­tryman Clement (q.v.) among the East Franks, freedom from Rome, an opponent of the roman­izing tendencies of his time, and a victim of the ecclesiastical policy of Boniface. A. WERNER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rettberg, i. (1846) 314317, 368370; H. Hahn, 6782, Ber­lin, 1863• Boniface, in iaff4§, 1866; J. H. A. Ebrard, Die G6tersloh, Werner,

(formerly often called Albert): Archbishop of Hamburg­Bremen 1045 (1043?)1072; d. at Goslar Mar. 16, 1072. He came of a noble SaxonThuringian family, is first heard of as canon of Halberstadt, and followed the head of his chapter, Hermann, to Bremen when the latter was made archbishop, in 1032; on Hermann's death, three years later, he returned to Halberstadt and became provost there himself. Re is probably the Adalbert who early in 1045 was acting as chancellor for Henry 111. in Italian affairs. Henry nominated him to the arch­bishopric of Hamburg, probably in 1045, though some recent historians have placed the date at 1043. He soon showed that he had a lofty conception of the dignity of his office; and his ambition was supported by many advantagesa handsome and imposing presence, intellectual force, and the repu­tation of singular personal purity and moderation at a time when such qualities were rare. The reign of Henry III. was the period of his success and doinination. King and archbishop, endowed with similar gifts, were attracted to each other, and found it necessary to make common cause against the Saxon dukes of the Billung house, who had already troubled the Church of Hamburg. Adalbert's fre­quent absences from his diocese gave the Billungs opportunity to attack it; but the archbishop, often accompanied by his vassals, could not avoid spend­ing considerable time on the king's business. He accompanied Henry on his campaign of 1045, and went to Rome with him in the next year, taking part in the synods which deposed the three rival


claimants for the papal see (Benedict IX., Sylvester

III., and Gregory VI., qq.v.). Henry was minded

to make him pope, but he firmly declined, and

suggested the candidate on whom the choice finally

fell, Suidger, bishop of Bamberg (see CL.Ent­

ElaT II.).

Adalbert returned with Henry in May, 1047,

and devoted himself to diocesan affairs. In the

territories of the Abodrites (Obotrites) Gottschalk

had gained supreme power, and worked with Adal­

bert for the introduction of Christianity (see GoTT­

scaAlK, 2). Norway, Sweden, and Denmark had

all recognized the spiritual jurisdiction of Hamburg;

but an effort was now made to break away from it.

Svend Estridsen, king of Denmark after 1047,

made an alliance with' Henry through Adalbert'e

mediation, and brought forward a plan for the es­

tablishment of a separate ecclesiastical province in

Denmark, with an archbishop and seven suffragans.

Adalbert naturally could not look with complacency

on the withdrawal of so large a part of his juris­

diction, after the sacrifices which the Church of

Hamburg had made in the previous two hundred

years for the evangelization of the northern king­

doms; and he feared that Sweden and Norway

would follow. Yet he could not deny that there

was some justification for Svend's desire. The em­

peror and Pope Leo IX., who took part in the Coun­

cil of Mainz in 1049, seemed not indisposed to grant

it. Adalbert offered to consent, on condition that

he should have the rank of patriarch for the whole

north. This, he thought, would solve the difficulty;

one archbishop could not be subject to another,

but might be to a patriarch. The project grew on

him; and he planned the establishment of eleven

new German sees to serve as a basis for his dignity.

He did not contemplate any immediate rejection

of Rome's suzerainty; but it was obvious that his

plan might easily give him a position in the north

not far short of that which the pope held in the

south. Leo died in 1054, and Henry in 1056;

and further thought of so farreaching a scheme had

to be postponed.

Deprived of Henry's, support, Adalbert suffered

much at the hands of the Billung dukes. Henry's

son and successor (but five years old at his father's

death) in 1062 fell into the power of Anno, arch­

bishop of Cologne (q.v.); but the latter was soon

forced to share his power with Adalbert, and then

to see it passing more and more into his rival's

hands. Of the two, Adalbert had much the better

influence on the young king. He reached the

height of his power when he had the king pro­

claimed of age at Worms (Mar. 29, 1065), and prac­

tically held the government in his own hands.

But in Jan., 1066, the princes, with Anno at their

head, forced Henry to banish Adalbert from court;

and his remaining years were clouded by many

troubles. New assaults of the Billungs forced him

to flee frofn Hamburg. Paganism once more got

the upper hand among the Wendswho laid waste

the neighboring Christian lands'in Sweden the

Church had to fight for its very existence. He was

recalled to court in 1069, but did not succeed in

restoring the prestige of his position. He still

worked for the consolidation of the royal power in

Germany, but had to leave the Saxon problem behind him unsolved. He bore long physical sufferings with remarkable firmness, laboring to the last for the king and for his diocese. He wished to be buried at Hamburg; but the destruction of that city by the Wends prevented this; and his body was laid in the cathedral of Bremen, the re­building of which he had himself completed.


in in in in

(Czech, "Comfort of the Army"): An early German missionary, sometimes improperly called " the Apostle of the Slavs " or " of the Prussians "; b. about 950; murdered Apr. 23, 997. He was the son of a rich Czech nobleman named Slavenik, con­nected with the royal house of Saxony. He was educated at Magdeburg, but on the death of Adal­bert (981), first archbishop of that place, whose name he had taken at confirmation, he returned home and was ordained priest by Thietmar, the first bishop of Prague, whom he succeeded two years later. He received investiture at Verona from Emperor Otho II., his kinsman, and was con­secrated by Willigis, archbishop of Mainz, his metropolitan. His troubles soon began. The attempt to execute strictly what he conceived to be his episcopal duties brought him into conflict with his countrymen, who were hard to wean from their heathen customs. After five years of struggle, he left his diocese, intending to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; but after a sojourn at Monte Camino, he entered the monastery of St. Boniface at Rome, where he led a singularly devoted and ascetic life. In 992, however, he was required by the pope and his metropolitan to return to Prague. The con­flict with stubbornly persistent heathen customs­polygamy, witchcraft, slaveryproved as hard as ever, and he once more left his diocese, returning, after a missionary tour in Hungary, to the peaceful seclusion of his Roman cloister.

In 996 Willigis visited Rome and obtained fresh orders for Adelbert to return to his see, with permis­sion to go and preach to the heathen only in case his flock should absolutely refuse to receive him. He went north in company with the young emperor, Otho III., and in the next spring, through Poland, approached Bohemia. Things had grown worse than ever there: his family had fallen under sus­picion of treason through their connections with Germany and Poland; and the greater part of them had been put to death. His offer to return to Prague having been contumeliously rejected, he


felt himself free to turn to the work which he desired

among the heathen Prussians. Here he was killed

by a pagan priest before he had succeeded in accom­

plishing much. His body was brought by the Duke

of Poland and buried at Gnesen, whence it was

taken to Prague in 1039. (A. HAuCg.)'

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Canaparius, in Bruno, ib. pp. ib. ib., xv. part ib. pp. (life and miracles); H. Zeiseberg, eqq., Leipsic, Voigt, Berlin, Hauck. eqq.

Bishop of Utrecht; d. Nov. 27, 1026. He was born probably in the Low Countries; and received his education partly from Notker of Li6ge. He became a canon of Laubach, and apparently was a teacher there. The emperor Henry II., who had a great regard for him, invited him to the court, and nominated him as Bishop of Utrecht (1010), and he must be re­garded as the principal founder of the territorial possessions of the diocese, especially by the acqui­sition in 1024 and 1026 of the counties of Thrente and Teisterbant. He was obliged to defend his bishopric not only against frequent inroads by the Normans, but also against the aggressions of neigh­boring nobles. He was unsuccessful in the attempt to vindicate the possession of the district of Merwede (Mircvidu), between the mouths of the Maas and the Waal, against Dietrich III. of Holland. The imperial award required the restitution of this territory to the bishop and the destruction of a castle which Dietrich had built to control the navi­gation of the Mass; but the expedition under God­frey of Brabant which undertook to enforce this decision was defeated; and in the subsequent agree­ment the disputed land remained in Dietrich's possession. Adalbold was active in promoting the building of churches and monasteries in his diocese. His principal achievement of this kind was the completion within a few years of the great cathedral of St. Martin at Utrecht. He re­stored the monastery of Thiel, and completed that of Hohorat, begun by his predecessor Anafried. To the charge of the latter he appointed Poppo of Stablo, and thus introduced the Cluniac reform into the diocese.

Adalbold is also to be mentioned as an author. A life of Henry II., carried down to 1012,'has been ascribed to him; but the evidence in favor of at­tributing to him the extant fragment of such a life iv., 1841, 679695; cxl. 87­108) is not decisive. He wrote a mathematical treatise upon squaring the circle cxl. 1103­08), and dedicated it to Pope Sylvester II., who was himself a noted mathematician. There is also extant a philosophical exposition of a passage of Boethius (ed. W. Moll in iii., Amsterdam, 1862, pp. 198213). The discussion judicari possint (ed. M. Gerbert, in St. Blasien, 1784, pp. 303312; cxl. 1109) seems to have

(A. HAucx.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Van der As, Utrecht, Hauck,

ad'alddg: Seventh archbishop of HamburgBremen (937988); d. at Bremen Apr. 28 or 29, 988. He was of noble birth, a relation and pu­pil of Bishop Adalward of Verden and became canon of Hildesheim. Otho I. made him his chancellor and notary immediately after his accession, and on the death of Archbishop Unni of Hamburg­Bremen (936) nominated him to the vacant see. None of the early incumbents of the see ruled so long a time; and none did so much for the diocese, though his success was partly the fruit of his pred­ecessors' labors and of peculiarly favorable cir­cumstances. Under Adaldag the metropolitan see obtained its first suffragans, by the erection of the bishoprics of Ripen, Sleswick, and Aarhus; and that of Aldenburg was also placed under Ham­burg, though the Slavic territories of the present Oldenburg had formerly belonged to the diocese of Verden. He resisted successfully a renewal of the efforts of Cologne to claim jurisdiction over Bremen (see ADALGAR). He gained many privi­leges for his see, in jurisdiction, possession of land, and market rights, by his close relations with the emperors, especially Otho I. He accompanied the latter on his journey to Rome, and remained with him from 961 to 965, and is mentioned as the emperor's chief counselor at the time of his corona­tion in Rome. Otho placed the deposed pope Benedict V. in his custody. After Adaldag's return to Hamburg, he still maintained these relations, and his privileges were confirmed by Otho II. and by the regency of Otho III. The later years of his life were troubled by inroads of the Danes and Slavonians on the north, and he may have witnessed the sack of Hamburg by the latter under Mistiwoi (if its date, as Usinger and Dehio think, was 983). (CARL BERTHEAU.)

in der

Third archbishop of Ham­burgBremen (888909); d. May 9, 909. When Rimbert, who was appointed in 865 to succeed Ansgar, the first archbishop of Hamburg, stopped at the abbey of Corvey on his way to his field of labor, the abbot Adalgar gave him his brother, also named Adalgar, as a companion. The younger Adalgar was then a deacon. Toward the end of Rimbert's life he was consecrated bishop to assist the latter; and he succeeded him in the arch­bishopric (June 11, 888). During the latter half of his twenty years' rule, age and infirmity made it necessary for him also to have a coadjutor in the person of Hoger, another monk of Corvey; and later five neighboring bishops were charged to assist the archbishop in his metropolitan duties.

Adalgar lived in troublous times. Although Arnulf's victory over the Normans (891) was a relief to his diocese, and although under Louis the Child (900911) it suffered less from Hungarian


onslaughts than the districts to the south and east of it, yet the general confusion restricted Adalgar's activity, and he was able to do very little in the northern kingdoms which were supposed to be part of his mission. There were also new con­tests over the relation of Bremen to the archiepis­copal see of Cologne. Bremen had originally been under the jurisdiction of Cologne; but this relation was dissolved on the reestablishment of the arch­bishopric of Hamburg in 848; and Pope Nicholas I. had confirmed the subordination of Bremen to Hamburg in 864 (see ANSGAR; HAMBURG, ARCH­BISHOPRIC OF). In 890 Archbishop Hermann of Cologne wrote to Pope Stephen VI., demanding that the archbishop of Hamburg, as bishop of Bremen be subject to him. The course of the con­troversy is somewhat obscure; but it is known that Stephen cited both contestants to Rome, and when Adalgar alone appeared, Hermann being represented by delegates with unsatisfactory credentials, the pope referred the matter to Archbishop Fulk of Reims, to decide in a synod at Worms. In the mean time Stephen died; and his successor For­mosus placed the investigation in the hands of a synod which met at Frankfort in 892 under Hatto of Mainz. On the basis of its report, Formosus decided that Bremen should be united to Hamburg so long as the latter had no suffragan sees, but should revert to Cologne when any were erected, the archbishop of Hamburg meanwhile taking part in the provincial synods of Cologne, without thereby admitting his subordination. Little is known of Adalgar's personality. From the way in which Rimbert's biographer and Adam of Bremen speak of him, he seems to have been a man of some force, but perhaps not strong enough for the difficult times in which his activity was cast.


BIBLIOOaAPHY: in (1829)

784775, and in exxvi. 9911010; Adam of Bremen, in (1846) 287389 (issued separately, Hanover, 1846; 2d ed., 1876); Jaffd, G. Dehio, 97100, Berlin, 1877; Hauck, %D, Vol. ii.

ad'alhdrd, wd'la: Abbots of Corbie (10 m. e. of Amiens) from about 775 to 834. They were brothers, cousins of Charle­magne, pupils and friends of Alcuin and Paul the Deacon, and men of much authority and influence in both church and state. The elder, Adalhard (b. about 751; d. Jan. 2, 826), was interested in the German language and the education of the clergy, and is especially famous for the establishment of diocesan colleges and the foundation of the abbey of New Corbie (Corvey) on the Weser (see COR­VEY). He gave new laws to his monastery of Corbie cv. 535550), and defended against Pope Leo III. the resolutions de exitu Spiritus Sancti passed in the autumn of 809 by the Synod of Aachen (see FILIGQUE CONTROVERSY). When Charlemagne's son Pepin, king of Italy, died (810), Adalhard was appointed counselor of his young son Bernard in the government of Italy.

The younger brother, W ala (d. at Bobbio in Italy Sept. 12, 836), also enjoyed the

Saxony. In 812 he was sent to join Adalhard and

Bernard in Italy and work for the choice of the

lastnamed as king of the Lombards.

of Charlemagne and the accession of the incapable

Louis (814), whom the brothers had always op­

posed, they returned to Corbie, and fell into dis­

grace for having favored Bernard. They were

deprived of their estates and Adalhard was ban­

ished. After seven years, however, a reconciliation

took place between them and Louis. Wala, as suc­

cessor of Adalhard at Corbie, continued his brother's

work and gave especial care to the mission in the

north. As head of the opposition to the repeal of

the law of succession of 817 and a bold defender

of the rights of the Church, he was imprisoned by

Louis in 830, and regained his liberty only when,

in 833, Louis's eldest son, Lothair, the future em­

peror, came north with an army, accompanied by

Pope Gregory IV. Wala's counsel was gratefully

received by both Lothair and Gregory; and the

former rewarded him with the abbey of Bobbio in

northern Italy. Just before his death Wala became

reconciled with Louis, and, at the head of an em­

bassy sent to that monarch by Lothair, made peace

between father and son. A. WER14ER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Paschasiu9 Radbertus, com­plete in 1, pp. 308344; pp. 455­522; also in 15071650; extracts in (1829) 524589; F. Funk,


(4 3).

I. Doctrinal: According to the literal statement

of Genesis (v. 2), the name " Adam " (Heb. adham,

" man ") was given by God himself to the first human

being. The important place occupied by man, ac­

cording to the Biblical idea, is the

x. the appointed climax, of creation.

nature looked

man. To his creation God gave special

preted care. It was sufficient for the

to order the other creatures into be­

ing; but man was molded by the

divine fingers out of the dust of the earth. Thus fax

he belonged to' the created world; but into him

God breathed the breath of life, and thus put him

in an immeasurably higher place; for the posses­

sion of this breath made him the " image " of God.

What this " image " was is the Bible

(Gen. i. 26, ii. 7); it was likeness to God in the gov­

ernment of the creatures and in the possession of


the same spirit (see IMAGE OF GOD). God, the ab­solute personality, reflects himself in man and, there­fore, the latter becomes the lord of creation. Adam was the representative of the racehumanity in person. Opposite to the species and genera of beasts stood the single man. He was not a male, still less a manwoman; he was man. Out of him, as the progenitor of the race, Eve was taken.

But man's true position can not be comprehended until he is considered in relation to Christ, the second man, as is most clearly expressed in Rom. v. 12 sqq.; I Cor. xv. 2122, 4549. By Adam's fall, sin and death entered into the world, and con­demnation has come upon all through him; but from the second Adam has come just the opposite

righteousness, justification, and life. Those who by sin are united to the first Adam reap all the consequences of such a union; similarly do those who by faith are united to the second Adam. Each is a representative head.

Materialism sees in man a mere product of nature. It is difficult to see how it makes place for selfconsciousness. The unity of the race is also given up; and so logically Darwinism leads to belief in a plurality of race origins. Theology,

on the other hand, holds fast to the s. The Posi personality of man, but has, from the

tion of beginning of the science, wavered in

Adam to regard to the position occupied by

the Race. Adam toward the race. The oldest

Greek Fathers are silent upon this point. Irenteus is the first to touch it; and he main­tains that the first sin was the sin of the race, since Adam was its head (111. xxiii. 3; V. xii. 3; cf. R. Seeberg, i., Leipsic, 1895, p. 82). Origen, on the other hand, holds that man sinned because he had abused his liberty when in a pre­existent state. In Adam seminally were the bodies of all his descendants cf. C. F. A. Kahnis, ii., Leipsic,1864, pp. 107 sqq.). Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyasa, and Chrysos­tom derive sin from the fall. Tertullian, Cyprian, Hilary, Ambrose, and Augustine represent the Biblical standpoint. Pelagius saw in Adam only a bad example, which his descendants followed. SemiPelagianiam similarly regarded the first sin merely as opening the floodgates to iniquity; but upon this point Augustinianism since it was formulated has dominated the Churchin Adam the race sinned. (CARL vON BUCHRUCBERt.)

The prominent orthodox views are: (1) The Augustinian, known as realism, which is that human nature in its entirety was in Adam when he sinned, that his sin was the act of human nature,

and that in this sin human nature fell; 3. The that is, lost its freedom to the good,

Orthodox becoming wholly sinful and producing

Views. sinners. " We sinned in that man

when we were that man." This is

the view of Anselm, Peter Lombard, Thomas

Aquinas, and Luther. (2) The federal theory of

the Dutch divines Cocceiua and Witsius is that

Adam became the representative of mankind

and that the probation of the human race ended

once for all in his trial and fall in the garden

of Eden. Accordingly the guilt of Adam's sin

was imputed to his posterity. This is the theory of Turretin and the Princeton theologians. (3) The theory of mediate imputation (Placmus) is that the sin of Adam is imputed to his descendants not directly, but on account of their depravity derived from him and their consent to his. sin. (See IMPUTATION; SIN.)

According to the evolutionary view of man's origin, which is not necessarily materialistic, Adam may be designated as the first individual or indi­viduals in the upward process of de­4. The Evo velopment in whom selfconsciousness

lutionary appeared or who attained such sta

Views. bility of life that henceforth humanity

was able to survive the shock of death.

By some, the first man is conceived of as a special

instance of creative wisdom and power; by others,

as the natural result of the evolutionary process.

Whether the human race sprang from one individual

or from several is, for lack of evidence, left an open

question. In this position the unity of the race

is in no wise compromised, since this is grounded

not in derivation from a sipgle pair but in identity

of constitution and ideal ethical and spiritual aim.

This view of the first man brings into prominence

the dignity of human nature and its kinship with

the divine, yet at the same time profoundly modifies

the traditional doctrine of original sin. In the

disproportion between the inherited instincts,

appetites, and desires of the animal nature and

the weak and struggling impulses of the moral

consciousness there arises an inevitable conflict

in which the higher is temporarily worsted and

the sense of sin emerges. By virtue of heredity

and the organic and social unity of the race, all

the descendants of the earliest man are involved

with him in the common struggle, the defeat, and

the victory of the moral and spiritual life. This

conflict is a sign that man is not simply a fallen

being, but is in process of ascent. The first man,

although of the earth, is a silent prophecy of the

second man, the Lord from heaven.


II. Historical: The sources of knowledge of Adam are exclusively Biblical and, indeed, wholly of the Old Testament, since the New Testament adds nothing concerning his personality and his doings to what is recorded of him in the Book of Genesis. The main inquiry, therefore, must be as to the place occupied by Adam I. The Use in the Old Testament. Here several of "Adam" striking facts confront us: (1) There

as a is no allusion to Adam direct or ia­Proper direct after the early genealogies.

Name. In Deut. xxxii. 8 and Job xxviii. 28

the Hebrew adham (adam) means

" mankind." In Hos. vi. 7 the reading should be

" Admah " (a placename). The latest references

(apart from the excerpt in I Chron. i. 1) are Gen.

iv. 25 (Sethite line of J) and Gen. v. 1, 3 (Sethite

line of P). (2) Outside of the genealogies there is

no clear instance of the use of the word as a proper

name. The definite article, omitted in the Mas­

oretic text, should be restored in Gen. iii. 17, 21

(J) in harmony with the usage of the whole context,

which reads " the man " instead of " Adam."


Eve (Gen. iii. 20; iv. 1) is the first proper name of our Bible. (3) Whatever may have been the origin of the proper name " Adam," its use here seems to be derived from and based upon the original generic sense. Even in the genealogies the two significations are interchanges. Thus while Gen. v. 1 substitutes "Adam" for °°the man" of i. 27, chap. v. 2 continues: " Male and female created he called name Adam." It is a fair inference that the genealogies are in part at least responsible for the individual and personal usage of the name. When it is considered that all Semitic history began with genealogies, of which the standing designation in the early summaries is " generations " (Heb. the general motive of such a transference of ideas is obvious. The process was easy and natural because in the ancient type of society a community is thought of as a unit, is a proper name without the article, and is designated by a single not a plural form. The first community having been " man " (" the adam "), its head and representative was naturally spoken of as " Man " (" Adam ") when there was need of referring to him. On the etymological side a partial illustration is afforded by the French (Lat. and the German which express individualization anonymously.

The secondary character of the notion of an

individual Adam is also made probable by the fact

that the genealogical system of P is artificial and

of foreign origin or at least of foreign

s. Foreign suggestion. The whole scheme of the

Influence ten generations of Gen. v. is modeled in P. upon and in part borrowed from the Babylonian tradition of the first ten kings of Babylon. Of these lists of ten there are five names in either list which show striking corre­spondences with five in the other, ending with the tenth, which in either case is the name of the hero of the flood story. These Babylonian kings also were demigods, having lives of immense duration, two of them, moreover (the seventh and the tenth), having, like Enoch and Noah, special commu­nications with divinity.

In brief, as regards P, the matter stands as

follows:His first theme was the process and

plan of creation according to an ascending scale

of being. At the head of creation

g. The Aim were put the first human beings, and Plan "man" or mankind (Gen. i. 26). of P. The second leading thought in P's " generations of the heavens and the earth " was the continuance of the race or the peopling of the earth. Expression was given to it by the statement that " the man " was created " male and female " (i. 27). The third stage in the narrative is reached when the descent of Abraham from the first man is established, in order to pro­vide a necessary and appropriate pedigree for the house of Israel. At the head of this line was placed the individual " Man " or " Adam."

Turning now to the story of Paradise and the Fall, which, as has been seen, speaks of the first man only as " the man " and not as " Adam," the main motive of Gen. ii. iv. is to account for certain characteristics and habits of mankind,

above all to set forth the origin, nature, and consequences of sin as disobedience to and alien­ation froth Yahweh. Man is presented

4. The first as a single individual; next as

Narrative being mated with a woman, with and of J. for whom he has a divinely constituted affinity; then as the head of the race upon which he brings the curse due to his own disobedience. At first sight this might seem to imply a preconception of the individuality and personality of the first man, who may as well as not have borne the name " Adam," which J him­self gives him in the fragmentary genealogy of Gen. iv. 2526. But the inference is not justified. The pictures drawn by J and the conceptions they embody are not spontaneous effusions. They are the result of careful selection and of long and pro­found reflection, and when the problems which J sets out to solve and the incidents which convey and embody the solution be considered, it must be concluded that the answers to the questions could have been arrived at only through the study of man, not in individuals but as a social being. In other words, this "prophetic" interpreter worked his way backward through history or tra­dition along certain wellknown lines of general human experience, and at the heart of the story appears not a single but a composite figure, not an individual but a type, while the story itself is not history or biography but in part mythical and in part allegorical. Thus the unhistorical char­acter of Adam is even more demonstrable from the narrative of J than from that of P.

Some of the primitive mythical material in

Genesis has analogies in other literatures. Not

to mention the more remote Avesta, attention must

again be called to some of the Babylonian parallels.

It is now indisputable that Eden is a Babylonian

name; that the whole scenery of the region is

Babylonian; that the tree of life, the cherubim,

and the serpent, the enemy of the gods and men,

are all Babylonian. There is also the Babylonian

story of how the first man came to forfeit immor­

tality. Adapa, the human son of the good god

Ea, had offended Anu, the god of heaven (see

BABYLONIA, VIL, 3, 1 3), and was summoned to

heaven to answer for his offense.

Before his journey thither he was

le19 in warned by his divine father to refuse

Other the " food of death " and " water

Liters of death" which Anu would offer to

him. At the trial, Anu, who had been

moved by the intercession of two

lesser gods, offered him instead "food of life"

and " water of life." These he refused, and thus

missed the immortality intended for him; for Anu

when placated had wished to place him among the

gods. Some such story as this by a process of

reduction along monotheistic lines may have 00n­

tributed its part to the framework of the narrative

of the rejection of Adam. It is indeed possible

that Adam and Adapa are ultimately the


An important element in the whole case is the general character of the literary material of which the story of Adam forms a portion. Apart from


the conceptions proper to the religion of Israel, which give them their distinctive moral value, the events and incidents related 6. The belong generically to the mythical Literary stories of the beginnings of the earth

Material and man, been related Mythical among many ancient and modern in Char peoples, and specifically to the cycle

acter. of myths and legends which reached

their fullest literary development

in Babylonia, and which undoubtedly were orig­

inally the outgrowth of a polytheistic theory of

the origin of the universe. Much weight must also

be attached to the fact that the story of Adam

is practically isolated in the Old Testament, above

all to the consideration that prophecy and psalmody,

which build so much upon actual history, ignore it


The New Testament references show that Jesus and Paul used the earliest stories of Genesis for didactic purposes. The remark is 7. New often made in explanation that their Testament age was not a critical one and that Refer the sacred authors did not in their

ences. own minds question the current belief

in the accuracy of the oldest docu­

ments. This is probably true, at any rate of Paul

(cf. especially I Cor. xi. 89; I Tim. ii. 1314). His

view of the relation between the first and second

Adam (I Cor. xv. 22, 45; Rom. v. 12 sqq.) is the

development of an idea of rabbinical theology,

and has a curious primitive analogy in the relation

between Merodach, the divine son of the good god

Ea, and Adapa, the human son of Ea (cf. Luke iii.

38). Jesus himself does not make any direct ref­

erence to Adam in his recorded sayings.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: I.§§1,2: Joe. Butler,SermonsonHumanNa­ture, in vol. ii. of his Works, Oxford, 1844; S. Baird, The First Adam and the Second, Philadelphia, 1860; J. Mauer, Christliche Lehre con der Sands, Breslau, 1867, Eng. transl., Doctrine of Ssn, Edinburgh, 1868; Chas. Hodge, Systematic Theology, ii., ch. v., vii., viii., New York, 1872; R. W. Lan­dis,OriginalSinandImputation,Richmond,1884; W. G. T. Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, ii. 1257, iii. 249377, New York, 1888 (vol. iii. gives catena of citations from early Christian times to the middle of the eighteenth century); H. B. Smith, System of Christian Theology, pp. 273301, ib. 1890; W. N. Clarke, Outline Christian Theology, pp. 182198, 227259, ib. 1898; R. V. Foster, Systematic Theology, pp. 348355, 363381, Nashville, 1898; A. H. Strong, Systematic Theology, pp. 234260, 261272, New York, 1902.

I. § 3: H. B. Smith, System o/ Christian Theology, New York, 1886; G. P. Fisher, Discussions in History and Theology, pp. 355409, ib. 1880; cf. Calvin, Institutes, book ii., ch. I., §§ 68.

I. § 4: H. Drummond, The Ascent Man, New York, 1894; J. Le Conte, Evolution and its Relation to Religious Thought, ib. 1894; J. Fiske. The Destiny Man Viewed in the Light of his Origin, Boston, 1895; idem, Through Nature to God, ib. 1899; J. M. Tyler, The Whence and the Whither of Man, ib. 1896; C. R. Darwin, The Descent of Man, pp 174180, New York, 1896; J. Deniker, The Races of Man, London, 1900.

II. §§ 17: M. Jastrow. Religion of Babylonia and As­syria, pp. 511, 544 eqq., Boston, 1898; idem, in DB, sup­plement vol., pp. 573574; H. Gunkel, Schopfung and Chaos, pp. 420 sqq., GSttingen, 1895; idem, Genesis, pp. 5 eqq., 33, 98 eqq., ib. 1902; Schrader, KAY, pp. 397, 520 eqq.


Author of the a history of the archbishops of HamburgBremen extending down to the death of Adalbert (1072). The work itself tells of its author only that his name began with " A," that he came to Bremen in 1068 and ultimately became a canon there, and that he wrote the book between the death of Adalbert and that of King Svend Estridsen of Denmark (107276). But there is no doubt that this is the work referred to by Helmold and assigned to a in which case the author must be the who wrote and was one of the signatories to an extant document of Jan. 11, 1069, and also the same whose death on Oct. 12, year not given, is recorded in a Bremen register.

It may be conjectured from scanty indications

that Adam was born in upper Saxony and educated

at Magdeburg. His education was in any case a

thorough one for his time. His book is one of the

best historical works of the Middle Ages. Not only

is it the principal source for the early history of

the its northern missions, but it

gives many valuable data both for Germany and

other countries. The author was unusually well pro­

vided with documents and with the qualities nec­

essary for their use. His general credibility and

love of truth have never been seriously challenged;

and his impartiality is shown by the way in which

he records the weaknesses of Adalbert, with whom

he was in close relations and whom he admired.

The best edition of Adam's book is by J. M. Lappen­

berg, in (1846) 267389 (issued

separately, Hanover, 1846; 2d ed., with full intro­

duction and notes, 1876); the work is also in

cxlvi. 451620. There is a German translation by

J. C. M. Laurent (2d ed., revised by W. Wattenbach,

Leipsic, 1888). (CARL BERTHEAU.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. H. a Seelen, in his Liibeek, L. Giesebrecht, Schubert, iii. KSnigs­berg, Giesebreeht, Brunswick, G. Dehio, Berlin, W. Wattenbach,

mel'kf8r: Protestant bi­ographer; b. at Grottkau (35 m. s.e. of Breslau), Silesia; d. at Heidelberg, where he was rector of the city school, Mar. 23, 1622. He is remembered for his series of 136 biographies, mostly of Ger­man Protestant scholars, especially theologians (5 vols., Heidelberg and Frankfort, 161520; 2d ed., under the title Dignorum laude virorum immortali­tas, 1653; 3d ed., 1706).

ADAM OF SAINT VICTOR: One of the most important of the liturgical poets of the Middle Ages; his nationality is described by the Latin word Brito (" Breton "7), and he was canon of St. Victor of Paris in the second half of the twelfth century. From his sequence upon Thomas Becket of Canter­bury it is inferred that he survived the latter's canonization (1174). His poems do not include all of his writings, but are the most important. From the ninth century it was customary to set words (called proea and sequentia) to the melodies


with which the Hallelujah of the gradual in the mass closed (see SEQUENCE). In the twelfth century a more artificial style of com­position, according to strict rules, took the place of the freer rhythms of the earlier time, and for this period of sequence composition Adam has an im­portance comparable to that of Notker (q.v.) for the former period. He shows a real talent in his mastery of form; and his best pieces contain true poetry, although as concerns power to excite the emotions and the higher flights of the poetic fancy, his compositions are not equal to a or Sion. S. M. DEwrsea.

BiBLIOanAPH7: L. Gautier, 2 vols., Paris, 1858 (complete and critical ed., with life in vol. i.; 3d ed., 1894). reprinted in 14211534 (Eng. tranal. by D. 8. Wranghem, 3 vole., London, 1881); K. Bartsch, 170 eqq.. Rostock, 1868; xv. 3945; E. Misset, Paris, 1882.


called also mysticascetic

author of the twelfth century. According to his

biographer, the Premonstrant Godefroi Ghiselbert

of the seventeenth century, he was of northEnglish

origin, belonged to the was

abbot at Whithorn (Casa Candida) in Galloway

toward 1180, and about the same time also lived

temporarily at Pr6montrk, the French parent

monastery of tjle order. He seems to have died

soon after. It is highly improbable that he was

living in the thirteenth century, as Ghiselbert

thinks, who identifies him with the English bishop

of the Order of St. Norbert mentioned by Csesarius

of Heisterbach iii. 22). The first

incomplete edition of Adam's works was published

by Xgidius Gourmont (Paris, 1518). It

his three principal writings of mysticmonastic

content: (1)

fourteen sermons; (2)

The edition of Petrus Bellerus (Antwerp,

1659) contains also Ghiselbert's life and a collection

of fortyseven sermons on the festivals of the church

year, which seem to have belonged to a larger

collection of 100 sermons comprising the whole

church year. In 1721 Bernhard Pez

aqq.) published

which has been ascribed to Adam of St. Victor,

but belongs probably to Adam the Scotchman.

All of these works with Ghiselbert's life are in

cxeviii. 9872. O. ZOCSLERt.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Godefroi Ghiselbert, in excviii.; C. Oudin, ii. 1544 sqq., Frankfort, 1722 ; A. Mirsrue, in M. Kuen, vi. 36, 38, Ulm, 1768; G. Mao­kensie, 141145, Edinburgh, 1708.

ADAMITES (ADAMIANI): 1. Epiphanius Iii.) gives an account of a sect of " Adamiani," that held their religious assemblies in subterranean chambers, both men and women appearing in a state of nature to imitate Adam and Eve, and call­ing their meetings paradise. Since Epiphanius

knew of them only from hearsay, and is himself

doubtful whether to make of them a special class

of heretics, their existence must be regarded as

questionable. There are further unverifiable no­

tices in John of Damascus i. 88; following

the attributed to Epiphanius),

in Augustine lxxxi.), and in

i. 6). G. KROGER.

2. Charges of community of women, ritual childmurder, and were brought by the heathen world against the early Christians, and by the latter against various sects of their own number Priscillianists, etc.). Similar accusations were made against almost all medieval sects, notably the Cathari, the Waldensians, the Italian Fraticelli, the heretical flagellants of Thuringia in 1454, and the Brethren of the Free Spirit. All of these allegations are to be regarded with much suspicion. The doctrine of a sinless state, taught by the Brethren of the Free Spirit, and, in other cases, extravagant acts of overwrought mystics may have furnished a basis, which, without doubt, was often elaborated from the accounts of " Adamites " mentioned above.

3. The name " Adamites " has become the per­manent designation of a sect of Bohemian Tabor­ites, who, in Mar., 1421, established themselves on an island in the Luschnitz, near Neuhaus, and are said to have indulged in predatory forays upon the neighborhood, and to have committed wild excesses in nocturnal dances. They were sup­pressed by Ziska and Ulrich von Neuhaus in Oct., 1421. It is probable that they were merely a faction of the Taborites who carried to an extreme their belief in the necessity of a complete separation from the Church and resorted to violence to spread their principles. The charges against their moral character are in the highest degree suspicious. Even in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries certain religious sectaries were persecuted in Bo­hemia as " Adamites."

4. An Anabaptist sect in the Netherlands about 1580 received the name " Adamites " because they required candidates for admission to appear un­clothed before the congregation and thus show that physical desire had no power over them. Mem­bers of an Amsterdam congregation who in 1535 ran through the streets naked and crying wo to the godless were probably insane. The followers of Adam Pastor (q.v.) were called " Adamites " from their leader. Silly stories of orgies by so­called devilworshipers (the " black mass ") are sometimes heard at the present time.


(1) 1. de Beaueobre, ur

in J. Lenfant, Histowe guerre

Hussius, ii. 355358, Amsterdam. 1731; C. W. F.

Welch, voltatandigen Historic der Ketaweien,

i. 327335, Leipsic. 1762. (2) J. Nider, Formicarius, 111.

vi., Cologne, 1470; C. Schmidt, Hietotre st

seete des Cathares, ii. 150 aqq., Paris, 1849; W. Preger,

Gesehichte der ystik, i. 207 eqq., 461 aqq., Leip­

eic. 1874; A. Jundt, Histoire du pandEieme populawe, pp.

4849. 56, 111 eqq., Paris, 1875; H. Haupt, in ZKO. vi.

(1885) 552 sqq.; H. C. Lea, History of the .

100 sqq., New York, 1888; K. Miller,

f. 610, Freiburg, 1892. (3) J. Dobroweky, der

PLkarden and Abhandlungen der


b6hmisehen Gesellachaft der Wiasansehaften von 1788, pp. 300343; K. H6fler, Gesckiehtachresber der huaaitiachen Bmspunp in Behmen, i. 452, 499 aqq. (Fontes remm Aus­hiacarum, 1. ii., Vienna, 1856), ii. 336, 345 (ib. I. vi., 1865); F. Palacky, Geschiehte von BBhmen, iii. 2, 227 sqq., 238 sqq., Prague, 1851, iv. 1 (1857), 462; A. Gindely, Geschichta der b6hmischen Britder, i. 18, 36, 56­67, 9798, Prague, 1856; Besusobre, ut sup.; J. Goll, Quellen and Untersuchunpen sur Geschichte der bbhmischen Bradar, i.119, Prague, 1878; ii. (1882) 10 aqq.; H. Haupt, Waldenserthum and Inquisition im afadostliehen Deutach­land, pp. 23, 109, note 1, Freiburg, 1890. (4) Prateolus, Ds vitis haretieoram, 1, Cologne, 1569; C. Sehliisselburg, Catalogue hweticoram, xu. 29, Frankfort, 1599; F. Nip­pold in ZHT, xxxiii. (1863) 102; C. A. Cornelius, in Ab­Aandlunpen of the Royal Bavarian Academy, Historischs doses, xi. 2, 67 sqq., Munich, 1872; Natalis Alexander, Hist. aeel., xvii. 183, Paris, 1699; J. Bois, Le Satanisms et to mapis, ib. 1895.

("Little Adam"): Ninth abbot of Iona (679704); b. probably at Drumhome in the southwest part of County Donegal, Ireland (50 m. s.w. of Londonderry), c. 625; d. on the island of Iona Sept. 23, 704. He was a relative of Columba and the greatest of the abbots of Iona after its illustrious founder, famed alike for learning (he had some knowledge of even Greek and Hebrew), piety, and practical wisdom. He was a friend (and perhaps the teacher) of Aldfrid, king of North­umbria (685705), visited his court in 686 and again in 688, and was converted there to the Ro­man tonsure and Easter computation by Ceolfrid of Jarrow. He was unable, however, to win over his monks of Iona, but had more success in Ireland, where he spent considerable tine, attended several synods, and warmly advocated the Roman usages. Many churches and wells are dedicated to him in Ireland and Scotland, and his name appears cor­rupted into various forms, as " Ownan," " Eunan " (the patron of Raphoe), " Dewnan," " Thewnan," and the like.

The extant writings of Adamman are: (1) Arculfi

written down from informa­

tion furnished personally by Arculf, a Gallic bishop

who was driven to England by stress of weather

when returning from a visit to Palestine, Syria,

Alexandria, and Constantinople. Adamnan added

notes from other sources known to him, and pre­

sented the book to King Aldfrid. Bede made it

the basis of his and gives extracts

from it in the 16, lrT. (2)

Columbo, written between 692 and 697, not so much

a life as a presentation without order of the saint's

prophecies, miracles, and visions, but important

for the information it gives of the customs, the land,

the Irish and Scotch tongues, and the history of

the time. (3) The "Vision of Adamnan," in old

Irish, describing Adamnan's journey through

heaven and hell, is probably later than his time,

but may present his read spiritual experiences and

his teaching. Other works are ascribed to him

without good reason. H. HAHN.

For works consult Arculfi relatio, in Itinera Hierosolymitana bdfis sac­ris anteriora, i., pp. xxx: xxxiii., 139210, 238240, 392­418 (Publications the Soei4m de rorisnt latin, Sie $6o­praphique, i., Geneva, 1879), and in Itinera Hierosolymitana smculi iiii.ariii., ed. P. Geyer, pp. 219297 1898); Eng. trawl. by J. 11. Mamhereon (Palestine Pil­grim)' Text Society, 1889); Vita S. Columba, ed. W. Reeves, Dublin, 1857 (new ed., with Eng. trawl. and an unfortunate rearrangement of the notes, by W. F. Skene,

Edinburgh, 1874); also by J. T. Fowler, Oxford, 1894 (Eng. trawl., 1895); the text of the Vision, with Eng. trawl., has been published by Whitley Stokes, Fie Adam­nain, Simla, 1870; E. Windiseh, Irische Tezte, pp. 165­196, Leipsic. 1880 (contains the text). For Adamnan's life: Lanigan, Eccl. Hist., passim; Reeves= in his ed. of the Vita Columba, pp. xl.lxviii., Dublin, 1857; A. P. Forbes, Kalendars Scottish Saints, Edinburgh, 1872; DCB, i. 4143; W. F. Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii. 170175, Edinburgh, 1877; DNB, i. 9293; J. Healy, Insula Sanctorum, pp. 334347, Dublin, 1890; P. Geyer, Adam­nan, Augsburg, 1895; T. Olden, Church Ireland, pp. 59, 77, 104, 119, London, 1895; Cain Adamnan, an old Irish Treatise on the Law Adamnain, ed. Kuno Meyer, ecdota Ozoniensa, Oxford, 1905.

Congregation­alist; b. at Castine, Me., July 7, 1824; d. at Au­burndale, Mass., Jan. 11, 1906. He was educated at Bowdoin College (B.A., 1844), Bangor Theological Seminary (184446), the universities of Leipsic, Halle, and Berlin (184719), and Andover Theo­logical Seminary (184950). He held successive pastorates at Conway, Mass. (185163); Ports­mouth, N. H. (186371); and Holliston, Mass. (187389), and also acted as supply at Mentham, Mass. (189091), and Waban, Mass. (1905), although after 1889 he was engaged chiefly in literary work. In his theological position he was a Trinitarian Congregationalist. He was historian of the New England HistoricGenealogical Society and a mem­ber of its Council, a member of the Board of Over­seers of Bowdoin College, the treasurer of the Trustees of Donations for Education in Liberia and of the Mount Coffee Association for the pro­motion of education in Liberia, and in 1903 was made Knight Commander of the Liberian Humane Order of African Redemption. In addition to a number of briefer studies and occasional addresses, he revised the of James Comper Gray (8 vols., New York and London, 187181) under the title of (5 vols., Cleveland, O., 1903).

ADAMS, JAMES ALONZO: Congregationalist; b. at Ashland, O., May 21, 1842. He was educated at Knox College (A.B., 1867) and Union Theological Seminary (1870), after having served in the Civil war as a member of Company D, 69th Illinois Volunteers. He was pastor of the Congregational Church at Marshfield, Mo., in 187071; of the Plymouth Congregational Church, St. Louis, in 188086; of the Millard Avenue Congregational Church, Chicago, in 188788; and of the Warren Avenue Congregational Church in the same city in 188995. In 1891 he was a delegate from the Congregational churches of Illinois to the Inter­national Congregational Council in London, and has also been their representative at a number of national councils. He was professor in Straight University, New Orleans, 187377, and president in 187577, and then became editor of the Dallas, Tex. From 1887 to 1903 he was editorial writer on the Chicago Ad­beconung its editorinchief in the latter year. His principal works are (Chicago, 1896) and toria (1901).

ADAMS, JOHN COLEMAN: Universalist; b. at Maiden, Mass., Oct. 25, 1849. He was educated


Adam son

at the high schools of Providence, R. I., and Lowell,

Mass., and at Tufts College (A.B., 1870) and Divin­

ity School (B.D., 1872). He has held pastorates

at the Newton Universalist Church, Newton, Mass.

(187280); First Universalist Church, Lynn, Mass.

(188084); St. Paul's Universalist Church, Chicago,

Ill. (188490); All Souls' Universalist Church,

Brooklyn, N. Y. (18901901); and Church of the

Redeemer, Hartford, Conn., from 1901 to the

present time. He has been a trustee of Tufts

College since 1880 and of the Universalist General

Convention since 1895. In his theological position

he is a pronounced Universalist. His works in­

clude (Boston, 1888);



(New York, 1899); and



Unitarian; b. at Harlow (25 m. n.e. of London),

Essex, Feb. 22, 1805; d. in London Aug. 14, 1848.

Her father was Benjamin Flower (17551829),

printer, editor, and political writer, and, Sept. 24,

1834, she married William Bridges Adams (1797­

1872), an inventor and engineer of distinction, also

a writer on political subjects. She was a highly

gifted woman, much esteemed by a circle of friends

which included, among others, W. J. Linton,

Harriet Martineau, Leigh Hunt, and Robert Brown­

ing. Inherited deafness and a weak constitution

prevented her from following the stage as a profes­

sion, which she had chosen in the belief that " the

drama is an epitome of the mind and manners of

mankind, and wise men in all ages have agreed to

make it, what in truth it ought to be, a supplement

to the pulpit." She wrote poems on social and

political subjects, chiefly for the AntiCornLaw

League; contributed poems and articles to the

during the years 183253,

when it was conducted by her pastor W. J. Fox

(q.v.), and published a long poem,

in the in 1845. In

book form she published

(London, 1841; reprinted with her

hymns and a memoir by Mrs. E. F. BridellFox,

1893), and (1845), a cat­

echism. In addition, she furnished fourteen original

hymns and two translations to

(1840), a collection for Fox's chapel at Fins­

bury, including her bestknown production,

f Her sister, Eliza Flower (1803­

c~ 46), possessed much musical talent and furnished

( the original music for this hymn as well as for others

b in the book.

rI BIBLI0oaApuy: $. W. Duffield,

h New York,


a Chicago, 1901.

e' English preacher and com­

h mentator of the seventeenth century, called by

li Southey " the prose Shakespeare of Puritan theo­

logians . • . scarcely inferior to Fuller in wit or

fn to Taylor in fancy." Little is known of his life

PC beyond what may be gathered from the titlepages

ca and dedications of his books. He was preaching

re in Bedfordshire in 1612; in 1614 became vicar of


I _, ,~ a ,

L. .,~t : , _. . ..

Wingrave, Bucks; from 1618 to 1623 preached in London; he was chaplain to Sir Henry Montagu, lord chief justice of England, in 1653 was a " neces­sitous and decrepit " old man, and died probably before the Restoration. He published many oc­casional sermons (collected into a folio volume, London, 1630),besides a commentary on the Second Epistle of Peter (1633; ed. J. Sherman, 1839). His works, ed. Thomas Smith, with life by Joseph Angus, were published in Nichol's (3 voLs., Edinburgh, 186263).

American Presbyterian; b. at Colchester, Conn., Jan. 25, 1807; d. at Orange Mountain, N. J., Aug. 31, 1880. He was graduated at Yale (1827) and at Andover Theological Semi­nary (1830); was pastor at Brighton, Mass. (1831­34); of the Broome Street (Central) Presbyterian Church, New York (183453); and of the Madison Square Presbyterian Church, formed from the Broome Street Church (185373). From 1873 till his death he was president and professor of sacred rhetoric and pastoral theology in Union Theological Seminary. He was one of the leading clergymen in New York in his time, and his influ­ence was not bounded by his own denomination or land. Besides many individual sermons he pub­lished an edition of Isaac Taylor's with a biographical introduction (New York, 1862); (1856); World (1867);

Protestant Epis­copal bishop of Easton (Md.); b. at Enniskillen m. s. w. of Belfast), County Fermanagh, Ireland, Jan. He came to America at the age of eight, was educated at the University of the South, and was admitted to the Mis­sissippi bar in but subsequently studied theology, and was ordained deacon in and priest in the following year. He was rector of St. Paul's Church, Woodville, Mass., from to when he was called to the rectorate of St. Peter's, New Orleans, but went in the following year to St. Paul's in the same city, where he re­mained until In that year he was conse­crated first missionary bishop of New Mexico and Arizona, but was compelled by illness to resign. He then accepted the rectorate of Holy Trinity Church, Vicksburg, Miss., where he remained from to when he was consecrated bishop of Easton.

Scotch prelate; b. in Perth Mar. (according to another account, d. at St. Andrews Feb. He was educated at the University of St. Andrews; preached for two or three years in Scotland; was in France as private tutor at tIta time of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew; returned to Scotland and to the ministry ; and was made archbishop of St. Andrews in Thenceforth his life was a continual struggle with the Presbyterian party, and he died in poverty. His enemies have assailed his charac­ter, but all agree that he was a scholar and an able preacher and writer. He composed a Latin cate


chism the young King James, translated the Book of Job into Latin hexameters, and wrote a tragedy on the subject of Herod. His collected works were published by his soninlaw, Thomas Wilson (London, 1619), who also added a life to an edition of his treatise munere, pub­lished separately the same year.

Evangelical Union; b. at New Galloway (20 m. w. of Dumfries), Kirk­cudbrightshire, Aug. 29, 1830. He was educated at Glasgow and St. Andrews Universities and at Evangelical Union Theological Hall. He was pastor in Perth eleven years and in Edinburgh twenty­seven years, and also conducted a public theological class in the latter city for eighteen years. He was for several years a member of the Edinburgh School Board, and took an active interest in politics and movements for reform. He is now pastor of the Carver Memorial Church, Windermere, Westmore­landshire. His writings include (London, 1870); (1880); (1885); (1886);

(Glasgow, 1891); (1896); (London, 1897); (1898); (1900); and (1902). He is also the editor of

Methodist Episcopalian; b. at Hampton, Ill., Sept. 9, 1854. He was educated at the Central Wesleyan College, War­renton, Mo., and at the Garrett Bible Institute, Evanston, Ill. (187677). He taught in the pre­paratory department of the Central Wesleyan Col­lege in 187576, and in 187778 preached at Gene_ seo, Ill., being ordained to the Methodist Episcopal ministry in the latter year. From 1878 to 1885 he taught the German language and literature in Iowa Wesleyan University and German College, Mount Pleasant, Ia., and from 1885 to 1890 held a pastorate at Pekin, Ill. In 1890 he returned to the Central Wesleyan College as professor of practical theology and philosophy, and since 1895 has been president and professor of philosophy of the same institution. In 1900 he was a delegate to the Gen­eral Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was a member of the University Senate of the same denomination from 1896 to 1904.

Church of Eng­land; b. at Edinburgh May 9, 1844. He was educated at Glasgow University and Balliol College, Oxford (B.A., 1866). Originally a member of the Church of England, he became a convert to the Roman Catholic Church in 1866, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1872 at the London Oratory, being parish priest of Sydenham from 1878 to 1888. In the latter year he renounced this faith and be­came minister of the Australian Church, Melbourne, Australia, an undenominational institution, where he remained until 1892, when he took a similar position at the High Pavement Chapel, Nottingham (189398). In 1899 he was appointed Old Testament lecturer at Manchester College, Oxford, and shortly afterward returned to the Church of England.

His college accordingly attempted to expel him and to declare itself officially nonconformist, but the movement was proved illegal, and he still retains his position, although the hostile attitude of the trustees of Manchester College prevents him from resuming his work as a priest of the Church of England. He has written (London, 1883; in collaboration with Thomas Arnold); (1893); vols., 189398); and (1906).

ADDISON, DANIEL DULANY: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Wheeling, W. Va., Mar. 11, 1863. He received his education at Union Col­lege and the Episcopal Theological School, Cam­bridge, Mass. (1886). He was curate of Christ Church, Springfield, Mass., in 188689 and rector of St. Peter's Church, Beverly, Mass., in 188995, while since 1895 he has been rector of All Saints' Church, Brookline, Mass. He is examining chap­lain to the bishop of Massachusetts, director of the Church Temperance Society, member of the execu­tive committee of the archdeaconry of Boston, president of the New England Home for DeafMutes and the Brookline Education Society, vicepresi­dent of the Trustees of Donations for Education in Liberia, and a trustee of the College of Monrovia, Liberia, and of the Brookline public library. In 1904 he was made Knight Commander of the Li­berian Humane Order of African Redemption. He has written: (Boston, 1894); (1894); (1897); (Cam­bridge, 1896); (New York, 1900); and (1904).


: Bishop of Brescia in the eleventh century. The time and place of his birth are un­known, and the date of his death, as well as that of his consecration as bishop, is uncertain. G ams Regensburg, 1872, p. 779) assigns the latter two events to 1053 and 1048, respectively. Adelmann himself states that he was not a German; he has been commonly taken for a Frenchman, but may have been a Lombard. The first certain fact of his life is that, together with 8erengar of Tours, he studied under Fulbert at Chartres. Afterward he studied, and later taught (probably from 1042), in the school of Lidge, then at Speyer. The works which have made him known are: (1) a collection of devoted to the praise of Fulbert and his school, and (2) a letter to Berengar on his eucharistic teaching; the letter was written before Berengar's first condemnation, but after his de­parture from the traditional doctrine was noto­rious (both works in cxliii. 128998). The letter is not so much an independent investigation as a solemn warning to his friend against the danger of falling into heresy. Adehnann treats the sub­ject from the purely traditional standpoint, and considers it settled by the words of institution.


The change (he uses the words of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ takes place invisibly in order to afford an opportunity for the exercise of faith; such occurrences, accordingly, can not be investigated by reason, but must be believed.



ADELOPHAGI, ad"elef'ajai or gf (" Not Eating in Public "): Certain people, mentioned in as thinking it unseemly for a Christian to eat while another looked on. They are also referred to by Augustine who copies Philastrius and is uncertain whether their scruple included members of their own sect or applied only to others. Further state­ments in are to be accepted with ex

treme caution. G. KRtGER.

ADENEY, WALTER FREDERIC: Congrega­tionalist; b. at Ealing m. w. Of London), Mid­dlesex, Eng., Mar. 14, He received his edu­cation at New College and University College, London. He was minister of the Congregational Church at Acton, London, from to and from to the same year was lecturer in Biblical and systematic theology at New College, London. In he was appointed professor of New Testa­ment exegesis and church history in the same institution, holding this position until as well as a lectureship on church history in Hackney College, London, after In he was chosen principal of Lancastershire College, in the Univer­sity of Manchester, and two years later was ap­pointed lecturer on the history of doctrine in the same university. As a theologian, he accepts the results of Biblical criticism which he feels to be warranted, and welcomes scientific and philosophic investigation and criticism of religion, although he seeks to adhere firmly to basal Christian truths and to harmonize them with what he holds to be other ascertained verities. His works include, in addition to numerous articles in magazines and Hastings's as well as in nine volumes of the Pulpit (London, two volumes in the the first on Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther; and the second on Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon); the section on the New Testament in the written by him in collaboration with W. H. Bennett and A He is likewise editor of to which he himself has contributed the volumes on Luke (London, and the Epistles to the Thessalonians.

ADEODATUS, ad"f"a'tvs: Bishop of Rome from Apr. 11, to his death, June pontificate was unimportant. The calis (ed. Duchesne, i. ascribes to him the restoration of the basilica of St. Peter at Campo di Merlo, near La Magliana m. from Rome),

and the enlargement of the monastery of St. Eras­mus in Rome, where he had been a monk. The only documents of his extant are concessions of privileges to the churches of St. Peter at Canterbury and St. Martin at Tours. For his participation in the Monotbelite contro­versy, see MONOTHELITE9. He is sometimes known as Adeodatus B., because the form " Adeodatus " is used also for the name of a former pope Deusdedit


Classical Greek Usage (§ 1). Christ's Usage (¢ Paul's Usage (¢ Patristic and Medieval Usage (4 4). Luther's Usage (§ First Adiaphoristic Controversy (¢ 6). Flacius's Restriction of Adisphora (§ 7). Second Controversy (¢ 8). Recent Discussion (¢

In the history of Christian ethics the term "adi­aphora " (pl. of Gk., adiaphoron, " indifferent ") signifies actions which God neither bids nor forbids, the performance or omission of which is accordingly left as a matter of indifference. The term was employed by the Cynics, and borrowed by the

Stoics. To the latter that only was

i. Clas good or evil which was always so and

sical Greek which man could control. Such mat­Usage. ters as health, riches, etc., and their

opposites were classed as adiaphora, being regarded for this purpose, not as actions, but as things or conditions. Adiaphora were divided into absolute and relative; the former being such as had to do with meaningless distinctions, while the latter involved preference, as in the case of sickness versus health. The Stoics did not, however, from the adiaphoristic nature of external things deduce that of the actions connected there­with.

Jesus's ideal of righteousness as devotion of the entire person to God revealed as perfect moral character, signified, on the one side, freedom from every obligation to a statutory law, particularly precepts concerning worship. He regarded the observance of external rites as a matter of indif­ference so far as real personal purity was concerned, and, with his disciples observed the Jewish rites

as a means to the fulfilment of his

a. Christ's mission to Israel when they did not Usage. interfere with doing good (Mark iii. 4).

Yet this ideal involved such a sharpen­ing of moral obligation that in the presence of its unqualified earnestness and comprehensive scope there was no room for the question, so important to legalistic Judaism, how much one might do or leave undone without transgressing the Law. The slightest act, like the individual word, had the high­est ethical significance to the extent that it was an expression of the " abundance of the heart " (Matt. xii. 2537).

Paul emphasizes, on the one hand, the compre­hensive character of Christian ethics and, on the other, the freedom which is the Christian's; and he concludes that the observance or disregard of dicta pertaining to external things is a matter of



indifference in its bearing on the kingdom of God (Rom. xiv. 17; I Cor. vi. 12, viii. 8; Gal. v. 6; Col. ii. 20). He recognizes, with the exception of the Lord's Supper, no forms for Chris

tian worship, but merely counsels that " all things be done decently and in order " (I Cor. xiv. 40). From the

fact that the Christian belongs to God, the Lord of the world, Paul deduces the authority (Gk. of Christians over all things (I Cor. iii. 2123), espe­cially the right freely to make use of the free gifts of God (I Cor. x. 23, 26; Rom. xiv.14, 20). Ability to return thanks for them is made the subjective criterion of their purity (Rom. xiv. 6; I Cor. x. 30). Those things also are permissible which are left free by implication in the ordinances of the Church, or are expressly allowed. But action in the domain of the permissible is restricted for the individual by ethical principles according to which he must be bound (Rom. xiv. 2 aqq.; I Cor. vi. 12, viii. 9, x. 23). Concrete action in all such cases he re­gards as not at the pleasure of the individual, but as bidden or forbidden for the sake of God.

In place of this view of freedom, combining obli­gation with unconstraint, there soon arose one of a more legal cast. At the time of Tertullian there was in connection with concrete questions a conflict between the two principles (1) that what is not expressly permitted by Scripture is forbidden; and (2) that what is not expressly forbidden is permitted. The restriction of the idea of duty by that of the permissible, and the recognition of an adiaphoristic sphere were further confirmed by the distinction between and and by the doctrine of supererogatory merits. The question of adi­aphora was argued by the achoolmen. Thomas Aquinas and his followers held that

4. Patris there were certain actions which, so

tic and far as being intrinsically capable of

Medieval subserving a good or an ill purpose,

Usage. were matters of indifference; but they

recognized no act proceeding from

conscious consideration which was not either dis­

posed toward a fitting end or not so disposed, and

hence good or bad. Duns Scotus and his adherents

recognized actions indifferent in i.e., those

not to be deemed wrong though without reference,

actual or virtual, to God. The early Church at

first appropriated the Cynic and Stoic opposition

to culture, holding that it interfered with the con­

templation of God and divine things. But with

large heathen accessions, this attitude was no longer

maintained. The primitive Christian ideal was,

to be sure, preserved; but its complete fulfilment

was required of only those bound thereto by the

nature of their calling.

Luther based his position on that of Paul. He appears, indeed, to determine the idea of adiaphora (the expression does not occur in his works) accord­ing to a legalizing criterion when he distinguishes between things or works which are clearly bidden or forbidden by God in the New Testament and those which are left freeto neglect which is no wrong; to observe, no piety. But he further says in the same connection that under the rule of faith the conscience is free, and Christians are

superior to all things, particularly externals and

precepts in connection therewith. In accordance

with this view he considers that an

g. Luther's external form of divine worship is

Usage. nowhere enjoined (the Lord's Supper is

a not an o f fieium); and he

distinguishes between the necessary and the free

in churchly forms by their effects. Prayer, the

Lord's Supper, and preaching are necessary to

edification; but the time, place, and mode have no

part in edification, and are free. His standpoint,

then, was not simply that there were certain things

left free, but that the assertion of freedom (or adi­

aphorism) applied to the whole realm of externals.

I In individual cases, however, a limitation was im­posed by ethical aims and rules. Christians were to take part in the external worship of God to fulfil the duty of public confession and that they might " communicate " (Heb. xiii. l6). Ceremonial forms served to perpetuate certain effective modes of observance; but they were not to be idolatrous, superstitious, or pompous. Luther, in opposition to Carlstadt, urged that in the forms of worship for the sake of avoiding offense to some, whatever was not positively objectionable should be suffered to remain. He was ready to concede the episcopal form of church government and other matters, if urged not as necessary to salvation, but as conducive to order and peace. He wished, also, to maintain Christian freedom against stubborn adherents of the Law.

The churchly adiaphora formed the subject of the first adiaphoristic controversy. The Witten­berg theologians believed that the

6. First concessions on the basis of which

Adiapho the Leipsic interim was concluded ristic Con could be justified by the principles

troversy. enunciated and exemplified at the

outset of the Reformation. They

held that, despite formal modifications, they

had surrendered only traditional points of church

government and worship, and even then only

such as were unopposed by Scripture, had

bin so recognized in the primitive Church, and

had seemed to themselves excellent arrangements,

conducive to order and discipline. Further, they

maintained that every idolatrous usage had been

discountenanced, and that from what was retained

idolatrous significance had been excluded. It

may be mentioned, by way of example, that the

Latin liturgy of the mesa was admitted, with lights,

canonicals, etc., though with communion and some

German hymns; also confirmation, Corpus Christi

day, extreme unction, fasting, and the jurisdiction

of bishops.

Before the interim had been authentically pub­lished there arose a controversy in which the attack was led by Flacius. In his he raised the question by not only maintaining that preaching, baptism, the Lord's Supper, and absolution had been commanded by God, but even by concluding from I Cor. xiv. 40 that the ceremonial usages connected therewith had been divinely ordained in He also sought to limit the Lutheran indifference to detail by insisting on what he deemed seriousness and


dignity in the liturgy, as opposed to the canonicals, music, and spectacles of the Catholic Church. In addition he protested that what might be called the individual character of the Church q. Flacius's was to be conserved, and that existing Restriction means of edification should be altered of Adi only in favor of better ones. Under aphora. the circumstances obtaining at the time, he said, even a matter in itself unessential ^,ould not be treated as permissible, and the concessions of the interim were an act of treach­ery: they were occasioned by the endeavors of the emperor to restore the Catholic Church, the pro­mulgators being moved by fear, or at best by lack of faith; and in effect they were an admission of past errors, strengthening their opponents, while the rank and file, looking at externals only, would see in the restoration of discarded usages a rever­sion to the old conditions. The dispute continued of ter the peace of Augsburg; and the Formula only drew the distinction (art. X.) that in time of persecution, when confession was necessary, there should be no concession to the enemies of the Gospel, even in adiaphora, since truth and Christian freedom were at stake, but to some extent appropriated Flacius's restriction of the idea of adiaphora.

In the socalled second adiaphoristic controversy the Lutheran and Calvinistic systems came into conflict. Luther had maintained the right of temperate enjoyment of secular amusements. Cal­vin, on the other hand, stood for fundamentally different principles, in accordance with which he enforced his Genevan code of discipline. Voetius carried these principles still further. On the Lu­theran side was Meisner, who is in this respect the classic opponent of the Calvinists. He puts secu­lar amusements under the head of adiaphora as being actions neither right nor wrong but aliud,the person and the purpose especially to be considered,and in concrete instances becoming always either right or wrong. The controversy began at the close of the seventeenth century, when secular amusements were attacked by several writers, such as Reiser and Winkler, the Pietistic theologians of Hamburg, Vockerodt, Lange, and Zierold. Lange, for example, contended that in the light of revealed law there

Second are no indifferent acts. Those actions Contro alone are right which are under the versy. influence of the Holy Spirit for the honor of God in the faith and name of Christ; and he holds that the divine will exercises a direct and immediate control. Hence actions not bidden of God are necessarily actions which profit not and are therefore collectively wrong. He enumerates nineteen separate reasons why Christians should take no past in secular amuse­ments and would exclude from the Lord's Supper those who do. He regards the defense of adiaphora as a heresy which abrogates all evangelical doc­trine. Spener's theory was equally severe, but his practise was wisely modified. He counseled that those who participated in secular amusements should be dissuaded therefrom not harshly, but by indirect exhortations to follow Christ; and he

would not refuse absolution to such, since many of them did not really appreciate the wrong of those things. Rothe, Warnsdorf, and Schelwig were the principal champions of the previously existing Lutheran teaching; but their defense was far less resolute than the attack.

The question of adiaphora has subsequently been a subject of discussion. The first to intro­duce a new point of view of any con

9. Recent siderable value was Schleiermacher Discussion. ed.; who contested the ethical right of adiaphora on the basis of the necessity in the moral life of unity and stability. Only in the realm of civil law, and in the moral judgment of others whose actions must frequently, for lack of evidence, remain unexplained, does he admit of adiaphora. Most later evangelical authorities, for example Martensen, Pfieiderer, Wuttke, and, most closely, Rothe, are in substantial agreement with this position, though introducing some variations and modifications.

(J. GorrscmcK.)

Among British and American Christians no adi­aphoristic controversy has found place; but the types of religious and ethical thought that underlay the opposing forces in the controversies above con­sidered have been in conflict at all times and every­where. English Puritanism and early Scottish Presbyterianism, as well as New England Puritan­ism, either rejected adiaphora wholly or reduced them to the smallest proportions. The English Tractarians in seeking to overcome the diffi­culties involved in uniting with the Church of Rome gave earnest attention to adiaphora. A sign of the times is the watchword of the Evan­gelical Alliance, " In essentials, unity; in non­essentials, liberty; in all things, charity." The Lambeth articles proposing the Nicene and Apos­tles' Creeds, the two sacraments, the open Bible, and the historic episcopate as the basis of union with nonconforming Churches treated as adiaph­ora the Athanasian Creed, uniformity of worship, and use of the Prayer Book. The Protestant 'Episcopal Church in America has settled the chief point in dispute between Churchman and Puritan by eliminating the State from necessary union with the Church. In the union of religious bodies both in Great Britain and America, for which there is a growing tendency, minor differences are ig­nored in favor of essential principles. In all Churches some dogmas once deemed essential to the integrity of truth are laid aside never to regain their former position (cf. the Westminster Con­fession with the " Brief Statement of Faith" published by authority of the Presbyterian Church in the United States). With reference to conduct prescribed by ecclesiastical bodies or recognized as belonging to personal responsibilitythe " per­sonal instance "two diametrically opposite ten­dencies are evident. In the first case, the spirit of democracy and of enlightened public sentiment is rapidly withdrawing many actions once regarded as legitimately under church jurisdiction, as amusements and the like, from such supervision. In the second case, if life is to be ruled by moral

maxims, many actions must be left morally inde­

terminate, yet when every deed is seen to be not

atomistic but an integral part of selfrealization,

then all actions take their organic place in the

serious or happy fulfilment of life's aim. In both

instances alike, however, the moral adiaphora

disappear. C. A. B.

BIHr.IOQRAPHY: For the ethical and theological treatment

of Adiaphora consult in general: the treatises on ethics,

casuistry, dogmatics, and the history of philosophy. Sp;­

cial treatment will be found in C. O. E. Schmid,

Leipsio, 1809;

J. Schiller, Berlin, 1888; J.

H. Blunt, Phila­

delphia, 1874; 223232. On the Adiaphorietic

Controversy consult: Schmid,

Jens, 1807; J. L. v. Moeheim, ed.

W. Stubbs, ii. 574578, London, 1883; 232235,

789; iv. 1528; v. 789; xii. 1588, 1719.

ADLER, CYRUS: American Jewish scholar;

b. at Van Buren, Ark., Sept. 13, 1863. He was

educated at the Philadelphia High School, the

University of Pennsylvania (B.A., 1883) and Johns

Hopkins (Ph.D., 1887). He was fellow in Sem­

itics at Johns Hopkins in 188587, and was appointed

instructor in the same subject in 1887, and asso­

ciate professor five years later. In 1887 he was

also made assistant curator of Oriental antiquities

in the United States Museum, Washington, and

custodian of the section of historic religious cere­

monials in 1889. In 1905 he was appointed as­

sistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

He was virtually the founder of the American

Jewish Historical Society in 1892 and has been its

president since 1898, and was likewise one of the

reorganizers (1902) of the Jewish Theological Sem­

inary of America (New York City), of which he

is a life trustee, besides serving as president

in 190205. He has edited the

since 1899, has been a member of

the editorial staff of the in

which he had charge of the departments of post­

Biblical antiquities and the history of the Jews in

America, and has published, in collaboration with

Allan Ramsay, (New York,


ADLER, FELIX: Founder of the Society for

Ethical Culture; b. at Alzey (20 m. s.w. of Mainz)

Aug. 13, 1851. He came to America in 1857, when

his father was called to the rabbinate of Temple

EmanuEl, New York City, and was educated at

Columbia College (A.B., 1870), the Hochschule

fiir die Wissenschaft des Judenthums at Berlin

and the university of the same city, and the Univer­

sity of Heidelberg (Ph.D., 1873). From 1874 to

1876 he was professor of Hebrew and Oriental

literature at Cornell, but in the latter year went to

New York and established the Society for Ethical

Culture, a nonreligious association for the ethical

improvement of its members, of which he has since

been the head. He has been active in various

philanthropic enterprises and in popular education,

being a member of the State Tenement Committee

in 1884 and of the Committee of Fifteen in 1901,

and in 1902 was appointed professor of political

and social ethics at Columbia University. He is a

member of the editorial board of the

(New York, 1877); of

(1898); (1903);

(1905); (1905), and


ADLER, HERMANN NATHAN: Chief rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Empire; b. at Hanover, Germany, May 30, 1839. He was educated at the University College School and University College, London (B.A., 1859), and also at the universities of Prague and Leipsic (Ph.D., Leipsic, 1861). He received the rabbinical diploma at Prague in 1862, and in the following year was appointed principal of Jews' College, Lon­don. In 1864 he became minister of the Bayswater Synagogue, London, but continued to be tutor in theology in Jews' College until 1879, when he was appointed delegate chief rabbi to relieve his father, Nathan Marcus Adler, whom age had ren­dered unable to perform all the duties of chief rabbi. On the death of his father, Adler was chosen his successor as chief rabbi in 1891, and at the same time was elected president of Jews' College, where he had already been chairman of the council since 1887. He is also president of Aria College and the London vicepresident of the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and the Mansion House Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Poor, governor of University College, and a member of the committee of the King Edward Hospital Fund and the Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund. He has likewise been president of the Jewish Historical Society, vice­president of the Jewish Religious Educational Board and the AngloJewish Association, and represen­tative of the RussoJewish Committee at Berlin (1889) and Paris (1890). In addition to numerous briefer contributions, he has written (London, 1865) and (1869).

English chief rabbi; b. at Hanover, Germany, Jan. 15, 1803; d. at Brighton (501 m. a. of London), Sussex, England, Jan. 21, 1890. He was educated at the univer­sities of GSttingen, Erlangen (Ph.D., 1826), Wilrz­burg, and Heidelberg, and in 1830 was appointed chief rabbi of Oldenburg. Before a year had passed he was made chief rabbi of the kingdom of Han­over, and in 1845 he was installed in the far more important post of chief rabbi of the British Empire. In 1845 he received the assistance of a deputy delegate chief rabbi, but retained his own position until his death. Active both in philanthropic and educational measures, he was the founder of Jews' College, London, in 1855, besides being the real originator of the Hospital Sabbath among his coreligionists. He was the author of many works in English, German, and Hebrew, including (Hanover, 1838); (London, 1867); and (com­mentary on the Taagum of Onkelos, Wilna, 1875).

ADO, a" d8': Archbishop of Vienne 860875;

b. near Sens about 800; d. at Vienne Dec. 16, 875.

He was considered one of the principal upholders


of the papal hierarchy, and wrote a (best ed. by D. Giorgi, 2 vols., Rome, 1745), which surpasses all its predecessors in richness of material, and a (Paris, 1512; Rome, 1745 et al.; extracts in 1829, pp. 315323) from the creation of the world to 874. His works are in 1452.



Old Testament Conception The Apologists (§ 5).

(¢ 1). Augustine Q 6).

The Conception of Jesus (§ 2). Scholasticism (5 7).

Paul's Conception (¢ 3). Luther (1 8).

The Gospel and Epistles of Later German Theology (4 9).

John (§ 4). Two Views Held at Present

(g 10).

Adoption is a term of theology denoting the new relation to God which Jesus experienced and into which he brings his followers. In tracing the his­tory of this conception, attention is to be paid to the different senses in which the analogy is used in religion, the idea of homogeneousness with God, of the relation to him, and the divine basis of both.

In the Old Testament, the people, the king,

and individual pious men and women are called

children of God. The people become children

of God by their introduction into the promised

land, the king by his election, individual persons by

their physical creation. It is only with regard to

the heavenly spirits that the state of being a child

of God expresses

i. Old homogeneousness of being. The rela

Testament tion is one in which God helps, par

Con dons, educates, even through suffering,

ception. and in which men have to obey God and

trust in him. But the obedience of chil­

dren is not different from that of servants, and their

trust is paralyzed by God's inexplicable disposition

to wrath. In later Judaism the relation became

one of right,the pious man must secure his reward,

which is a matter of natural desire, by his own

merits and sacrifices, and he always wavers between

selfrighteous security and anxiety.

Jesus as seen in the synoptic Gospels, knows God as the lofty lord to whom men are subjected in service, and as the just judge; but by inner ex­periences he recognizes this God as his father who discloses to him his love, and he encourages men to believe not that they God's children, but that they such by conducting themselves and feeling as children. The innovation lies in the quality of the relation. In spite of God's physical and spiritual superiority, man is free from the feeling of oppression and insecurity, in the first place, before the demanding will of God. Through the recognition of God as Father, Jesus

s. The knows himself urged to the service of

Concep saving love, renouncing every worldly

but this service means

freedom and blessedness (Matt. xi.

2830), because he feels it as the ful­

filment of his own desire (Matt. ix. 3638), and even

as a gain in greatness and power (Matt. xx. 2528),

because in it he is raised above the Mosaic law (Matt.

v. 22). In the same way he delivers these whom he encourages to believe in God's fatherly love and forgiveness, from the oppression of the law by showing them as its innermost core (Matt. v. 9, 48) the imitation of the example of the perfect God in a love which surpasses all bounds of human love. From this conception of the divine law all hedonistic elements have been removed; it expresses a rev­erent and cheerful devotion to an ideal. Where Jesus also uses God's retribution as an ethical motive and thus seems to substitute a relation of right for the relation of adoption, he deepens and purifies the traditional view. Reward goes hand in hand with conduct; a childlike disposition is rewarded with the dignity due to God's children (Matt. v. 9) and with physical homogeneousness (Luke vii. 36); justice is rewarded with justice (Matt. v. 6; vi. 33). He promises the kingdom (Matt. x. 1316) to the unassuming childlike dis­position, and promises reward, not to individual performance, but to the spirit which reveals itself in it (Matt. vii. 15, xxv. 23), excludes the equiva­lence between work and reward (Matt. xx. 116), and appeals to fear not as dread of physical evil, but as anxiety lest the life with God (Matt. x. 18) be lost. In the second place, the trust in God's fatherly guidance which Jesus himself proves and encourages, is of a singular surety and joyfulness. Whoever through fear of God is kept in his way, may be certain of the acquisition of salvation (Luke x. 20) and may hope not only to gain eternal life (Luke xii. 32), but already here on earth he knows himself to be lifted above all oppression of the world since he may be sure that his prayers are granted (Matt. vii. 7) and may expect from God his daaily bread and know himself protected by God in every way (Matt. x. 2831) and may venture even that which seems impossible (Mark xi. 22) and be sure of the forgiveness of his sins and of his protection in temptation (Matt. vi. 12, 13) and triumph over all hostile powers (Luke x. 19).

In opposition to philosophy, this idea is new in so far as God in the current systems of philos­ophy was represented as father only as the shaper of the world, and the capacity of becoming a child of God was merely a general function of reason. The religious importance of the ideal is here only secondary; it originates rather in per­sonal dignity and is an altruism which does not ex­tend to the love of enemies. As faith in a fatherly providence, it believes only in an order of the world which offers an opportunity to prove one's strength of will, and thus does not attain submission as expressed in Christian adoption, but only resig­nation.

Jesus speaks of adoption only in the imperative, we must children of God by imitation of God and trust in God; but he admonishes to be­come such by pointing to God's disposition and promise. His word teceives additional emphasis from his personality which lives in God; and he judges the conduct of God's child in the last analysis as an effect of God (Matt. xi. 28, xv. 3; Mark x. 27). Therefore it is the natural expression of the ex­perience of the Christian Church when in the New Testament the awakening of the child's


effect of divine grace is considered fundamental (II Cor. v. 17; I Pet. i. 3, 23; John iii. 5).

This effect, according to Paul, is juridical, i.e.,

a real adoption, a granting of the right of children

(Gal. iii. 2627), synonymous with justification; but

it is also a real change through the overwhelming

influence of the Holy Spirit as an unconscious power

like the impersonal powers of nature (Rom. viii. 11;

Gal. v. 22). Paul bases the certainty of the right of

children upon the fact that through faith and baptism

believers belong to Christ, but also upon the ex­

perience of the liberating effect of the

3. Paul's spirit. The right of children means

Concep for him the claim upon the future tion. heritage of the kingdom of God; namely, the participation in God's fatherhood (Rom. iv. 3) and the spiritualization of the body in conforming it to the body of Christ, the first of the sons of God (Rom. viii. 2930). These figures express the idea that the prevening grace of God establishes a personal relation of love which has an analogy in the intimate communion between father and child. As I am certain that God is on my side and that I am called to eternal life, I may surely trust that he will grant me everything (Rom. viii. 3132), not only eternal life, but also everything in the world which is not against God (I Cor. iii. 2122) and that he will lead me through all temptations to that sanctity which belongs to the kingdom of God (I Theaa. v. 23). The faith which corresponds on our part to God's intention of love remains secure even against troubles and hos­tile world powers because the latter can not separate from the love of God (Rom. viii. 3839) and the former must subserve the upbuilding of the inner man (II Cor. iv. 1618). Thus the essential feature of this childlife is not fear, as under the Law and its curse, but rather unshakable joy which ex­presses itself in giving thanks as the keynote of prayer. The unconscious impulse which the ethical life of the Christian assumes if he puts the impulse of the spirit in place of the Law, he modifies by bringing to expression also conscious ethical motives; namely, the love of God as experienced by him, and his call to the kingdom of God, which demand a conduct worthy of both. Even an overpowerful desire of his nature he begins to. transform into an impulse for consciousness if he guides it into the channel of experienced love (II Cor. v.15; Gal. ii. 20). But in all joy,. happiness, and freedom with relation to God, the Christian is prevented from excesses by that humility which in all progress and success gives due honor to God (I Cor. xv. 10). It seems a contradiction when Paul in spite of all speaks of a retribution on the part of God according to works and awakens fear of the judgment. The seeming relation of right is only an expression for the fact that the relation of father and children, although resting upon God's free love, is mutual. The re­ward is a success of mutual effort (Gal. vi. 7, 8). It is attained, not by a sum of individual works, but by a sanctified personality (These. v. 23) which is absorbed in a uniform activity of life (II Cor. v. 10; I Cor. iii. 13). The fear of which Paul speaks is the fear of watchfulness which takes possession of us in looking at the world and the flesh, but this

_~. r^ :_ . :.=::,M ,

disagreeable feeling is immediately conquered by the joyful trust that God will protect and perfect us (I Cor. xv. 2; Rom. xi. 2021).

The Gospel and Epistles of John trace adoption back to the testimony of God (Gospel iii. 5; First Epistle ii. 19). According to them, adoption con­sists in a close and intimate life in and with God by which there is vouchsafed, on the one hand, the impossibility of sinning and the selfevidence of justice and love to God and our brethren, and, on the other hand, the victory over the world and blessing and the future homogeneousness with God (I John iv. 3; v. 4; 18). However natural all this may sourni, these expressions are only figures for an ethicopersonal communion with God, analogous to that between father and child which has its basis in the influence of Christ upon our consciousness, not in a reflected, but spontaneous

4. The way. The knowledge of God or the Gospel and word of Christ (I John ii. 3; Gospel

Epistles xv. 3) is parallel to the seed of God

which remains in the regenerated per­

son and guarantees his sanctity (I John

iii. 9). Unity of life with God is an analogon for

that unity which on earth exists between the Father

and Jesus (John xvii. 2122), where the Father in

preceding love discloses to his Son his whole work

and the Son remains in the love of the Father

(John xv. 10) by speaking and acting according to

the commandment of the Father and being solely

concerned with his Father's honor (John v. 44) and

yet enjoying full satisfactipn, eternal life (John iv.

34, xii. 50),,and at the same time fully trusting that

the Father is with him and always hears him and

in spite of the world brings his work to perfection

which through death leads to glory (John viii. 29,

xvi. 32, xvii. 4). Correspondingly there follows for

his disciples from the certainty of the love of God

the duty to love one another and to show the self­

evident love of children by keeping the command­

ments (I John iv. 11, v. 3) which are freedom and

life because the disciples are not slaves, but friends

of the son of God (John xv. 15) and continuators

of his work (John xviii. 18). In this tendency of

life they may possess joyfulness (I John ii. 28, iv. 17,

18) in a world full of temptations and enemies and

in face of death and judgment and may count upon

the return of their love on the part of God through

the gift of the spirit and the help of God which is

always near, upon the forgiveness of accidental

sins, purification, hearing of their prayers, and a

place in the heavenly mansion of the Father (John

xiv. 2, 3; xiii. 2122; xv. 2; xvii. 17; I John i. 9).

According to Jesus, Paul, and John, the child of God is independent of men and yet he must seek communion with men. Jesus teaches to pray " Our Father "; and according to Paul and John, the spirit communicates with the individual through baptism and makes him a member of the com­munity.

The Church has not always maintained this ideal. When its growth necessitated a stricter inculcation of the ethical conditions of salvation, the relation of children was changed under the influence of the Jewish idea of retaliation, of philosophical moralism, and the ideas of Roman law. According to the apolo


getic writers, to be a child of God means subjectively the ethical resemblance with God which man realizes in himself by his free action on the basis of the knowl­edge of God as taught by Christ. Since ethics was absorbed in individual practise of virtue and con­sciousness of moral freedom, the desire for a coun­terbalance against the moral checks from the world was not felt so much. Irenacus follows Paul by conceiving adoption as the specific effect of redemp­tion; but he understands it, in the

5. The first place, in a moralistic sense, as a

Apologists. call to the fulfilment of the deepened

law of nature, not only in increased

love, but fear; in the second place, in a physical

sense, as the sacramental elevation of the spirit to

deification or imperishableness. This combination

remains a characteristic feature of the Greek Church.

Augustine deepened the physical change into an

ethical change which governs ethical actions.

Because God's nature is first of all justice, and only

secondarily immortal, adoption, as being deifica­

tion, is in the first place justification, infusion of

love by loving God

we are made gods"; again" he who justifies

also deifies, because by justifying he makes sons of

God "), which takes place under the influence of

faith, i. e., hopeful prayer, or through baptism.

Thus man faces the

Do your part, and become spirit ").

Adoption becomes a reality in a process in which

the capacity for it increases by continual forgive­

ness and inspiration of love until after death the

second adoption occurs, the liberation from the

body which contains the law of sin.

6. Augus Our life is a relation between child tine. and father in so far as love to God, childlike fear, and hope rule in it. But the idea of the New Testament is curtailed in so far as forgiveness concerns always only past sins, and hope is bound to rely upon one's own consciousness of love to God and upon merit, and forgiveness becomes uncertain in consequence of predestination, and in so far as, with the task to serve God in the world, the New Testament manner of trusting in God is also done away with, and a holy indifference takes its place. The relation of God seems to be intensified in so far as there is added as a new element the highest stage of divine love­the mystical contemplation of God; but the appar­ent plus discloses itself as a minus, since love to God is now conceived of by analogy with that between man and woman instead of that between father and child. Mysticism, it is true, elevates man to freedom from the Church, but it effects also indifference toward men; however, in the premystical stage there shows itself lack of independence of the Church.

In the Occident the curtailment of the childlike in Christian life was still further indulged in by bringing to prominence the ideas of q. the natural, juridical, and mystical;

ticism of the natural in so far as according

to the scholastics a habit of grace is in­

fused into the secret recesses of the soul, the exist­

ence of which can only be surmised by way of infer­

ence from one's own ethical transformation; of the

juridical in so far as the provenience of hope from merit (" more strongly emphasized; of the mystical inasmuch as the higher stage of the love of God seems realizable only in a thorough separation from occupation with worldly matters (the lower stage is identified with childlike fear) and inasmuch as even the mysticism of calmness and resignation over against an arbitrary Lord is far inferior to trust in the Father.

It was Luther who again conceived the relation of Christians to God as that of children to a father in the full sense of the word. For Luther Christ is the " mirror of the fatherly heart of God," the revelation and security of God's gracious disposition, and he draws from this " image of grace " faith and individual trust. He differs from Paul in so far as he understands by the inner testimony of the Holy Spirit the personal certainty of faith which has its basis in Christ. As for Paul, so for Luther,

forgiveness of sins or justification or S. Luther. adoption is a declaration of the will of

God that he adopts us as children. It is more than the remittance of past sins, it is the reception of the whole personality into the grace of God, the transposition into a permanent state which always has to be seized again by faith. Thus it is shown to be an error that meritorious works are necessary in order to obtain grace and eter­nal life. In this way Luther does not destroy the ethical quality of adoption, but makes it more prominent. For secure trust unites the will with God's entire will in love and thus spontaneously produces, without needing the instruction and in­culcation of the law, the free and cheerful fulfilment of the will of God which takes place without any thought of reward and in which eternal life is en­joyed. This psychological derivation of morality from the nature of faith actually invalidates Lu­ther's other derivation from the natural or uncon­scious impulse of the Holy Spirit. Only his oppo­sition to the doctrine of merits made him forget to do justice to the eschatological motives of mo­rality as they are found in Jesus aLd Paul, although he might have done so, considering his premises; for will needs an aim and for the will united with God in faith and love, this aim can only be the com­pletion of that which was begun here. Faith gives him new courage and power for trust in the guidance of the whole life by the Father in which again the joy of eternal life is anticipated, and thus lays the basis for the freedom of the Christian or his royal dominion over all things which manifests itself in fearlessness and pride and defiance of Satan, world, and death as the counterpart of humble submis­sion to God and which through the certainty of the blessing of divine guidance surpasses mysticism­ecatasies as well as resignation in God. This atti­tude of children is a life which is homogeneous to that of the Father, in the first place, to his dispo­sition, in so far as our trust is a reflex of God's disposition toward us and our love corresponds to the love of God since it is not borrowed from the amiability of men, but is spontaneous, and not a divided love like that of men, but an allcom­prehending one; in the second place, to the nature



of God, because this love is superhuman, divine,

and because faith conquers for itself the power of

divine omnipotence. This life of adoption, accord­

ing to its whole character, can only originate by a

birth from above which, according to Luther, takes

place since adoption, as vouchsafed by Christ, pro­

duces faith and with it new life. Luther also

traces back the new life to a problematic effect of

the Spirit, like the working of the impersonal pow­

ers of nature, which God according to his predesti­

nation adds to the word of Christ in the inner life.

During the period of orthodoxy in Germany

trust in God on the part of his children was regarded

as natural religion. Pietism subor­

9. Later dinated adoption to regeneration.

German In theology as influenced by Hegel,

Theology. childlike union with. God after the

example of mysticism was traced

back to an inner selfmanifestation of the absolute

spirit. It was Ritschl who renewed the specific

ideas of Luther. J. GoxxsC111Cx.

At the present time two ideas of adoption are

advocated: (1) Resting back on Calvin, it is held

that the primary relation of God to man was that

of Creator and Governor. Man is son of God,

not by virtue of anything in his con­

ro. Two stitution as a creature of God, nor

Views Held on account of a natural relation to

at Present. him as subject of the divine govern­

ment, but solely by reason of gra­

cious adoption. The only essential sonahip is

that of Christ primarily as the eternal Son, and

secondarily as his humanity shares this prerogative

through union with the divine nature. Through

adoption the elect in Christ become partakers

of Christ's sonahip. Adoption is grounded neither

in justification nor in regeneration, but in God's

free and sovereign grace alone. Through justifi­

cation the legal and judicial disabilities caused

by sin are removed; through regeneration the na­

ture is changed so as to become filial. Thus a

basis is laid for the distinction between the state

of adoption and the spirit of adoption (R. S. Cand­

lish, London, 1870; J. Mae­

pherson, Edinburgh, 1898).

(2) According to the other view, man's filial relation

to God is archetypal and inalienable. Adoption, in

order to be real, necessarily involves the essential

and universal Fatherhood of God and the natural

and inherent sonship of man to God. By becom­

ing partaker of the spirit of Christ, who, as Son,

realized the filial ideal of the race, one passes out

of natural into gracious sonahip; that is, is adopted

into the ethical and spiritual family of God, and

so enters upon his ideal filial relation to God and

his brotherly relation to men (A. M. Fairbairn,

New York,

1893; J. S. Lidgett,

2021, Edinburgh, 1902; James Orr,

325327, New York, 1902). C. A. B.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Gerhard, Loci Theolopici, iv. 311, 374,vii.

219222, ix. 296297, Berlin, 188876; R. L. Dabney,


sqq., 8t. Louis, 1878; B. Weiss,

¢§17, 2021, 46, 71, 83, 100, 118, 160,

Edinburgh, 188283; W. Bousset,

4142, G6ttingen, 1892; H. Shultz, Old 264 eqq., Edinburgh, 1892; R. A. Lipsius, 126129, 684698, 663703, Bruns­wick, 1893; J. MeL. Campbell, pp. 298 sqq., London, 1896; A. Titius, 103104, ii. 2728, 138­139, 288267, TObingen, 18961900; W. Beysehlag, 6070, 241, 310, ii. 418419,480, Edin­burgh, 1896; E. Hatch, London, 1897; R. V. Foster, 679, Nashville, 1898; H. Cremer, 7178, 224233, 247248, 266268, 369370, GOtersloh, 1899; A. Ritsehl, 76, 98, 607, 634, 603, New York, 1900.

The Controversy of the Eighth Century. Its Roots (1 1). Elipandus, Bishop of Toledo (1 2).

Felix, Bishop of Urgel (§ 3).

Recantation of Felix (¢ 4).

Later Adoptionist Tendencies (§ 6). Explanation (§ 6).

Adoptionisma heresy maintaining that Christ is the Son of God by adoptionis of interest chiefly for the commotion which it produced in the Span­ish and Frankish Churches in the latter part of the eighth century, although the for­:. The Con mulas around which the conflict raged troversy of can indeed be traced back to the the Eighth earliest period of Western theology; Century. but the spirit of the controversy and Its Roots. the result showed that the orthodoxy of the eighth century could no longer entirely accept the ancient formulas. The phrases in which such writers as Novatian, Hilary, and Isidore of Seville had spoken not merely of the assumption of human nature by the Son of God, but also of the assumption of man or the eon of man, led by an easy transition to words which seemed to imply that Christ, according to his humanity, was the adopted eon of God; and formu­las of this kind occur not infrequently in the old Spanish liturgy.

The Spanish bishops of the eighth century, and especially their leader, Elipandus (b. 718; bishop of Toledo from about 780), so used such phrases as to provoke criticism and disapproval first in Asturia, then in the neighboring Frankish kingdom, and finally at Rome. A certain Migetius (q.v.), preaching in that part of Spain which was held by the Moors, had given a very gross exposition of the doctrine of the Trinity, teaching that there were three bodily persons, and a triple manifestation in history of the one God. Against him Elipandus wrote a letter vindicating the orthodox idea of the immanence of the Trinity, but at the same time establishing a very sharp distinction between the second person of the Trinity and the s. human nature of Christ. The person dus, Bishop of the Son was not that made accord­of Toledo. ing to the flesh, in time, of the seed of David, but that begotten by the Father befofe all worlds; even after the incarnation, the second person of the Godhead is not the bodily, of which Christ says " My Father is greater than I," but that of which he says " I and my Father are one." Elipandus did not mean to do violence to the orthodox teaching by this distinction; but if the expression were pressed, the human nature

appeared a different person from the person of the

the single personality of Christ

disappeared. Elipandus defended himself in letters

in which he used the expression that Christ was

only according to his Godhead the true and real

Son of God, and according to his manhood

an adopted son. The opposition to this view was

voiced by Beatus, a priest, and the monk Heterius

of Libana. Elipandus wrote in great excitement

to the Asturian abbot Fidelis, bitterly attacking

his opponents, who first saw the letter when they

met Fidelis in Nov., 785, on the occasion of Queen

Adosinda's taking the veil. In reply they wrote a

treatise, discursive and badly arranged, but strong

in its patristic quotations, emphasizing the unity

of Christ's personality. The conflict was com­

plicated by political circumstances and by the

efforts of Asturia, to attain independence of the

most powerful Spanish bishop. Complaints were

carried to Rome, and Adrian I. pronounced at

once against Elipandus and his supporter, As­

caricus, whom he judged guilty of Nestorianism.

At what period the most prominent represents:

tive of Adoptionism, Felix, bishop of Urgel in the

Pyrenees, first took part in the strife is unknown.

At the synod of Regensburg in 792, he defended

the heresy in the presence of Charle­

3. Felix, magne, but the bishops rejected it.

Bishop of Felix, although he had retracted his

Urgel. doctrine, was sent by the emperor to

Rome, where Pope Adrian kept him a

prisoner until he signed an orthodox confession,

which on his return to Urgel he repudiated as forced,

and then fled to Moorish territory. In 793 Alcuin,

just back from England, wrote to Felix begging

him to abandon the suspicious word " adoption,"

and to bring Elipandus back into the right path;

and he followed this up by his controversial

treatise About the same

time Elipandus and the Spanish bishops who

belonged to his party addressed a letter to the

bishops of Gaul, Aquitaine, and Asturia, and to

Charlemagne himself, asking for a fair investigation

and the restoration of Felix. Charlemagne com­

municated with the pope, and caused a new inves­

tigation of the case in the brilliant assembly at

Frankfort (794). Two separate encyclicals were

the resultone from the Frankish and German

bishops; the other from those of northern Italy­

which agreed in condemning Adoptionism. Charle­

magne sent these, with one from the pope (repre­

senting also the bishops of central and southern

Italy) to Elipandus, urging him not to separate

himself from the authority of the apostolic see and

of the universal Church. Strong efforts were put

forth to recover the infected provinces. Alcuin

wrote repeatedly to the monks of that region;

Leidrad, bishop of Lyons, and the saintly Abbot

Benedict of Aniane worked there personally, sup­

porting Bishop Nefrid of Narbonne. In 798 Felix

wrote a book and sent it to Alcuin, who replied in

the following spring with his more extended treatise

Felix must by this time have

been able to return to Urgel, as he wrote thence to

Elipandus. Leo III. decisively condemned him in

Alcuin received a


contumelious answer, and was anxious to cross swords personally with his antagonist.

Leidrad induced Felix to appear before Charle­ma,gne, with the promise of a fair hearing from the bishops. They met at AixlaChapelle

4. Recan in June, 799 (others say Oct., 798). tation of After a lengthy discussion Felix ac

Felix. knowledged himself defeated and

was restored to communion, though

not to his see, and he was placed in Leidrad's charge.

Felix then composed a recantation, and called on

the clergy of Urgel to imitate his example. Leid­

rad and Benedict renewed their endeavors, with

such success that Alcuin was soon able to assert

that they had reclaimed 20,000 souls. He supported

them with a treatise in four books against Eli­

pandus, and prided himself on the conversion of

Felix. The heretical leader seems, however, to

have quietly retained his old beliefs at Lyons for

the rest of his life, and even to have pushed them

logically further, since Agobard, Leidrad's succes­

sor, accused him of Agnoetism, and wrote a

reply to some of his posthumous writings. In the

Moorish part of Spain, Elipandus seems to have

had a numerous following; but here also he found

determined opponents. The belief was gradually

suppressed, though Alvar of Cordova (d. about

861) found troublesome remnants of it.

With the rise of scholastic theology there was a natural tendency of rigid dialectic to lead away from the Christology of Cyril and Alcuin toward a rational distinction between the two natures, not so much with any wish to insist on this as from a devotion to the conception of the immutability of God. This caused the charge of Nestorianism to be brought against Abelard. Peter Lombard's explanations of the sense in which God became man leaned in the same direction. A German defender of this aspect of the question, Bishop Eberhard of Bamberg, in the twelfth century, accused his opponents roundly of Eutychianism. In fact, the assailants of Adoptionism, starting from their thesis that Christ is really and truly the Son of God, even according to his human nature, because this nature was appropriated by the Son of God, came ultimately, for all their intention of holding the Church's doctrine of the

g. Later two natures and the two wills, to a

Adoptionist quite distinct presentation of an

Tendencies. altogether divine Person who has

assumed impersonal human substance

and nature. They really deserted the posi­

tion taken by Cyril, though he was one of

their main authorities. If one seeks the his­

torical origin of this late form of Christological

controversy, distinguishing it from the immediate

cause, it must be found in the unsettlement of mind

necessarily consequent upon the attempts of the

ecclesiastical Christology to reconcile mutually

exclusive propositions.

The intellectual mood which led directly to this distinction between the Son of God and the man in Christ has been variously explained. Some as­cribe it to the surrounding Mohammedanism, making it an attempt to remove as far as pos­sible the stumblingblocks in


nature; but this may be doubted, since the main difficulties from the Moslem standpointthe Trinity, and the idea of a God who begets

6. Expla and is begottenremain untouched. nation. Others see in it a survival of the spirit of the old Germanic Arianism, which is excluded by the adherence of the Adop­tionists to the orthodox Trinitarian teaching. The obvious relation with Nestorianism and the theology of the school of Antioch has led others to assume a direct influence of the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia; but there is as little evi­dence for this as there is for the theory that those whom Elipandus calls his " orthodox brethren " in Cordova, and whom Alcuin supposes to be responsible for these aberrations, were a colony of eastern Christians of Nestorian tendencies who had come to Spain with the Arabs. (A. HAuCg.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The writings of Elipandus, Felix, and He­terius in xevi.; Paulinus, ib. xcix.; Alcuin, ib. c: ci.; in JaffB, vol. vi., Berlin, 1873; iv., 1895 ; Agobard. in civ.; the of the Synods of Narbonne, Ratis­bon, Frankfort, and AixlaChapelle, in Harduin,. Con. iv., in Mansi, in Gallandi, and 1904; C. W. F. Walch, GSttingen, 1755; idem, Vol. iii., 11 vols., Leipsic, 176285; F. C. Baur, 3 vols., Berlin, 184143; Rettberg, i. (1846) 428; J. C.Rob­'ertson, 5901122, London, 1856; A. Helfferich, Berlin, 1860; J. Bach, 102 sqq., Vienna, 1873; K. Werner, Pader­born, 1876; C. J. B. Gaekoin, 79 eqq., Lon­don, 1904; 4447; Hefele, 642693, 721724; Hauck, 289 sqq.

A term of the Roman Catholic Church, where, in consequence of the doctrine of transubatantiatiop which affirms the presence of Christ in the Eucharist under the species of bread and wine, divine worship is paid to the Sacrament of the altar, a worship that includes adoration. This adoration is mani­fested in various ways, especially in genuflexions and, if the Sacrament be solemnly exposed, in prostrations. Certain forms of devotion are in­tended to promote adoration of the Sacrament, notably the ceremony called Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, the Forty Hours Devotion, and the practise of perpetual adoration which secures the presence of adorers before the altar at all hours of the day and night. A congregation of priests the Society of Priests of the Most Holy Sacrament, is devoted particularly to the worship of Christ on the altar. JOHN T. CREAGH.

See adram'elec: 1. Name of a deity worshiped with childsacrifice by the colo­nists whom Sargon, king of Assyria, transplanted from Sepharvaim to Samaria (II Kings xvii. 31; cf. xviii. 34; Isa. xxxvi. 19, xxxvii. 13). Since Sepharvaim is probably the Syrian city mentioned in a Babylonian chronicle as having been destroyed by Shalmaneser IV., the god Adram­melech is no doubt a Syrian divinity. The name has been explained as meaning " Adar the prince,"

" splendor of the king," and " fireking," while others think that the original reading was " Adad­melech." Since the name is Aramaic, the last is to be preferred.

2. According to II Kings xix. 37 and Isa. xxxvii. 38, Adrammelech was the name of the son and murderer of the Assyrian king Sennacherib. The form corresponds to the " Adramelus " of Abyde­nus in the Armenian chronicle of Eusebius (ed. A. Sch6ne, i., Berlin, 1875, p. 35) and the " Ardumuza­nus " of Alexander Polyhistor (p. 27).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: (1) Schrader, 408, 450; P. Scholz.

401405, Ratiebon, 1877. (2) H. Winekler,

in (1887) 392396.

Author of an extant written in Greek. He was evidently a Greekspeaking Syrian; but nothing is to be learned of his life from the book. There is no doubt, however, that he is identical with the monk and presbyter Adrian to whom St. Nilus addressed three letters (ii. 60, iii. 118, 266, in MPG, lxxix. 225227, 437, 516517), and who lived in the first half of the fifth century. This work is no introduction in the modern sense, but a piece of Biblical rhetoric and didactics, aiming to explain the figurative phraseology of the Scriptures, es­pecially of the Old Testament, from numerous examples. It closes with hints for correct exegesis. The hermeneutical and exegetical principles of the author are those of the Antiochian school. F. Gosaling edited the Greek text with German translation and an introduction (Berlin, 1887).



ADRIAN: The name of six popes.

Adrian I.: Pope 772795. A Roman of noble birth, he entered the clerical state under Paul I., and was ordained deacon by Stephen III., whom he succeeded Feb. 1, 772, not, apparently, by as unani­mous a choice as the official record of his election asserts; for soon afterward he encountered vehe­ment opposition from the Lombard party in Rome led by Paul Afiarta. His adherence to the Frankish faction, his hesitation to crown the sons of Karl­man, who had fled to Pavia, and thus to set them up as pretenders against Charlemagne, and the imprisonment of Afiarta by Archbishop Leo of Ravenna at his orders incited the Lombard king Desiderius to invade the Roman territory, and finally to march on Rome itself. Adrian appealed for help to Charlemagne, who arrived in Italy in Sept., 773, and forced Desiderius to shut himself up in Pavia.

During the siege of that town, which lasted till the following June, Charlemagne suddenly appeared unannounced in Rome. Adrian, though alarmed, gave him a brilliant reception. On Apr. 6 a meet­ing took place in St. Peter's, at which, according to the the emperor

Aided by was exhorted by the pope to confirm

Charle the donation of his father, Pepin,

magne. and did so, even making some ad­

ditions of territory. This donation,

which rests solely upon the authority of the Vita


(xli.xliii.), if substantiated, has a great importance for the development of the temporal sovereignty of the popes. The question has received much atten­tion, and its literature is scarcely exceeded in bulk by that of any other medieval controversy. No sure and universally recognized result, however, has been reached. Some modern historians (Sybel, Ranke, Martens) consider the story a pure inven­tion; others (Ficker, Duchesne) accept it; and a middle theory of partial interpolation has also been upheld (SahefferBoichorst). All that can be maintained with certainty is that Charlemagne gave a promise of a donation, and the geographical delimitations give rise to difficult problems.

In the years immediately following Charlemagne's return from Italy, his friendly relations with Adrian were disturbed by more than one

Disagree occurrence. Archbishop Leo of Ra­ments venna seized some cities from the with Charle pope, who complained to Charlemagne; magne. but Leo visited the Frankish court to defend himself, and met with a not unfavorable reception. Charlemagne's keen insight can not have failed to read imperfectly masked covetousness between the lines of Adrian's repeated requests for the final fulfilment of the promise of 774; e.g., in the hope held out of a heavenly reward if he should enlarge the Church's possessions; in the profuse congratulations on his victory over the Saxons, which was attributed to the intercession of St. Peter, grateful for the restitution of his domain; in the comparison drawn by Adrian between Charle­magne and " the most Godfearing emperor Con­stantine the Great," who " out of his great liberality exalted the Church of God in Rome and gave her power in Hesperia [Italy] "expressiont which have caused a subordinate controversy as to whether the socalled Donation of Constantine (q.v.) is referred to. How far Adrian's consciousness of his own importance had grown is evident from the fact that while in the beginning of his reign he had dated his public documents by the years of the Greek emperors, from the end of 781 he dated them by the years of his own pontificate.

Yet Adrian could not afford to despise the Greeks; they joined the Lombard dukes of Benevento and Spoleto, and forced him once more

Charle to turn for help to Charlemagne, who

magne made a short descent into Italy in

Again 776, put down the revolt of the

Helps. duke of Friuli against both him and

the pope, but did nothing more until

780. In 781 he visited Rome again when his sons

were anointed as kingsPepin of Italy and Louis

of Aquitaine. Charlemagne came to Italy for the

fourth time in 786 to crush Arichis of Benevento,

and Adrian succeeded in obtaining from him ad­

ditional territory in southern Italy. But various

misunderstandings in Adrian's last years gave rise

to a report that Charlemagne and Offa of Mercia

had taken counsel together with a view to the pope's

deposition. The iconoclastic (see

IMAGES AND IMAGEWORSHIP, II., § 3) brought fresh

humiliations from Charlemagne and from the Greek

emperor Constantine VI. and his mother, the em­

press Irene. When the lastnamed was taking steps

to restore the veneration of images in the Eastern Church she requested Adrian to be present in person at a general council soon to be held, or at least to send suitable legates (785). In his reply, after commending Irene and her son for their deter­mination respecting the images, Adrian asked for a restitution of the territory taken from the Roman see by the iconoclastic emperor Leo III. in 732, as well as of its patriarchal rights in Calabria, Sicily, and the Illyrian provinces which Leo had suppressed. At the same time he renewed the protest made by Gregory the Great against the assumption of the title of universalis patriarchs by the Patriarch of Constantinople.

When, however, the council met at Nicaea in 787, while it removed the prohibition of images, it paid no attention to any of these demands. The acts of this council, which Adrian sent to Charle­magne in 790, provoked the emperor's vigorous opposition, and led ultimately to the drawing up

of the Caroline (q.v.), in which

Coun the position of the Frankish Church

cil of with reference to both the Roman and

Niceea in the Greek was made plain, and the

787. decisions of the Council of Nicaea were

disavowed. Although Adrian, after re­

ceiving a copy, took up the defense of the council

with vehemence, Charlemagne had the contention

of the Caroline confirmed at the Synod of

Frankfort in 794. It may, however, have been

some consolation to Adrian's legates that the same

synod publicly condemned Adoptionism (q.v.),

against which the Roman as well as the Frankish

Church had been struggling. Adrian died not long

after (Dec. 25, 795).

Throughout his long pontificate Adrian had been too exclusively dominated by the one idea of gaining as much advantage as possible in lands and privileges from the strife between the Franks and Lombards.. He rendered no slight services to the city of Rome, rebuilding the walls and aqueducts, and restoring and adorning the churches. His was not a strong personality, however, and he never succeeded in exercising a dominant or even a strongly felt influence upon the policy of western



Duehesne, iin iv., Eng. in Copenhagen. 1838Mack, Monster, 1881Innsbruck, 1889London, 1870K6nigaberg,1879; RGenelin, Dos Martens, Die



Adrian II.: Pope 867872. He was the son of Talarus, of a Roman family which had already produced two popes, Stephen IV. (768772) and Sergius II. (844847). He was a married man before entering the clerical state. Gregory IV. made him a cardinal. His great benevolence won the hearts of the Romans, and he twice refused the papacy, after the death of Leo IV. (855) and of Benedict IIl. (858). A unanimous choice by both clergy and people, however, forced him at the age of seventyfive to accept it in succession to Nicholas I. (d. Nov. 13, 867). The election was confirmed by Emperor Louis II., and Adrian's consecration fol­lowed on Dec. 14.

His predecessor had left him a number of un­finished tasks. In the first place, it was necessary to arrive at a final decision concerning Forces a matter which had long rind deeply

Lothair II. troubled the Frankish Church; namely, to Take the matrimonial relations of King

Back His LOthair II. Adrian firmly insisted Wife. that Lothair should take back his legitimate wife Thietberga, at the same time releasing his mistress Walrade from the excommunication pronounced against her by Nicholas, at the request of Louis II., on condi­tion that she should have nothing more to do with Lothair. The lastnamed visited Rome in 869 for the purpose of gaining the pope's consent to his divorce from Thietberga. Adrian promised no more than to call a new council to investigate the matter, but restored Lothair to communion after he had sworn that he had obeyed the command of Nicholas I. to break off his relations with Wal­tade. The king's sudden death at Piacenza on his homeward journey, a few weeks later, was con­sidered to be a divine judgment. The efforts of the pope to enforce the claim of Louis II. to Lorraine were fruitless; immediately after Lothair's death his uncle, Charles the Bald, had himself crowned at Met z, though less than a year later he was forced by his brother, Louis the German, to divide the inheritance of Lothair in the treaty of Meersen (Aug. 8, 870).

Adrian's attempts to interfere in Frankish affairs were stubbornly resisted by Hincmar of Reims (q.v.), who wrote (Epist., xxvii.), ostensibly as the opinions of certain men friendly to the West­Frankish king, that a pope could not be bishop and king at one and the same time; that Adrian's Predecessors had claimed to decide in ecclesiastical only; and that he who attempted to

excommunicate a Christian unjustly deprived him­self of the power of the keys. When a synod at

Douzy near Sedan (Aug., 871) ex­

Opposed communicated Bishop Hincmar of Laon

by on grave charges brought against him

Hincmar both by the king and by his own

of Reims. uncle, the more famous Hincmar, the

pope allowed an appeal to a Roman

council, and brought upon himself in consequence

a still sterner warning from Charles the Bald by the

pen of Hincmar of Reims cxxiv. 881896),

with a threat of his personal appearance in Rome.

Adrian executed an inglorious retreat. He wrote

to Charles praising him for his virtues and his

benefits to the Church, promised him the imperial

crown on Louis's death, and offered the soothing

explanation that earlier less pacific letters had

been either extorted from him during sickness or

falsified. In the matter of Hinemar of Laon, he

made partial concessions, which were completed

by his successor, John VIIL

Another conflict which Nicholas I. had left to Adrian, that with Photius, patriarch of Constan

tinople, seemed likely to have a hap­Conflict pier issue, when Photius was con­with demned first by a Roman synod

Photius. (June 10, 869), and then by the

general council at Constantinople in

the same year, the papal legates taking a position

which seemed to make good the claims of the

Roman see. But Emperor Basil the Macedonian

dealt these claims a severe blow when he caused

the envoys of the Bulgarians (see BULOARIANs,

CoNVERsION OF THE) to declare to the legates that

their country belonged to the patriarchate not of

Rome, but of Constantinople. Adrian's protests

were in vain; a Greek archbishop appeared among

the Bulgarians, and the Latin missionaries had to

give place. Moravia, on the other hand, was firmly

attached to Rome, Adrian allowing the use of a

Slavic liturgy, and naming Methodius archbishop

Of Sirmium. After a pontificate marked princi­

pally by defeat, Adrian died between Nov. 13 and

Dec. 14, MIRBT.)

BIRLIOGRAPRY: The Letters of Adrian in Mansi,

exxix., and in Bouquet,

in Duchesne, ii. and in L. A. Muratori, Milan,

Ado, in

idem in MPL, exxiii.; in I. and separately in ed. F. Kifrze Hanover, Hincmar, in and in Hinemar, in Regino, in saq.; idem, in exxxii. (separately ed. F. Kurse. Hanover, P. JaffA, Repesta i. Leipsic Bower, Popes, ii. F. Maaesen, in Hefele vol. iv.; P. A. Lapotre, in s99 : B. Jungmann,

iii., Ratiebon, Milman,

H. $chr6re, Freiburg,

J. Bohmer

idem, ed. E.

MOhlbacher. i. sqq., Innsbruck, Hauck,

sqq.. J. Langen,


Bonn, MBhlbaeher, Deutsche Berlin, Eng. Thatcher and

Adrian III.: Pope 884885. He was a Roman by birth, the son of Benedict. The story of severe punishments inflicted by him points to revolts in the city during his rule. The assertion of the un­trustworthy Martinus Polonus that he decreed that a newly elected pope might proceed at once to consecration without waiting for imperial con­firmation, and that the imperial crown should thenceforth be worn by an Italian prince, are con­firmed by no contemporary evidence. He died near Modena Aug., 885, on his way to attend a diet at Worms on the invitation of Charles the Fat, and was buried at Nonantula. [He was the first pope to change his name on election, having pre­viously been called Agapetus.] (CARL. MIRBT.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: et. Duchesne, iiHanover, 1891Baxmann. Die Berlin, Bonn, 1892a.

Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakapeare ; the only Englishman in the list of the popes): Pope 115459. He was born in England about the beginning of the twelfth century. He went to France as a boy, studied at Paris and Arles, en­during severe privations, and settled down in the monastery of St. Rufus near Avignon. Here he became prior, then abbot (1137), but met with bitter opposition from the monks when he attempted to introduce reforms. Eugenius III. made him cardinal bishop of Albano, and chose him (1152) for the difficult mission of regulating the relations of Norway and Sweden to the archbishopric of Lund. Returning to Rome, he was welcomed with high honors by Anastasius IV., whom he succeeded on Dec. 4, 1154.

His first troubles came through Arnold of Bres­

cia (q.v.), who, besides his ethical opposition to the

hierarchy, aimed at reestablishing the

Arnold of ancient sovereignty of Rome and its

Brescia and independence of the papal see. Adrian

Frederick strove to secure Arnold's banishment,

and succeeded in 1155 only by pro­

nouncing an interdict on the city.

He made Arnold's capture and delivery to the ecclesi­

astical authorities a condition of crowning Frederick

Barbarossa, who thus sacrificed a man who might

have been a powerful auxiliary in his conflicts

with this very pope. The first meeting between

Frederick and Adrian (June 9, 1155) was marked

by friction; but Frederick managed, in return for

substantial concessions, to secure his coronation nine days later. The Romans, however, whose subjection to the papal see the new emperor had promised to enforce, refused their recog­nition; and when Frederick left Rome, the pope and cardinals accompanied him, practically as fugitives. Frederick had also promised to sub­due William I. of Sicily, and was inclined to carry out his promise, but the pressure of the German princes forced him to recross the Alps.

Adrian then attempted to pursue his conflict with William, and, by the aid of the latter's dis

contented vassals, forced him to offer William I. terms. When, however, these were not of Sicily. accepted the king rallied his forces, the

tide turned, and Adrian was obliged to grant his opponent the investiture of Sicily, Apulia, and Capua, and to renounce important ecclesiastical prerogatives in Sicily (Treaty of Benevento June, 1156). In consequence of this settlement, he was enabled to return to Rome at the end of the year, but the emperor resented this apparent desertion of their alliance, as well as the injury to his suzerainty by the papal investiture. An open breach came when, at the Diet of Besangon, in Oct., 1157, the papal legates (one of them the future Alexander III.) delivered a letter from their chief which spoke of the conferring of the imperial crown by the ambiguous term The chancellor, Reginald, archbishop of Cologne, in his German rendering, gave it the sense of a fief of the papal see; and the legates thought it prudent to leave the assembly and retreat speedily to Rome.

Imperial letters spread the same indignation among the people; and when Adrian required the

prelates of Germany to obtain satis­

Rebuffed faction from Frederick for his treat­

by ment of the legates, he was met by

Frederick the decided expression of their dis­

approval of the offending phrase.

Adrian's position was rendered more difficult by the appearance of a Greek expedition in Italy and by a revolt in Rome; he offered the concession of a brief in which he explained the ob­jectionable word in the innocent sense of " benefit." Frederick took this as a confession of weakness, and when he crossed the Alps to subdue the Lom­bard towns (1158), he required an oath of fealty to himself, as well as substantial support from the Italian bishops. Attaining the summit of his power with the conquest of Milan in September, two months later he had the imperial rights solemnly declared by the leading jurists of Bologna. This declaration constituted him the source of all secular power and dignity, and was a denial equally of the political claims of the papacy and of the aspirations of the Lombard towns. The breach with Adrian was still further widened by his hesitation to con­firm the imperial nomination to the archbishopric of Ravenna; and an acute crisis was soon reached. An exchange of communications took place, whose manner was intended on both sides to be offensive; and Frederick was roused to a higher pitch of anger when the papal legates, besides accusing him of a breach of the treaty of Constance, demanded that he should thenceforth receive no oath of fealty from



the Italian bishops, that he should either restore

the inheritance of Countess Matilda, Spoleto,

Sardinia, Corsica, Ferrara, etc., to the Roman see,

or pay a tribute for those lands, and that he should

recognize the right of the successor of St. Peter to

!nmplete and unlimited dominion in Rome. These

claims he met by declaring roundly that on any

strict interpretation of his rights the pope also

would be bound to take the oath of fealty, and that

all the latter's possessions were but imperial do­

mains held in consequence of Sylvester's investi­

ture by Constantine.

Both the opponents sought for allies in the im­

pending struggle. Adrian, who was the sworn

foe of the Roman republic and its

Impending liberties, joined hands with the Lom­

Conflict bard communes who were struggling

Stopped by for their own. The emperor, who

Adrian's was doing his best to abolish com­

Death. munal liberty in the north of Italy,

aided the Romans to uphold the prin­

ciples of Arnold of Brescia. Adrian was already

taking counsel with the cardinals as to the advisa­

bility of pronouncing a sentence of excommunica­

tion against Frederick when death overtook him

at Anagni Sept. 1, 1159.

Adrian was a ruler who grasped clearly the ideal

of a papacy striving for universal domination, and

contended passionately for its accomplishment;

but John of Salisbury (who, as ambassador of the

king of England, had opportunity to study him at

close range) records that there were moments when

the terrible burden of his office weighed almost un­

bearably upon him. (CARL MIRBT.)

Duehesne, 1892,

Frisengen, Continuatio

London, 1849

London, 1883

Laqgen, G

Bonn, 1893

Henderson, Seled


London, 1899


Thatcher and H. McNeal, Source

New York,

(Ottobuono de' Fieschi): Pope 1276.

He was the nephew of Innocent IV., and as car­

dinal deacon had been sent to England by Clement

IV. to mediate between Henry III. and his barons.

He was elected July 12, 1276, in a conclave on which

Charles of Anjou had enforced all the rigor of the

regulations of Gregory X.; and one of Adrian's first

acts was to abrogate them as oppressive to the cardi

nals. Before he could promulgate any new system, however, and even before he had been ordained priest, he died at Viterbo Aug. 18, 1276.




Berlin, 1875

Adrian VI. (Adrian Rodenburgh or Dedel, more probably the latter): Pope 152223. He was born in Utrecht, was educated by the Brethren of the Common Life and at Louvain, and became professor and vicechancellor of the university. During this period he composed several theological writings, including a commentary on the of Peter Lombard. In 1507 Emperor Maximilian I. appointed him tutor to his grandson, Charles of Spain, and in 1515 Ferdinand the Catholic made him bishop of Tortosa. In 1517 he was created cardinal by Leo X. When Charles was made German emperor and went to the Netherlands in 1520, he appointed Adrian regent of Spain. In 1522 the cardinals almost unanimously elected him pope.

The vexation of the Romans at the choice of a German, moreover a very simple man who was not inclined to continue the splendid traditions of the humanistic popes, lasted during his entire pontifi­cate; more serious minds, however, looked forward to his reign with hope. In spite of the fact that he

consented to the condemnation of Friend Luther's writings by the Louvain

of theologians, and although as inquisitor­

general he had shown no clemency,

yet Erasmus saw in him the right pilot of the Church in those stormy times, and hoped that he would abolish many abuses in the Roman court. Luis de Vives addressed Adrian with his pro­posals for reform; and Pirkheimer complained to him of the opposition of the Dominicans to learning. Even in the college of cardinals, the few who favored a reformation looked up to him hopefully, and Xgidius of Viterbo (q.v.) transmitted to him a memorial which described the corruption of the Church and discussed the means of redress.

Adrian fulfilled these expectations. Concerning indulgences he even endeavored to find a way which might lead to a reconciliation with Luther's con­ception, viz., to make the effect of the indulgence dependent on the depth of repentance on evi­dence of it in a reformed life. But here Cardinal Cajetan asserted that the authority of the pope would suffer, since the chief agent would no longer be the pope, but the believer, and the majority agreed with the cardinal. Nothing was done in the matter, no dogma was revised, and the com­plaints of the Germans increased. Nevertheless, Adrian simplified his household, moneys given for Church purposes were no longer used for the sup­port of scholars and artists, he sought to reform the

abuse of pluralities, and opposed simony and nepo­tism. His effort to influence Erasmus to write against Luther and to bring Zwingli b; a letter to his side shows his attitude toward the Reformation in Germany and Switzerland.


When the diet at Nuremberg was opened in

Dec., 1522, he complained in a brief of the rise of

heresy in Germany and asked the diet, since mild

measures could not bti effectual, to employ the

means formerly used against Huss. But in his

instructions to his legate at the diet, Bishop Chiere­

gati, he took a different tone, and acknowledged

that " wantonness," °' abuses," and " excesses "

were found at the curia. This is the only instance

where such a confession received official sanction.

An answer was prepared by a committee, which

took notice of the confession, refused

His to execute the edict of Worms before

Confession. an imprnvement was visible, and

asked for the meeting of a council in

a German city, promising to prevent Luther from

publishing his polemical writings and to see to it

that the preachers proclaimed the pure gospel,

but " according to the teaching and interpretation

of the Scriptures approved and revered by the

Christian Church." Chieregati accepted neither

this nor any other answer, but left Nuremberg in

haste. In strict papal circles Adrian's confession

has not yet been forgiven. He died at Rome

Sept. 14, 1523. K. BENRATH.


Utrecht, 1727; G. Moringus,

Louvain, 1536; Bower, Popes, iii. 299­

302; L. P. Gachard,

Brussels, 1859; J. S. Brewer,

4 vole., London, 1862­

1901 (especially vol. iii.); G. A. Bergenroth,

London, 1866; idem, vols. i. and ii. (1868);

M. Brosch, Vol. i., Hamburg,

1880; C. v. HSfler, Vienna, 1880; A.

Lapitre, Paris, 1880; L. v. Ranks,

Leipsic, 1880;

idem, ib. 1889; Eng. transl., i.

7174, London, 1896; Milman, Hefele,

271299; Creighton,


ADSQ: One of the more prominent of the

reforming abbots of the tenth century. He be­

longed to a noble family in the Jura Mountains,

became a monk at Luxeuil, and went later to the

monastery of MontierenDer (120 m. ex.e. of Paris),

in the diocese of Chalon"urMarie, reformed

about 935 by the abbot Albert, whom he succeeded

in 967 or 968. He laid the foundation for a splendid

new basilica, remains of which are still standing

(cf. Sackur, Die 391), and under­

took to reform other monasteries, e.g., St. Benig­

nus at Dijon. Like his friends Abbo of Floury and

Gerbert of Reims (cf. Havet,

pp. 6, 74, Paris, 1889), he was interested in learning

and investigation; and his library included the

writings of Aristotle, Porphyry, Terence, Cwsar,

and Vergil. He was often urged to write books,

especially the lives of saints, and several works

of this class by him may be found in ASM (ii. and

iv.; copied in exxxvii. 597700).

The most famous of Adso's writings is the earliest,


composed before 954, in which he

opposes the prevalent notion that the appearance

of Antichrist was near at hand. The work was

much read, and suffered greatly from mutilations

and interpolations (cf. ci. 128998); its

original form has been restored by E. Sackur, in

Halle, 1898. S. M. DEIrraca.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The chief source for Adso's life is an addi­tion of the eleventh century to his the patron saint of MontierenDer, ch xi., in 678679, and in (1841) 488. Consult also the 471492; A. Ebert, 472484, Leipsic, 1887; and, especially. E. Saekur, Halle, 1892.


ADVERT: The first season of the church year. The celebration of Advent in the Western Church was instituted toward the close of the fifth century, in Gaul, Spain, and Italy [but traces of it are found in the Council of Saragossa, 380]. The term was first understood as referring to the birth of Christ, and so the Advent season was a time of preparation for Christmas. Since it commenced at different periods (e.g., at Milan with the Sunday after St. Martin [Nov. 11]; in Rome with the first in December), the number of Sundays in Advent differed in the individual churches. The term was also taken in the wider sense of the coming of Christ in general; hence the lessons for Advent which refer to the second coming of Christ and the last judgment. With it was also connected the notion of the coming of the kingdom of heaven. Thus originated the idea of the triple coming "to man, in man, and against man" or, corresponding to the number four of the Sundays which afterward became general, the notion of the quadruple com­ing " in the flesh, in the mind, in death, in majesty." In the medieval church the Advent season was a time of fasting and repentance. Hence one finds in it the figure of John the Baptist, as the precursor of Christ and the preacher of repentance. The whole season from Advent to the octave of Epiph­any was a tempus clausum (q.v.) until the Council of Trent, which took off the last week. In the Church of Rome Advent has still the character of a penitential season. The color of the vestments then worn is violet. This character of earnest and serious devotion appears in more preaching, teach­ing, and insistence upon attendance at communion. Fasting during Advent is not a general ordinance of the Church of Rome [being required only on all Fridays, the vigil of Christmas, and the three em­berdays in the last week of the season].

With the adoption of the medieval church cal­endar, the Protestants also accepted the Advent season and Advent lessons. Thus the season retained its double character, preparation for the Christmas festival and contemplation of the dif­ferent ways of the coming of Christ. Since it has become customary to separate the civil and ecclesi­astical chronology and to distinguish between the civil and church years, the first Sunday of Advent has been dignified as the solemn beginning of the new church year. These various relations of the first Sunday of Advent and the whole Advent season explain the variety of the contents of the Advent hymns and prayers. Among Protestants also the Advent season has a twofold character, that of holy joy and of holy repentance. The first Sunday in Advent is no church festival in a


full sense, but the relations referred to lift it and

the succeeding Sundays above ordinary Sundays.


In the present usage of the West, the season begins on the nearest Sunday to St. Andrew's day (Nov. 30), whether before or after. In the Anglican prayerbook the service for the first Sunday em­phasizes the second coming; that for the second, the Holy Scriptures; that for the third, the Christian ministry; while only the fourth relates specific­ally to the first coming. Advent in the Eastern Church begins on Nov. 14, thus making a season of forty days analogous to Lent.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The lectionaries in Oxford, 1893, and in published in L. A. Muratori, i., Venice, 1748, and in Smaragdus, in Ama­larius Metensis, ib. ev.; Berno of Reichenau, Isidore of Seville, ed. Cochlaeus, Leipaie, 1534, and in M. de la Bigne, Paris, 1854; E. Martkne, Rouen, 1700.


ADVENTISTS: The general name of a body embracing several branches, whose members look for the proximate personal coming of Christ. Will­iam Miller (q.v.), their founder, was a converted deist, who in 1816 joined the Baptist Church in Low Hampton, N. Y. He became a close student of the Bible, especially of the prophecies, and soon satisfied himself that the Advent was to be personal and premillennial, and that it was near at hand. He began these studies in 1818, but did not enter upon the work of the ministry until 1831. The year 1843 was the date agreed upon for the Advent; then, more specifically, Oct. 22, 1844, the failure of which divided a body of followers that had become quite numerous. In the year of his death (1849) they were estimated at 50,000. Many who had been drawn into the movement by the preva­lent excitement left it, and returned to the churches from which they had withdrawn. After the second failure, Miller and some other leaders discouraged attempts to fix exact dates. On this question and on the doctrine of the immortality of the soul there have been divisions. There are now at least six distinct branches of Adventists, all of which agree that the second coming of Christ is to be personal and premillennial, and that it is near at hand. The Seventhday Adventists and the Church of God are presbyterial, the others congregational in their polity. All practise immersion as the mode of baptism.

This is the oldest branch, indeed the original body. The members adopted their in confer­ence in Albany, N. Y., in 1845, and in 1858 formed the American Millennial Association to print and circulate literature on eschatology from their point of view. Their organ was the weekly paper which had been established in Boston in 1840; subsequently its name was changed to and later still to its present (1906) title. The paper has always been published in Boston. The Evan­gelical Adventists differ from all the other branches

in maintaining the consciousness of the dead in Hades and the eternal sufferings of the lost.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. F. Hill, Boston, 1852; D. T. Taylor, Peacedale, R. I., 1855, and Boston, 1889.

2. Seventhday Adventists: This branch dates from 1845, in which year, at Washington, N. H., a body of Adventists adopted the belief that the seventh day of the week is the Sabbath for Chris­tians and is obligatory upon them. In 1850 their chief organ, was first issued at Battle Creek, Mich., which was made the headquarters of the body: and there in 1860 a publishing association, in 1862 a general annual conference, in 1866 a health institute, and in 1874 an educational society and a foreign mission board were established. In 1903 the publishing business and the general headquarters were re­moved to Washington, D. C. Their organ is now styled Besides the tenet which gives them their name they hold that man is not immortal, that the dead sleep in uncon­sciousness, and that the unsaved never awake. They practise footwashing and accept the charis­mata, maintain a tithing system, and pay great attention to health and total abstinence. They accept Mrs. Ellen G. White as an inspired prophetess.. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. N. Andrews,

Battle Creek, 1873 (3d ed., 1887); 1880; J. N. Loughborough, Rise ib. 1892.

3. Advent Christians: The organization under this name dates from 1861, when a general asso­ciation was formed. The organ of these Advent­ists is published in Boston. Their creed is given in the approved by the general conference of 1900. They believe that through sin man forfeited immortality and that only through faith in Christ can any live forever; that death is a condition of unconsciousness for all persons until the resurrection at Christ's second coming, when the righteous will enter an endless life upon this earth, and the rest will suffer com­plete extinction of being; that this coming is near; that church government should be congregational; that immersion is the only true baptism; and that Sunday is the Christian Sabbath.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. C. Wellcome,

Yarmouth, Me., 1874.

This may be said to have existed since 1848, but it was not until 1862 that it was organized, at Wilbraham. Mass., under the leadership of Elder George Stores. Its organ is published at Springfield, Mass., weekly since 1862. It holds that all hope of another life is through Jesus Christ, and that only believers in him, who have manifested in their daily lives the fruits of the Spirit, attain to the resurrection of the dead, which will take place at Christ's coming, and that such coming will be personal, visible, and literal, and is impending. The Union holds four campmeetings annually: two in Maine, one in Connecticut, which is the principal one, and one in Virginia.


BIHLmORAP87: O. $. Halsted, The Theology the Newark, 1860; Discussion between Miles ()rant and J. T. Curry, Boston, 1863.

6. Church of God: This is a branch of the Seventhday Adventists, which seceded in 1866 because its members denied that Mrs. Ellen Gould White was an inspired prophetess. Their organ published at Stanberry, Mo., which is their center. Like the parent body, the Church of God has tithes, sanatoriums, and a publishing house.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. F. Dugger, Points Difference the God and SeventhDay Adventists, Stanberry, Mo.; J. Brinkerhoff, Mrs. White's Visions. Comparison of the early Writings Mrs. E. G. White with later tions, showing the Suppressions made in them to deny their erroneous . Nield, The lem, Scripture, Astronomy and History that the Crueif=ion Christ took Place on his Saturday.

6. Churches of God in Christ Jesus, popularly known as the Agetocome Adventists: These have existed since 1851, when their organ, (Plymouth, Ind.), was established, but they were not organized till 1888, when the general conference was formed. They believe in the res­toration of Israel, the literal resurrection of the dead, the immortalization of the righteous, and the final destruction of the wicked, eternal life being through Christ alone.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. P. Weethee. The Coming Ape, Chicago, 1884.

The statistics of the Adventists are thus given by H. K. Carroll in for Jan. 25, 1906:


Evangelical................. Seventhday.................

Advent Christians ..

Life and Advent Union .. . . . . .

Church of God

Churches of God in Christ

Jesus 54

Total Adventists 1,565 2,499 95,437

ADVERTISEMENTS OF ELIZABETH: Name commonly applied to the regulations promulgated in 1566 by Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canter­bury, for the purpose, as alleged, of securing uni­formity and decency in public worship, against the tendencies of the extreme Protestant party (see PURITANS, PURITANISM, 6). It is now generally admitted that, though they represented Elizabeth's policy in ritual matters, they never received her formal sanction. They assumed some importance in the ritual controversies of the nine­teenth century, the Highchurch party conteL:ling that they were merely an archiepiscopal injunction enforcing an irreducible minimum of ritual, while their opponents attempted to show that they were a legal prescription of a positive kind, which made the surplice the only lawful vestment of the clergy in parish churches.

BIHLIOGRAPRY: The teat of the Advertisements is given in Gee and Hardy. Documents, pp. 467475. Consult: J. Strype. Life and Acts Matthew Parker, London, 1821; Quarterly Review, avii. (1881) b480.

ADVOCATE OF THE CHURCH (Lit. or DefCridOr Ecelesim): An officer charged with the secular affairs of as eccleiestical establishment,

Commu­Minietere. Churches. nicanta.

34 30 1,147

486 1,707 80,471

912 810 26.500


19 9 3.68


more especially its defense, legal or armed. The beginnings of the office appear in the Roman em­pire. From the end of the fifth century there were in Italy, charged with the protection of the poor and orphans as well as with the care of Church rights and property. In the Merovingian kingdom legal representatives of the churches had the title. In the Carlovingian period, in accord­ance with the effort to keep the clergy as far as possible from worldly affairs, bishops, abbots, and other ecclesiastics were required to have such an official. The development of the law of immunity made such advocali necessaryon the one hand, to uphold Church rights against the State and in court, on the other hand to perform judicial and police duties in ecclesiastical territory. The Carlo­vingian kings had the right of appointment, but sometimes waived it in individual cases. These officers were at first generally clerics, later laymen, and finally the office became hereditary. Often this advocate of the Church developed into a tyrant, keeping the establishment in absolute submission, despoiling and plundering it. He usurped the whole power of administration, limited the authority of the bishop to purely spiritual affairs, absorbed the tithes and all other revenues, and doled out to the clergy a mean modicum only. Innocent III. (11981216), however, succeeded in checking the growing importance of this institution, and soon the office itself disappeared.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. Happ. De adroocatia eeeleeiaatica. Bonn, 1870; H. Brunner, Deutsche Rechtageachiehte, ii. 302, Leip

eic. 1892.


who outrank all the advocates in the papal court.

They trace their origin from the close of the sixth

century, when Gregory the Great appointed seven

in the city of Rome to plead the cause

of poor litigants who would otherwise be without

legal counsel. Sixtus IV. increased the number by

the addition of five junior advocates, but the

memory of the historical origin of the body was

preserved by reserving to the seven senior mem­

bers certain privileges, among them the right to

constitute the college proper of conai$torial advo­

cates. This college at the present time is made

up of two clerics and five laymen, one of the latter

being dean. The name "consistorial" comes from

the fact that their principal dutiespresenting the

claims of candidates for canonization and petition­

ing for the galliumare performed in papal con­

S18t011ea. JOHN T. CREAUH.

PETER: An associa­

tion of Roman Catholic jurists formed on the

occasion of the episcopal jubilee of Pius IX. in 1876,

for the purpose of asserting sad vindicating the

rights and teaching of the Church and of the Holy

See. The organization, which was blessed by

Plus IX., received a signal mark of approbation

from Leo XIII. in 1878, when its constitution was

approved in a papal brief. From Rome, where

its headquarters were established, it has spread into

all the countries of Europe, but is unknown in the

United Staten. JOHN T. CREAQH.




In the Church of England, the right of nomination to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice, vested in the crown, the bishop, one of the universities, or a private person. Such nomi­nation, or presentation, as it is called, is the rule in England, election by the congregation being almost unknown.

IEDITUUS, fdit'iius: A term applied to a person having the care of ecclesiastical property. Among the Romans it described one who, with the local priest, if there was one, had charge of a temple. The Roman customs in regard to this office had their influence on the development of similar functions in the Christian Church. They were at first dis­charged by the (q.v.), to whom the term was sometimes applied (cf. Paulinus of Nola, By degrees, as the major and minor orders developed, and Church property became more valuable, permanent subordinate officials were required to look after it. The func­tions and designations of these officials varied, however, in different provinces. The name fell into disuse, probably from its original associa­tion with heathen worship. It was employed in the Vulgate version of Ezek. xliv. 11; Hos. x. 5; Zeph. i. 4; and Durand 5) says of the that their functions resemble those of the In the Middle Ages the execution of the less dignified functions, which were thought incompatible with the clerical office, was committed more and more to subordinates, and by the end of that period almost entirely to laymen. The name was still used for these officials, being thus equivalent to the later sacristan. But this was principally in central Europe, especially in Germany, where conciliar decrees show that their duty was to ring the bells, to open and close the church, ate. In the more western countries the became rather identified with the or (qq.v.) who had charge of the ecclesiastical prop­erty, though this included in some degree the main­tenance of the building and the provision of vestments, candles, incense, and the like. In America during the nineteenth century the name has been not infrequently employed in Roman Catholic ecclesiastical terminology for the trustees who administer the temporal concerns of a parish. (JOHANNES FICKER.)

fjid'ius, See GILES, SAINT.

A ~'I pupil of Thomas Aquinas and reputed author of the bull b. at Rome 1245 (?) ; d. at Avignon 1316. He joined the Augustinian eremite monks, studied at Paris, and taught there for many years, being called From 1292 to 1295 he was general of his order. In 1296 he was made archbishop of Bourges, but continued to reside in Rome. He defended the election of Boni­faee VIII. in his showing that the abdication of Celestine V. was not against the canon law, and followed the court to Avignon. His numerous writings (mostly unpublished) deal with philosophy (commentaries on Aristotle), exegesis and dogmatics sentential L

portion of his work on

ecclesiastical polity, was

published in the

(Paris, 1858). K. BENRATH.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. E. du Boulay, Paris, W. Cave, Oxford, Fabricius, Florence, F. X. Kraus, in Vienna, F. L[ajard], in Paris,

IEGIDIUS OF VITERBO: General and protector

of the order of Augustinian eremite monks to which

Luther belonged; d. as cardinal at Rome 1532.

Of his many theological writings (for list cf. Fabri­

Florence, 1858, p. 23) but

few have been published. His address at the open­

ing of the Lateran council of 1512 may be found in

Hardouin Paris, 1715,

p. 1576), and a memorial on the condition of the

Church, which he presented to Pope Adrian VI.,

was published by C. H6fler (in the

of the Royal Bavarian Academy, hist. cl., iv., Mu­

nich, 1846, pp. 6289). K. BENRATH.




IENEAS, fnf'cs, OF GAZA, gb'za: A pupil of the

Neoplatonist Hierocles at Alexandria, and teacher

of rhetoric at Gaza. Before 534 he wrote a dia­

logue, (in MPG, lxxxv. 8651004),

in which he opposes the doctrine of the preexistence

of the soul, but asserts its immortality and the

resurrection of the body; the perpetuity of the

world is rejected. Twentyfive of his letters may

be found in R. Hercher,

2432, Paris, 1873, and several of his treatises are

in M. de la Bigne,

viii. (8 vols., Paris, 160910);

3 and xii. (15 vols., Paris, 161822); and

(28 vols., Lyons,

16771707). G. KRfER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Wernsdorf, Naumburg, 1818• K. Seitz, pp. 23­27, Heidelberg, 1892; K. Krumbacher, p. 432, Munich, 1897; G. $ehalk­hauser, Erlangen, 1898.

Bishop of Paris 858870; d. Dec. 27, 870. He is best known as the author of one of the controversial treatises against the Greeks called forth by the encyclical letters of Photius. His comprehensive (in D'Achery, Paris, i., 1723, 113148; cxxj. 681762; cf. 1902, p. 171, no. 22) deals with the procession of the Holy Ghost, the marriage of the clergy, fasting, the the clerical tonsure, the Roman primacy, and the elevation of deacons to the see of Rome. He declares that the accusations brought by the Greeks against the Latins are " Superfluous questions having more relation to secular matters than to spiritual." [The work is mainly a collection of quotations or " Sentences," from Greek and Latin Fathers, the former trans

lated.] (A. HAucK.)



APINUS, pf'nus, The first Lutheran superintendent of Hamburg; b. at Ziesar or Ziegesar (29 m. e.n.e. of Magdeburg), in the march of Brandenburg, 1499; d. in Ham­burg May 13, 1553. He was a diligent student as a boy, and was under Bugenhagen's instruction, probably while the latter was rector of the monas­tery of Belbuck. He took his bachelor's degree at Wittenberg in 1520; here he became the friend of Luther and Melanchthon. Then he had a school in Brandenburg, but was persecuted and imprisoned for his reforming activity, and had to leave home. Partly on account of the malice of his enemies, he adopted the modified form of the Greek word lofty "), by which he is generally known, and which he claimed was a translation of his real name (Hoeck=hoch). He spent some time in Pomerania, in close relations with the leaders of the Reformation there. From about 1524 to 1528 he was in Stralsund, in charge of a school (probably private). The local authorities asked him to draw up an order of ecclesiastical discipline (Kirchen­which went into effect Nov. 5, 1525. In Oct., 1529, he succeeded Johann Boldewan as pastor of St. Peter's in Hamburg. He carried on vigor­ously the work of his teacher and friend, Bugen­hagen, and was chiefly instrumental in introducing his order of discipline in Hamburg. His contest with the cathedral chapter, which still adhered to the old faith, gave occasion to the earliest of his extant writings, de ecclesite imposluris (1530). On May 18, 1532 he was ap­pointed to the highest office in the Lutheran Church of Hamburg, that of superintendent according to Bugenhagen's order of discipline. In 1534 he visited England at the request of Henry VIII., to advise him as to his divorce and as to the carrying forward of the Reformation there. He returned to Hamburg in the following January, and sub­sequently made numerous journeys as a represent­ative of the city in important affairs. He took part in all the church movements of the time, and frequently had the deciding voice in disputed mat­ters. Melanchthon considered his work on the interim (1548) the best that had been written, though it did not agree with his own views.

In all his writings tEpinus displays great theo­logical learning and equal gentleness of temper. He gave weekly theological lectures, usually in Latin, which were attended by the preachers and other learned men, and spent much time on the Psalms, taking up especially the questions which at the moment were agitating men's minds. He is best known by the controversy which arose over his teaching as to the descent of Christ into Hades. In 1542, finding that the article of the creed on this subject was frequently explained as mean­ing no more than the going down into the grave; in his lecture on the sixteenth psalm, he put for­ward the view, already given in Luther's explana­tion of the Psalms, that Christ had really gone down into hell, to deliver men from its power. Garcmus, his successor at St. Peter's, called him to account for this teaching, but left Hamburg in the following

year and did not return until 1546. Meantime lEpinus's commentary on Ps. xvi. had been pub­lished by his assistant Johann Freder, so that his view was widely known.

The controversy became a public and a bitter one after Garcmus's return, and both sides sought to gain support from Wittenberg. Melanchthon could only say that there was no agreement among the doctors on this point, and counsel peace. Xpinus's opponents in Hamburg were so turbulent that their leaders were deprived of their offices and banished from the city in 1551. The principal monument of tEpinus's activity in Hamburg is his ordinances for the church there, which he drew up in 1539 at the request of the council. It was a necessary amplification of that of Bugenhagen, and seems to have remained in force until 1603.


N. Staphorst,

Hamburg, 1729; A. Greve, ib. 1736; N. Wilekens, 248280, ib. 1770; F. H. R. Frank, vols., Erlangen, 185865; Schaff, 296298.

AERIUS, a6'rius: Presbyter and director of the asylum for strangers, maimed, and incapable, in Sebaste in Pontus in the fourth century. He was one of the progressive men of the time who protested against the legalistic and hierarchic tendencies of the Church. Supporting his con­tention by the Scriptures, he objected to the in­equality of presbyters and bishops, denied the value of prayers for the dead, and opposed strict ordi­nances concerning fasting, which he wished to leave more to individual judgment. About 360 he resigned his position. He had many followers, who constituted a party of " Aerians "; they were severely persecuted and soon disappeared. The only source is Epiphanius cf. Gieseler, section 106, note 3), who treats him in a very partizan spirit. PHILIPP MEYER.


Perth. 1745; C. W. F. Walch,


AETIUS. See ARIANmM, I., 3, § 6.

AFFRE, DENIS AUGUSTE: Archbishop of Paris; b. at St. Rome de Tam (55 m. n.w. of Mont­pellier), Aveyron, France, Sept. 27, 1793; d. at Paris June 27, 1848. He studied at the Seminary of St. Sulpice and taught theology there after having been ordained priest (1818); he became vicargeneral of the diocese of Lugon 1821, of Amiens 1823, of Paris 1834, archbishop of Paris 1840. As arch­bishop he was zealous and faithful, and lost his life in the performance of duty. During the revo­lution of 1848, hoping to induce the insurgents to lay down their arms, he at the Faubourg St. Antoine and attempted to address the mob, but had hardly begun to speak when he was struck by a musket ball and mortally wounded. He was one of the founders of La (1820), wrote much for it and other periodicals, and published several treatises of value on edu­cational, historical, and religious subjects.

Paris. 1841! (abridgod, 1850); E. Castan, ib. 1858.


An early female martyr, con­cerning whom all that can be confidently asserted is that she suffered at Augsburg. This fact is attested by Venantius Fortunatus iv. 642643) and the mention of her name in the older martyrologies,, and there is no reason to question it since the importance of Augsburg makes the early introduction of Christianity there prob­able. Her (ed. B. Krusch, 1896, 4164) consist of two independent parts, and of which the latter is

I. The Continent as a Whole.

1. Geographical Description.

2. The Races of Africa.

3. The Opening of Africa.

the older. It is said that she was dedicated by her mother to the service of Venus and lived an immoral life in Augsburg until she was converted by a bishop and deacon, who, in time of perse­cution, took refuge in her house, not knowing her character. She boldly confessed her faith in a general onslaught on the Christians and died by fire Aug. 5.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rettberg. 144149; Friedrich, 186199, 427430, ii. 853854; L. Duaheene, Ste. in Bulletin critique, ii. (1897) 301305.


The Prohibition of the SlaveTrade

Later Explorations and the Partition of Africa (§ 4).

The Arabs and Portuguese (¢ 1). 4. Religion and Missions. The General European Invasion (§ 2). Native Religions (§ I).

I. The Continent as a Whole: 1. Africa extends southward from the Mediterranean Sea nearly 5,000 miles. The equator crosses it nearly in the middle of its length; but by far the greater part of its mass lies north of the equator, the breadth of the continent from Cape Verde to Cape Guardafui being about 4,600 miles. Its area is about 11,500,000 sq. miles; and the adjacent islands add to this 239,000 more. Easily accessible to Europe by the Mediterranean Sea through 2,000 miles of its northern coast, and touch­ing Asia at the Isthmus of Suez, this continent has ever invited investigation, and has received notable influences from both of its active neighbors. The Sahara Desert, however, severing the Mediterranean coast regions from the southern and equatorial regions of the continent, has proved for centuries a bar to extended intercourse. " Had it not been for the River Nile," says Sir H. H. Johnston, " the negro and the Caucasian might have existed apart even longer without coming into contact." In fact, the great rivers of Africa are quite as impor­tant as aide to foreign intercourse in these days as the Desert has been an obstruction to it in the past. The greatest of the African rivers are the Nile, the Kongo, the Niger, and the Zambesi. Closely con­nected with the rivers, again, are the great lakes of central Africa, namely, Victoria, Tanganyika, and Nyassa, which belong, respectively, to the Nile, the Kongo, and the Zambesi systems. A further characteristic of the continent, noteworthy for all who seek entrance to its interior districts, is the insalubrity, one might say the deadliness, of the climate of its coasts both east and west throughout its tropical zone. The lowlying coast regions, extending in some cases 200 miles inland are sown with the graves of white men, germs of strange and fatal fevers lying in wait as it were for all strangers who venture to set foot unprepared upon that bleak and seething soil. The greatest mountains of Africa are all in its east central section. Kilima­Njaro in German East Africa, east of the Victoria Nyanza, is 19,600 feet high; Mweru, close by, is about 16,000 feet; and Ruwenzori, west of the Victoria Nyanza and on the border of the Kongo Independent State, is over 20,000 feet. Among the high lands of the interior the most notable

Mohammedanism (¢ 2). Protestant Missions (¢ 3). Colonists and Missions (§ 4). The "Ethiopian Movement" (¢ b). II. The Political Divisions of Africa III. African Islands.

section is a broad causeway of elevated plateaux which stretches from Abyssinia southward almost to Cape Colony, and which offers to the white man an almost ideal residence at a height of from 5,000 to 6,000 feet through a long range that is hardly broken save by the Zambesi River.

2. The Races of Africa: The puzzle of the races in Africa which the casual visitor classes under the comprehensive term negroea is insoluble at this day. But the key to the puzzle may probably be found in the repeated mingling of Asiatic and European blood in varying degrees and at divers distinct epochs with the blood of the African of the projecting jaw and the woolly locks. The history of Africa is practically the history of Egypt and then of her Carthaginian rival until well toward the Christian era. Only then did the Mediterranean coast of North Africa begin to have a tale of its own. The mention of this is significant; it sug­gests the repeated entrance of Asiatica into Africa through the whole period when Egypt was a world power, and of various aorta of Europeans into North Africa during a thousand years before the Moham­medan era.

The races now inhabiting Africa are a perpetual subject of discussion and theory because of the dif­ficulty of accounting for the resemblances as well as the differences between them. Along the Mediter­ranean coast of North Africa the Arab race rules; but in all the countries of this coast from the west frontier of Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean the Berber race forms the larger part of the population, sad even extends into the Sahara. A little further south, negroes of a low and degraded type are found on the west of the Nile; and they appear at different points throughout the continent as far west as the Atlantic coast. In Egypt the larger part of the

population is a mixture of Arabs with the ancient Egyptian race, commonly classed as Haulitea. This name distinguishes this people from the Sem­itic races, without throwing light on their origin.

Arabs appear also at intervals along, the coast of East Africa as far south as Portuguese East Africa in considerable numbers. In the northern section of this coast, along with the Arabs is found a race of negroes commonly called Nubians, the result apparently of mixtures of Arab, Egyptian, and


Abyssinia, the coast, and the Galla country contain a large block of people of the Hamite race, divided into groups, however, by language as well as by religion. Along the Upper Nile as far as the borders of Uganda and eastward well toward the coast are found tribes of another type of negroes generally called the Nilotic group. The negroes of the western part of Africa north of the equator are not all of the degraded type that appears along the western coast. The Fulahs are of an entirely different race, resembling the Hamites, excepting in language. The Mandingoes of the interior of Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast, are also of a higher type, although their languages show no traces of northern or Asiatic influence.

Throughout Africa north of the equator small detached bodies of Arabs are found at different points; and in general the religious control of this whole great region is with the Mohammedans. For this reason north Africa is frequently spoken of as " Mohammedan Africa." It should be borne in mind, nevertheless, that throughout the region, many pagan tribes exist under Mohammedan rulers. South of the equator, generally speaking, the inhabit­ants of central Africa,. and indeed to the borders of Cape Colony, are of the Bantu stock, often warlike and of a much higher type of intelligence than the negroes of the western coast. In the southwestern part of the continent are remnants of the Hotten­tots and Bushmen, once numerous in Cape Colony, while throughout Cape Colony proper the natives are known as " colored people," and represent a residue of mixtures of races during centuries. A considerable number of Dutch and of British are found in South Africa; and Portuguese, as well as many Portuguese halfbreeds, are numerous in Angola and Portuguese East Africa. European colonists are slowly entering the country on all sides and from all nations, but more than half of the continent can never be a fit residence for Euro­peans and must remain in the hands of the negro races.

This mixture of races stands in the place of a historical record concerning the people of Africa. Neither the Africans nor any others can read the record. It is the misfortune of the people of this continent to have no history except as appendages to the outside world; and the whole mass of allu­sions to them in ancient history has the vague quality of tradition. Even the Roman records lack precision, and remain generalities which throw little light on the history of the actual people of the continent.

3. The Opening of Africa: The Mohammedan con­quest, beginning about 640, added little to knowl­edge of the continent, although the

1. The Arabs in time gave to the rest of Arabs and

Portu the world information about the fertile

guese. negro land beyond the desert in the un­

limited region to which they gave the

name the Country of the Blacks." Eight

hundred years later the Portuguese undertook a won­

derful series of explorations of the African coasts,

which between 1446 and 1510 began the process of

stamping the continent as a possession of Europe.

Portugal named every important feature of the Afri­can coast as though she owned the whole continent, which in fact she did as far as the coasts were con­cerned. She ruled the west coast and the Cape of Good Hope from Lisbon, and the east coast, as a part of India, from Goa; and there were none but the Arabs to dispute her sway. She introduced missions also into her African possessions. But, after the fashion of the times, a mission had no objections to raise against maltreatment of the people to whom the land belonged.

At last in the seventeenth century began what may be called the third period of the opening of

Africa, the Arab invasion and the Por­e. The tuguese occupation having been the

General first and second. The characteristic


of this third period was a rush by every

European nation that could handle ships to make the most money possible out of a vast territory whose inhabitants had not the ability to object. The Dutch took the Cape of Good Hope; and the British, the French, and the Spaniards all gained foothold in different parts of the western coast, and imprinted the nature of their enterprises upon the region by names which persist to this day; such as the " Gold Coast," the " Ivory Coast," the " Grain [of Paradise] Coast " and the " Slave Coast." When the slavetrade began, in the seventeenth century, the Germans, the Swedes, and the Danes also made haste to acquire territory whence they could despoil the continent. North Africa, however, remained in the fierce grip of Is­lam. The history of Africa was still a history of outsiders working their will upon the country. At the end of the eighteenth century the nations of the lesser European powers had all been dis­possessed. Portugal held to her ancient acqui­sitions about the mouths of the Kongo and the Zambesi and began to try to discover what lay back of these; Great Britain had replaced the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope, thus securing an exten­sive region in which white men could live and thrive; while France and Spain had some small settlements on the northern part of the west coast of the continent.

The slavetrade, during nearly 200 years as far as Europe is concerned, and during uncounted cen­turies as concerns the Asiatic countries, sums up history for the African people. They know little else of their past; but they know that. That fear­ful traffic transported Africa westward, until from the Ohio River in the United States away south­ward to the valley of the Amazon in Brazil and throughout the West Indies, the population be­came strongly and often predominantly African.

A fourth era beans for Africa with the prohi­bition of the slavetrade by Denmark, Great Britain,

Holland, France. and Sweden (1792

3. Prohi 1819). It was the slavetrade and its

bit ion

of the horrors which turned Protestant mis­

slave sionary activity toward Africa in the

Trade. earliest days of the nineteenth cen

tury; and it was the discussion which preceded the prohibition of slavetrading which suggested the beginning of a systematic exploration of Africa.


A fifth period of African history is that of effect­ive exploration of the interior by Europeans 4. Later between 1840 and 1875. In this Eaplora period the missionary Livingstone

tione preceded Stanley. But Stanley, fol­

and the long Burton and Speke and Grant

Partition and Cameron and seeking to find Liv­

of Africa.


ingstone, turned the attention of the world to the vast commercial value of Africa. A sixth period is the period of partition, beginning when Great Britain, after taking possession of many of the best territories in the southern part of the continent, occupied Egypt in 1882. In the eager rush of the European powers which followed, the great conti­nent, has been parceled out as a goldfield is parceled out by prospectors who protect by men with guns the stakes they have hastily driven into the soil, and who only then sit down to estimate the value of what they have secured in the scramble. So to the present day the history of Africa is a history of what outsiders have done in the continent rather than of what the people of the country have done or thought or planned.

4. Religion and Missions: A rapid survey of the modern political divisions of Africa will be given

under the name of each. It seems 1. Native well, however, to make here a few

Religions. general remarks upon some religious and social peculiarities of the people of the continent as a whole. The religion of Africa in its untouched and natural condition is not prop­erly idolatrous. There is almost always some sense of a supreme being, who is a spirit, and from whom all power has originally proceeded. The actual religious observances of the people, however, except where they have been affected by Mohammedanism or by Christianity, are forms of spiritworship connected with the use of fetishes (see FETTsmsnr).

Mohammedanism has become an indigenous religion in Africa. It rules absolutely the religious

thought of ninetenths of the people 2• Xo of the northern parts of the continent, hammed and controls in a less degree millions

south of the Sahara from Nile to the Niger. As a civilizing force Mohammedan­ism has value. The first thing the awakened negro does under Mohammedan influence is to obtain a decent robe wherewith to cover himself. Islam wherever it goes ends cannibalism. Its scheme of religious motive in life is to commend religion by making it " easy " to those who find restraint hard. It teaches a certain proportion of the people to recite Arabic litanies of praise to God, and to read Arabic; but to the great mass of the negroes its effect includes neither knowledge of Arabic nor information on the dogmas of Islam. It encourages war in a positive and very read sense; its slave­raids know no amelioration through the change from the tenth to the twentieth century; and they are barely less brutalizing than the maneating raids which they have displaced. The weakness of Mohammedanism as a civilizing force is that it can not raise men to a level higher than the old Arabian civilization which it is proud to represent. And it is a fact of the deepest meaning, from the missionary point of view, that negroes who have

become Mohammedans are equipped with an assurance of righteousness and knowledge which makes them almost impervious to Christian in­struction.

The Protestant missions, on the other hand, bring to their converts the Christian civilization

of the twentieth century with its 8. Prote® blessings and enlightenment. The t

Missions. belief that the commonest man will

be elevated by study of the Bible, makes the literary culture of African languages a first principle in every mission. More than 100 of the tribal dialects have been reduced to writing, and have been given an elementary Biblical study apparatus which improves as the capacity of the people develops. In the process the language itself becomes in some degree purified, and its words enriched by more profound mean­ings, until the language receives power to express feelings. In South Africa hundreds of native Protestant churches lead independent ecclesiastical lives under native pastors. It is perhaps too soon to claim that anything is proved by the moderate successes of a century of Protestant missions; but at least it is not out of place to emphasize the wide difference of aim between the two great branches of the Christian Church now working for the regen­eration of the tribes of Africa.

African missions encounter difficulty from the European colonists. Their aim is quite different from that of the colonists. This alone would make friction and mutual opposition probable. But

the aim of the colonist is sometimes 4. Colo aggressively opposed to that of the mis

anions. sionary. That aim was frankly stated

by the German

early in 1904 as follows: " We have acquired this

colony not for the evangelization of the blacks,

not primarily for their wellbeing, but for us whites.

Whoever hinders our object must be put out of the

way." Such assumption of the right of might

is found not only in German Southwest Africa;

but in the Portuguese colonies, where the slave­

trade is still brutally active; in some of the French

colonies, where the cruelties of the local adminis­

tration broke De Brazza's heart; and in the Kongo

Independent State, where mutilations and other

cruelties mark the Belgian rubber trade and are

glossed over by the assurance that the cutting off

of hands is an old native custom. The same spirit

often appears in British colonies in Africa, but

there 'it is repressed by the government. Where

the colonist acts on the " might is right " principle

the missionary works a stony soil.

The colonist has had occasion from the very beginning of missions in Africa to complain that

one effect of them is to make the people 6. The selfassertive. This is not a fault, "Ethiopian

Move Provided the selfassertion does not

meat." pass the limits of mutual right. Dur

ing the last five or six years a move­ment among the native Christians of South Africa has attracted much attention. It is what is known as the " Ethiopian movement." Its watchword is " Africa for the Africans "; and its aim is to place all African churches under strictly African leader


ship. There is a political sound in some of the utterances of the " Ethiopian " leaders; and the local governments are on the alert to check any developments along that line, more especially since American Africans have taken a hand in the move­ment. There appears to be some connection between this movement and the revolt of the tribes in the south of German Southwest Africa. What­ever the final outcome, it appears certain that as the African tribes learn to think for themselves they must assert their manhood; and, however foolish and futile some of the manifestations of this growing manhood may be, the fact itself is a token that ought to be welcomed. Through it Africa may yet have a history of its own.

II. The The only Christian country of Africa which resisted the Mohammedan irruption. It consists for the most part of a mountain knot in which rise the Atbara River and the Blue Nile, and lies between the Egyptian Sudan and the Red Sea. Area about 150,000 sq. miles; population about 3,500,000; religion, a debased form of the Coptic Church with over 3,000,000 adherents. There are also between 60,000 and 100,000 Jews (called Falashas, " ex­iles "), and about 50,000 Mohammedans, besides 300,000 pagans. The prevailing language is the Amharic with dialects in different sections. The sacred books of the church are in Ethiopic or Geez. The Gallas in the south have a language of their own. In 1490 Portuguese explorers introduced the Roman Catholic religion into Abyssinia. In 1604 a Jesuit mission was established which finally won the adhesion of the emperor. Intrigues led to their expulsion after about thirty years. The Carmelites and Augustinians also engaged in the work, but with no lasting results; the mission was entirely abandoned in 1797. All attempts to reestab­lish Roman Catholic missions were thwarted until the early part of the nineteenth century. The Lazarists succeeded about 1830 in gaining a foothold in vari­ous provinces. They were again expelled from the interior provinces, and now have their headquarters in the Italian territory of Eritrea (see below). A strong missionary advance into Harrar is also being made from Jibuti.

The earliest effort to establish a Protestant mission in Abyssinia was that of Peter Heyling, a law student of Liibeck. He went there in 1640, won favor with the Abyssinian court circles, and began to translate the Bible into colloquial Am­haric. He was captured by Turks in 1652, and, refusing to become a Mohammedan, was decapitated, leaving no trace of his work. In 1752 Christian Fred­erick William Hocker, a Moravian physician, began a persistent effort to establish a mission in Abyssinia. But the mission got no further than Egypt, and was recalled after the death of Hocker in 1782. In 1830 the Church Missionary Society established a mission in Abyssinia, which was broken up in 1838. Later the London Society for Promoting Chris­tianity among the Jews sent missionaries to the Falashas. Suspicions of political designs ham­pered the missionaries; and in 1863 they were im­prisoned by the emperor. A British military expedition stormed Magdala, the capital, in 1868

and freed the captives; but the mission was not again undertaken. In 1866 the Swedish National Missionary Society began a mission in the border of the province of Tigre, near Massowah. For fifteen years the mission made little progress, suffering through the hostility of the people and through attacks of disease. Then the earliest converts were baptized, the first a Galls slave, and next a Mohammedan. In 1904 the society had ten stations in Eritrea (see below) and had succeeded in sending, with the consent of the authorities, native preachers into the southern Galls country west of Gojam. The Bible has a limited circulation in Abyssinia in several versions. The old Ethiopic Church version has been revised, and printed by the British Bible Society. The whole Bible has been translated into Amharic (1824), and into the southern Galls dialect (1898). The New Testament has been rendered (1830) into the Tigr6 dialect of the Geez, and single Gospels into Falasha, into two Galla dialects, and into Bogos. See ABYSSINIA AND THE ABYSSINIAN CHURCH.

A French possession in northern Africa extending southward from the Mediterranean a somewhat uncertain distance into the Desert of Sahara. Area about 184,474 sq. miles; population about 4,739,000. The Algerian Sahara has about 198,000 sq. miles in addition, with a population estimated at 62,000. Although Algeria is regarded as a part of France, it still remains a Mohammedan country. The Mohammedan population is rather vaguely estimated at about 4,100,000, considerable uncertainty existing as to the number of inhabitants of the military district in the hinterland. The Christian population of Algeria is chiefly Roman Catholic (527,000). There are also about 25,000 Greeks, Armenians, and Copts, and about 30,000 Protestants. The number of Jews is 57,000. The language of the country outside of the European colonies is Arabic with several dialects of the Berber language known here as (i.e. " tribesman "). Algeria forms an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church, and is the seat of the Algerian Missionary Society organized through the energetic efforts of Cardinal Lavigerie (q.v.), for missionary enter­prises on the edge of the Sahara and in Senegambia and other African districts as far south as Lake Tanganyika. Protestant missionary enterprises are represented in Algeria by the following: two French societies working among the Jews; Miss Trotter's educational mission; the Plymouth Brethren, who have ten missionaries in different cities in Algeria, but publish no statistics; a small Swedish mission; and the North Africa mission, which occupies four stations and carries on a num­ber of small schools for Mohammedans. None of these missions has a very large following among the natives. In fact missionaries are not allowed by the French authorities to engage in open evan­gelization among Mohammedans. The Arabic version of the Bible has a limited circulation in Algeria. A colloquial version of some of the Gos­pels has been prepared for the use of the common people who have difficulty in understanding the classical Arabic. Some parts of the Bible have


been translated into the Kabyle dialect; and this version, too, has a steady though small circulation. A painful historical interest attaches to the town of Bugia in Algeria. as the scene of the martyrdom in 1315 of Raymond Lully (q.v.), the missionary to the Mohammedans.

Angola: A colony of Portugal in West Africa, with a coastline extending from the mouth of the Kongo River to the borders of German Southwest Africa. It extends into the interior to the Kongo Independent State. Area 484,000 sq. miles; population about 4,000,000, of whom 1,000,000 are rated as Roman Catholics. The Portuguese carried Roman Catholic missions to Angola in the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and a century later established a full ecclesiastical hierarchy in the old kingdom of Kongo, which lay on the left bank of the Kongo. Large numbers of the people of the old kingdom were converted to Christianity, even the king of the Kongo tribes being baptized in 1490. The residence of the king was at the place now known as San Salvador, in the northern part of Angola. This was the seat of the first Roman Catholic bishops. The residence of the bishop was afterward removed to St. Paul de Loanda on the coast, and the buildings at San Salvador fell into ruin as well as the human edifice of the Church in that region. During a hundred years or more the Church gave its blessing to the slavetrade, even the missionaries engaging in it and the bishop encouraging it. This confusion of missionary and mercantile enterprises perhaps accounts for the little progress made by early Christianity in Angola. The present Roman Catholic missionary force is in connection with the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and Sacred Heart of Mary, the mission being connected with the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon (Ulysippo).

Protestant missions in Angola were commenced in 1879 by the Baptist Missionary Society of Eng­land, which occupied San Salvador and the northern part of the Loanda district as a part of its Kongo mission. The American Board opened a mission partly supported by Canadian Congregationalists, in the Benguela district in 1880. In 1882 the Livingstone Inland Mission (English) established a station, in connection with its Kongo mission, in Portuguese territory at Mukimvika on the left bank of the Kongo. This mission was turned over to the American Baptist Missionary Union two years later. In 1886 Bishop William Taylor (q.v.) opened seven missionary stations in the district of Loanda, which are now carried on by the Ameri­can Methodist Episcopal Church. The Plymouth Brethren also have a mission in Angola, and the Swiss PhilAfrican Mission under Heli Chatelain has a single station in Benguela, called Lincoln. All of these missions make use of education, indus­trial training, and medical aid to the suffering as instruments for evangelizing and elevating the people. Together these various Protestant mis­sions report (1904) 65 missionaries (men and women),142 native workers, 50 schools of all classes, 4,235 pupils, with about 4,000 reputed Christians. These Protestant missions have the commen­dation of the higher and the secret execration of the

lower Portuguese officials; they are also hampered by the open hostility of the Portuguese traders and colonists; but they are encouraged by the growing desire of the natives to learn to read and to be men. The native tribes of the interior are numerous, and often separated by barriers of lan­guage, although chiefly of Bantu stock. Parts of the Bible have been translated into the bundu, and the Umbundu dialects, and printed respectively at the presses of the Methodist Episcopal and the American Board missions.

Basutoland: A native protectorate in South Africa, governed by native chiefs under a British commissioner. It lies north of Cape .Colony, with the Orange River Colony and Natal forming its other boundaries. Area 10,293 sq. miles; popu­lation (1904) 348,500, of whom 900 are whites. No white colonists are admitted to this territory. The Basutos belong to the Bantu race; and their language is closely allied to the ZuluKafir language. About 300,000 of the people are pagans; about 40,000 are Protestant Christians; and about 5,000 are Roman Catholics. The capital of the territory it Maseru, where the British commissioner resides. The Protestant missions in Basutoland are main­tained by the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, which entered the country under Rolland and Semue in 1833, and by the Society for the Propa­gation of the Gospel, which began its work in 1875. These two societies have about twentyeight prin­cipal stations and more than 200 outstations with schools, seminaries, printing establishments, etc. The Roman Catholic missions are erected into a prefecture apostolic. They have 6,000 converts. The missions are carried on by Oblates of Mary the Immaculate. Statistics are difficult to obtain, since the reports do not separate work in Basutoland from that of the Orange River Colony and Griqua­land. The Bible has been translated by Casalis and Mabille of the Paris mission into the language of the Basutos, generally spoken of as Suto or Leesuto (1837). There is also quite a Christian literature in the same language.

Bechuanaland Protectorate: A British protector­ate in South Africa; lying between the Molopo River and the Zambesi, with German Southwest Africa on the west, and Transvaal and Rhodesia on the east. Area 275,000 sq. miles much of it being desert; population (1904) 119,772, besides 1,000 whites. It is governed by native chiefs, Khama, Sebele, and Bathoen, each ruling his own tribe. The British commissioner, who supervises all, lives at Mafeking.

The country is traversed by the railway leading from Cape Town northward. Among the regula­tions is one which forbids the granting of licenses to sell liquor. Somewhat over 100,000 of the people are pagans, and about 15,000 are Christians. The Bible has been translated into the language of the chief tribes, which is called Chuan or Sechuan (1831) and single Gospels into Matabele and Mashona. Roman Catholic missions in this territory are under the charge of the Jesuits connected with the Zam­besi mission. Statistics are very difficult to ob­tain, but the Roman Catholic Church seems to have about 3,000 adherents. Protestant missions are

carried on by the London Missionary Society, which extended its work to this territory in 1862, and by the Hermannsburg Missionary Society of Germany, which entered the territory in 1864. It is difficult to obtain the exact statistics of either of these societies, since the mission reports of both cover land beyond the borders of the Bechuanaland Protectorate. It is estimated, however, that the number of their adherents is not far from 12,000.

British East Africa Protectorate: A territory under British control in the eastern part of Africa, in­cludingcoast landsten miles widenominally belong­ing to Zanzibar. The protectorate extends inland to the borders of Uganda. Area about 200,000 sq. miles. While the coast regions are on the whole not health­ful, there is a broad belt of highland 300 miles back from the coast which is most suitable for European habitation; and it was upon this belt of highland that the British government invited the Hebrew Zionists to establish a colony. A railway has been constructed from Mombasa to Kisumu on the Victoria, Nyanza. The population is estimated at 4,000,000, of whom 500 are Europeans and about 25,000 Hindus, Chinese, Goanese, and other Asiatics. Many Arabs are found in the coast districts, es­pecially in the northern part of the territory; and with them are the mixed race called by the Arabs Suahili (" coast people "). Inland the larger part of the population is of the Bantu race; but there are some powerful tribes like the Masai and Nandi who are of Nilotic stock. In the northern part of the country Gallas and Somalis are found. The capital, Mombasa, has had a checkered history. It was founded by the Arabs, who were in possession when the Portuguese arrived in 1498. The Portu­guese continued in power with various vicissitudes until their colony was destroyed 200 years later by the Arabs. The actual British acquisition of this territory dates from 1886 to 1890.

Roman Catholic missions were established on this coast by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century, the stations being treated as an outlying district of the ecclesiastical province of Goa on the west coast of India. The missions followed the fortunes of the Portuguese occupation. They were reestab. lished in 1860 at Zanzibar. Protestant missions began with the arrival of Johann Ludwig Krapf, of the Church Missionary Society, in 1844. They were followed by the United Methodist Free Church in 1861, the Leipsic Missionary Society in 1886, the Neukirchen Missionary Institute in 1887, the Scan­dinavian Alliance Mission of North America in 1892, and the African Inland Mission, an American enterprise, in 1895. The Church of Scotland Foreign Missions Committee is preparing to enter the country also. All of these societies together report 172 missionaries, 92 stations and outstations with schools and hospitals, and about 11,000 ad­herents. The languages of the tribes of this terri­tory differ greatly from each other; and several versions of the Bible will have to be prepared for them. A beginning has been made in translating the Gospels into the Suahili, Nandi, Masai, Somali, and Galls languages.

The islands of Zanzibar and lying off the coast of German East Africa, politically belong I.5

to this territory. Area of the two islands 1,020 sq. miles; population 200,000, including 10,000 East Indians and about 200 Europeans. Zanzi­bar has played an important part in the history of East and Central Africa since the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the region was occupied by Arabs of Muscat. It became a great center of African trade, including the slavetrade. The domains of the Sultan of Zanzibar extended along the whole coast from Mozambique nearly to the Straits of BabelMandeb. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the influence of Great Britain has been gradually increasing, and so leading up to the present protectorate. Germany obtained the southern part of the possessions of Zanzibar on the mainland; Italy bought in 1905 its possession on the Somali coast; and a strip ten miles wide on the coast of British East Africa alone remains to the sultan of all his domains on the mainland, he himself being under the tutelage of a British official. Zanzibar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, with missions conducted by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, in both islands and on the main­land. The mission has about 3,500 adherents. There are ten stations. Schools and hospitals, conducted by Roman Catholic sisters, have been built in the city of Zanzibar. Protestant missions are represented by the Universities Mission which, after abandoning the Shir6 country in 1861, moved its headquarters to the city of Zanzibar. Here Bish­ops William George Tozer, Edward Steere, and Charles Alan Smythies prepared the way for ad­vance into the interior. The mission has a very fine cathedral and hospitals and schools in the island of Zanzibar, besides a line of stations on the mainland in German East Africa, which extends to Lake Nyassa. What has already been said of versions of the Bible in British East Africa applies to Zan­zibar also. The city of Zanzibar itself is a Babel of all African nations and tribes.

Cane Colony: A British colony occupying the southern part of the African continent; bounded on the north by German Southwest Africa, Bechu­analand, the Orange River Colony, Basutoland, and Natal. The colony was founded by the Dutch in 1652, was taken by the British in 1796, was again given up to Holland in 1803, was reoccupied by the British in 1806, and, finally, was ceded to Great Britain in 1814. Area (1904), including native states and Walfisch Bay on the coast of German Southwest Africa, 276,995 sq. miles; population (1904) 2,405,552, of whom 580,380 are white, and 1,825,172 are colored. Of the colored population about 250,000 are a mixture of various races; 15,000 are Malays; and the rest are Hotten­tots, Kafirs, Fingoes, Bechuanas, etc. About 1,118,000 of the population are Protestants; 23,000 are Roman Catholics; 20,000 are Mohammedans; 4,000 are Jews; while 1,226,000 are pagans. Ro­man Catholic missions were represented in the colony before the English occupation, by two priests riding in Cape Town. In 1806, when the British captured the colony, these priests were ex­pelled. Sixteen years later two priests were again stationed at Cape Town, without liberty, however, to go into the surrounding country. The existing


mission in the colony did not commence until 1837, when Raymond Griffith arrived. He had been an Irish Dominican monk, was appointed vicar apos­tolic and consecrated bishop by the Archbishop of Dublin, Aug. 24, 1837. Roman Catholic missions now occupy about 100 stations and outstations in the colony. There are two vicariates and a prefecture apostolic.

Protestant Christians do not seem to have worked among the native population during the Dutch period. In 1737 the Moravian George Schmidt was sent to Cape Town, at the request of certain ministers in Holland, to try to benefit the Hotten­tots and the Bushmen. His success only served to anger the colonists; and he was sent back to Europe in 1742. Fifty years later, in 1792, the Moravians were permitted to reopen their mission in Cape Colony and it has been continued and expanded until the present time, now extending to the east and west. From 1822 to 1867 it had charge of the leper settlement at Hemel en Aarde and Robben Island. About 20,000 native Chris­tians are connected with the Moravian mission. The London Missionary Society began a mission in Cape Colony in 1799 with Vanderkemp as its first missionary, and with such men as Moffat, Living­stone, Philip, and Mackenzie as his successors in a long and brilliant history which through many pains has added some 70,000 natives to the Chris­tians body within the colony. , The society has moved its missions northward into Bechuanaland and Rhodesia, one single station being still retained at Hankey in Cape Colony as an educational center. The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society of England commenced a mission in the colony in the year 1814 with Barnabas Shaw as its first missionary. This mission afterward spread over the whole of the colony, and extended into Natal, Transvaal, Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia. The care of the native congregations within the colony now rests with the South African Methodist Church, which has connected with it native Christians to the number of 113,600. The Glasgow Missionary Society in 1821 sent two missionaries into Kaffraria which has since been annexed to Cape Colony. The Scottish missions have been greatly extended and are now conducted under the United Free Church of Scotland, having given to missionary history such names as Ross and James Stewart, the latter called by the British High Commissioner " the biggest human " in the region. They extend through Kaffraria into Natal and have a native following of some 30,000. Their most prominent work is in the great educational establishments of Lovedale and Blythwood, which have tested and proved the ability of the KafirZulu race to become civilized and useful. The Society for the Propa­gation of the Gospel began a mission in Cape Colony in 1821. This mission is now practically merged into the diocesan work of the Anglican Church which reports some 20,000 baptized native Chris­tians. The Paris Missionary Society felt its way into Basutoland from a station at Tulbagh (1830). The Berlin Missionary Society (1834) with 38 stations and 10,000 adherents, and the Rhenish (1829) and the Hermannsburg (1854) missionary

societies of Germany also have extensive and suc­cessful missions in Cape Colony. The African Methodist Episcopal Church, the National Baptist Convention, the Seventhday Adventists, all from the United States, the Plymouth Brethren, and the Salvation Army are also engaged in missionary work at various points in this great colony.

Among the achievements of missions must be reckoned the success of the Rev. Dr. John Philip of the London Missionary Society in securing attention on the part of the government to the infringement of ordinary rights of natives in the midst of a rush of colonists inclined to regard the natives as mere obstacles to be removed. Dr. Philip was calum­niated and persecuted; but the authorities finally understood that righteous treatment of the blacks is a necessity to the prosperity of the colony. The appearance in recent years of the " Ethiopian move­ment " (see above, I., 4, § 5) has aroused much sus­picion; nevertheless, the authorities aim to secure justice to all, and more and more rely on mis­sions to raise the moral standard of the negro community. See CAPE COLONY.

Central Atkioa Protectorate (British): Aterritory lying west and south of Lake Nyassa, and popu­larly called Nyassaland. Its southern portion in­cludes the Shir6 highlands and extends southward along the Shird River as far as to the mouth of the Ruo. Area 40,980 sq. miles; population estimated at 990,000. Religion chiefly fetishworship. About 300,000 of the people are Mohammedans, and about 18,000 are Christians. There is, however, no regular census, and these figures are mere estimates. Europeans living in the protectorate number about 500; and there are about 200 East Indians con­nected with the military establishment. The lan­guage of the Angoni hillmen is a dialect of Zulu; that of the lake people is in several dialects of which that known as Nyanja (" lake "), is becoming prevalent; that of the eastern part of the Shim district is Yao.

Lake Nyassa was discovered by Dr. Livingstone in 1859. The country then was a select hunting­ground of Arab slaveraiders from Zanzibar and of the Portuguese from the Zambesi. Until 1895, when the slaveraids were stopped by the British authorities, it is said that about 20,000 men, women, and children each year were seized and made to carry ivory to the coast. There they were sold along with the ivory which they had painfully borne for 500 miles. Into such an environment missionaries went at the instance of Livingstone, risking, and with disheartening frequency sacri­ficing, life because they believed that the people could be saved by teaching them the principles of manhood. The Arabs and the Yao savages were against them, the climate sapped their strength, and even wild beasts attacked them. Yet the missionaries won the day, with their Bible, their practical lessons in kindliness, and with their schools, their industrial training, and their high moral principles. The story of the founding of the protectorate is a story of heroism and of the power of the Bible which the devoted missionaries gave to a people whose very speech was illiterate.

The Universities Mission, established at Living. stone's request, entered the Shir6 territory under


Bishop Charles Frederick Mackenzie in 1861. The hostility of the slaveraiders and the rigors of the climate broke up the mission for a time, but it is now thoroughly established at Likoma Island 'in Lake Nyassa, and in some sixty villages on the east shore of the lake and among the Yao tribesmen in the eastern part of the Shird district. The Livingstonia Mission of the Free Church of Scotland, entered the country in 1875 and established its head­quarters first at Cape Maclear at the south end of the lake, moving afterward to high land well toward the northern end of the lake, where the Living­stonia Institution now stands in a most salubrious spot overlooking the western shore. This mission has about 240 stations and outstations. The schools, printinghouse, hospitals, and industrial training establishments of this mission are note­worthy for completeness and beneficent influence quite as much as for their conquest of the chaos which existed when the missionaries arrived on the field. The Church of Scotland founded a mission in the Shiro highlands in 1876. The site was chosen because the missionaries were too ill and exhausted to go farther than the little group of native huts which seemed a haven of rest. Close by that miserable village has arisen about the mission the little town of Blantyre, whose post­office is now a recognized station of the Universal Postal Union. This mission has about forty stations and outstations and a fine group of schools and hospitals. The Zambesi Industrial Mission has taken up a large tract of land lying to the north­west of Blantyre and is teaching the natives to cultivate coffee and other valuable crops. It has about thirty schools in connection with its various settlements. The South African (Dutch) Ministers' Union of Cape Town established a mission in 1901 in the Angoni hillcountry west of Lake Nyassa. It has seven stations and is winning favor among the people. All of these missions have been greatly aided by a commercial enterprise known as the African Lakes Corporation, formed in 1878 by Scottish business men with the definite purpose of cooperating with the missions in civilizing the people of the protectorate. It has organized a regular steamboat service on the lake and the Shim River to the coast at Chinde, and is at last on a paying business basis. The formal establish­ment of the British protectorate over the lake district took place in 1891. It is one of the marks of progress in the civilization of the tribes of the region that in 1904 a large section of the fierce Angoni tribe voluntarily accepted British control and British regulations. The missions named above have about 190 missionaries (men and wom­en), 985 native preachers and teachers, 25,000 chil­dren in their schools, and about 16,000 professing Christians on their rolls. Several of the languages of the protectorate have been reduced to writing and the Bible is in process of publication in the Nyanja, several dialects of which, the Yao, the Konde, and the Tong, are now being unified. The Angoni tribe, in the western part of the protectorate, being of Zulu race, are able to use the Zulu Bible, of which a considerable number of copies are brought from South Africa every year.

Nyassaland is carried on the lists of the Roman Catholic Church as a provicariate confided to the care of the Algerian Missionary Society. But beyond 10 missionaries, 2 schools, and 1,000 ad­herents little can be learned of the progress of the mission.

Dahomey: A French possession in West Africa having a coastline of seventy miles between Togo­land and the British colony of Lagos, and extending northward to the French territory of Senegambia and the Niger. The French gained their first footing on this coast in 1851, Area 60,000 sq. miles; population estimated at about 1,000,000, commonly of unmixed. negro stock: Capital, Por­to Novo on the coast. About sixty miles of rail­way have been built and 400 miles are projected. It is worth noting that of the whole value of the annual imports into Dahomey onefourth represents the liquor traffic. A Roman Catholic mission has existed for some years under the direction of the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa. There are twentytwo missionaries and fifteen schools. The number of the Roman Catholics in the mission is estimated at about 5,000. The only Protestant mission is that of the Wesleyan Missionary So­ciety with a central station at Porto Novo. It has two missionaries who are of French nationality and it occupies ten outstations in the interior. The number of professing Protestant Christians is about 1,000.

Egypt: A tributary province of the Turkish em­pire lying on the Mediterranean Sea east of Tripoli, and touching Arabia on the east at the Isthmus of Suez. Area (excluding the Sudan) about 400,000 sq. miles, of which the Nile Valley and Delta, comprising the most of the cultivated and inhab­ited land, cover only about 13,000 sq. miles. The country is ruled by a hereditary prince called the Khedive, under British tutelage and control. Population (1897) 9,734,405. Capital, Cairo. The Mohammedan population of Egypt numbers about 8,979,000. Of the Christians 648,000 belong to the Oriental Churches, 608,000 being connected with the Coptic or Old Egyptian Church. There are also 56,000 Roman Catholics and 27,000 Protes­tants. About 25,000 of the population are Jews. The Roman Catholic establishments in Egypt date from the beginning of the seventeenth century, being at that time connected with the orders in charge of the holy places at Jerusalem. The present apostolic vicariate of Egypt was established in 1839. Roman Catholic missions in Egypt are under the minor Franciscan friars and the Lyons Seminary for Missions. There are also Lazarists, Jesuits, and Sisters of the Order of the Good Shep­herd, Sisters of the Order of the Mother of God, Sisters of the Order of San Carlo Borromeo, and Sisters of Our Lady of Sion. There are about ninety schools, besides orphanages, hospitals, and other benevolent establishments. Protestant missions are carried on by the American United Presbyterian Mission (1854), the Church Missionary Society ('m its present form 1882), the North Africa Mission, the Egypt General Mission, the Church of Scotland Committee on Missions to the Jews, the London Jews Society, the American Seventhday Adventist


Medical Missions, the (German) Sudan Pioneer Mission, and the (German) Deaconesses of Kaisers­werth (1857). The United Presbyterian Mission is the largest of these missions, occupying stations throughout the Nile Valley and in the Sudan. All together these missions report 166 stations and outstations, 154 missionaries, with . 515 native workers, 171 schools, with over 14,000 pupils and students, ten hospitals and dispensaries, two pub­lishing houses, and about 26,000 adherents. Under British control religious liberty is more or less assured. As a consequence Mohammedans are also included in small numbers among the mission converts. The Church Missionary Society's mis­sion publishes a weekly paper in Arabic and English expressly for Mohammedans. The Bible in Arabic, translated and printed at the expense of the American Bible Society in Beirut, is circulated throughout Egpyt, Arabic being the language of the people. See EGYPT.

An Italian possession in Africa extending 670 miles along the coast of the Red Sea and inland to Abyssinia and the Egyptian Sudan. Area about 85,500 sq. miles; population (estimated) 450,000, of whom about 3,000 are Europeans. The capital is Asmara. The native population of Eritrea is chiefly nomadic. In religion more than 100,000 may be reckoned Mohammedans; 17,000, Roman Catholic; 12,000, of the Eastern Churches; 1,000, Protestants; and 500, Jews. The remainder of the population is pagan, belonging to different races. Roman Catholic missionaries have made this region a basis of operations in Abyssinia for nearly three centuries, having been expelled from Abyssinia proper a number of times. Their cen­tral establishments are now at Massowah (Massaua) and Keran, where they have a hospital, schools, and two or three orphanages. Protestant missions in Eritrea also directed toward the Abyssinian population are carried on by the Swedish National Society. They have 10 stations on the borders of Tigr6 and in the province formerly known as Bogoa with about 15 schools, a hospital, a dispensary, and a small but growing band of evangelical Chris­tians. The Swedish missions have done good service in securing a translation of the Bible into the Galls language (1898), and through trained native workers have succeeded in establishing themselves among the Galls people in the south of Abyssinia.

A territory forming a newly organized administrative region known as French West Africa. It lies on. the coast between Portuguese Guinea and the British colony of Sierra Leone, extending inland some 400 miles to the district of Senegambia and the Niger. Area about 95,000 sq. miles; population estimated at 2,200,000. About 1,000,000 are Mohammedans; more than 1,000,000 are pagans; 1,000 are Roman Catholics, and 500 are Protestants. The capital is Konakry; from which place a railway is now under construc­tion to the Niger River. French colonization in this district began as long ago as 1685, but its development has only been of recent date (1843). The government is undertaking in this, as in all other parts of French West Africa, to introduce

a uniform system of education. This, if carried out, will prove of inestimable advantage to the pop­ulation. The Roman Catholic mission in French Guinea, is carried on by the Lyons Congrega­tions of the Holy Ghost and of the Immacu­late Heart of Mary. There are about 10 mis­sionaries with 12 schools. A Protestant missionary enterprise, following one commenced in 1804 by the Church Missionary Society, is carried on in the Rio Pongas region by West Indian Christians aided by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The missionaries are colored men from the West Indies specially chosen for this work, which has been undertaken with the thought of making amends to Africa for the wrongs inflicted upon its people by England and her colonies. The New Testament has been translated into the Susu language (1858).

A French colonial possession which occupies the west coast of Africa between the Spanish possessions of the Rio Muni on the borders of the Kongo Independent State and Kam­erun, and which extends inland to Lake Chad. The French occupation began in 1841 in a small colony on the Gabun River. Its extension to the Kongo River followed the explorations of De Brazza, between 1875 and 1880. Area about 450; 000 sq. miles; population estimated at from 8,000,­000 upward. Capital, Libreville on the Gabun. Adjoining this territory in the Lake Chad region, Bagirmi, comprising some 20,000 sq. miles, and Wadai, with 170,000 sq. miles, in 1903 submitted to the French control. These two territories are strongly Mohammedan. French Kongo proper has about 3,500,000 Mohammedans in its northern sections, the remainder of the people being pagans of the usual African type. In race the people of the coast are not of the Bantu stock found in the interior.

Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary and the Algerian missionary order. The ecclesiastical cen­ter is Santa Maria on the Gabun, where is the vicari­ate, erected in 1842 under the name, at first, of " the apostolic vicariate of both Guineas." In the Roman Catholic mission there are about fifty priests and about thirty schools with about 5,000 adherents. Protestant missions were established in 1842 by missionaries of .the American Board. The mission was afterward transferred to the American Presby­terian Board (North), and later for political reasons the interior stations were passed over to the French missionaries of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society. Together these two mission have 23 missionaries and about 1,200 adherents. The languages having been reduced to writing by mis­sionaries, the Bible has been translated into Mpon­gwe (185074) and Benga (185888), and various parts have been translated into Dikele, Fang (also called by the French Pahouin), Bulu, and Galwa.

Gambia: A British colony and protectorate lying on both sides of the Gambia River, extending some 250 miles inland from its mouth and closely hemmed in by the French West African territory. The colony was commenced in 1662. Area, estimated

(1903), . 3,061 sq. miles; population, estimated


(1903), 163,781; capital, Bathurst on the Island of Saint Mary. There are about 90,000 Moham­medans in the colony, 56,000 pagans, 4,000 Roman Catholics, and 2,000 Protestant Christians. All of these figures, however, are estimates, excepting as to the colony proper. The Roman Catholic mission is under the care of the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa, and carries on two or three schools. The Protestant mission is carried on by the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society which entered the colony in 1821. It has 7 outstations, 4 schools, and about 2,000 adherents in the colony. The Society of Friends established a mission in this colony in 1822, and schools were carried on by Hannah Hilham until her death in 1832, when the mission was given up. The history of the Protes­tant missions here includes a very considerable loss of life among the missionaries, due to the un­healthfulness of the country. The Arabic Bible is used to a limited extent, and parts of the Bible have been translated also into the Wolof and Man­dingo languages.

German East Africa: A German colony and sphere of influence lying on the east coast of Africa, between British East Africa and Portuguese East Africa, and extending inland to Lakes Nyassa and Tanganyika. Area about 384,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 7,000,000, including 1,437 Europeans. There are about 15,000 Arabs, In­dians, Chinese, and other Asiatics in this territory. A railway has been built from Tanga on the coast about eighty miles inland to Korogwe; it is to be carried ultimately to Lake Tanganyika. In relig­ion the people of the country are: pagans, about 6,500,000; Mohammedans, for the most part near the coast, 300,000; Hindus, Buddhists, etc., 12,000; Roman Catholics, 20,000; Protestants, 7,000. Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, the Trappists, the Benedictines, and the Algerian Missionary Society. They have extensive establishments about the northern and eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika, and report 58 stations, 195 missionaries, 77 nuns, and 295 schools with 17,823 scholars. It is possible that a part of the figures here given refer to mis­sions lying beyond the border of the Kongo Inde­pendent State. Ecclesiastical jurisdiction centers at Zanzibar. The Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society, the Univer­sities Mission, the German East Africa Mission, the Leipsic Missionary Society, the Moravian Church, and the Berlin Missionary Society. The two lastnamed societies are active at the north end of Lake Nyassa; and the Moravians are ex­tending stations thence northward. The Univer­sities Mission has stations along the Rovuma River and on the eastern shore of Lake Nyassa. The Berlin society has a station at DaralSalam on the Indian Ocean; and the other German societies have their stations mostly along the northern boundary and in the foothills of Mounts Kilima­Njaro and Mweru. All these societies together report 60 central stations, 123 missionaries, and 230 schools with about 11,000 scholars. The Leipsic society has a printingpress, and publishes a newspaper at one of stations.

The Suahili version of the Bible is used along the coast (completed in 1892). The New Testament has been translated into Yao (1880) and Gogo (1887). Some of the Gospels have been translated into Bondei, Chagga, Kaguru, Nyamwezi, Sagalla, Shambale, and Sukuma, and the translation is progressing in several of these as the people acquire a taste for reading.

German Southwest Africa: A German colony and protectorate on the west coast of Africa, lying south of Angola and bounded on the east and south by Cape Colony and the Bechuanaland protectorate. Area 322,450 sq. miles; population about 200,000, composed of Namaquas (Hottentots) and Damaras, with Hereros and Ovambos in the north, who are of Bantu stock. The European population num­bers 4,682. Walfisch Bay on this coast is a British possession belonging to Cape Colony. The seat of administration is Windhoek. The chief seaport is Swakopmund, whence a railway of 236 miles leads to Windhoek. The Hereros in the north and the Namaquas in the south have been at war against the German authorities since 1904, and the colony has suffered much in consequence. Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Oblates of Hanfeld, and the Oblates of St. Francis of Sales (Vienna). The latter have 2 missionaries and 4 nuns. The other missions have been dis­turbed by the war, and statistics are not given. Protestant missions are carried on by the Rhenish Missionary Society of Germany, and the Finland Missionary Society. Together these societies had about 16,000 adherents before the war; but recent statistics are lacking, a number of the stations having been destroyed. The Bible has been trans­lated into Namaqua (1881), and the New Testa­ment into Herero (1877). Some Gospels have been completed in Kuanyama and Ndonga (Ovambo).

Gold Coast Colony: A British crown colony and territory stretching for 350 miles along the Gulf of Guinea, in West Africa, between the Ivory Coast and Togoland. Area 119,260 sq. miles; population 1,500,000. About 32,000 of the people are Moham­medans; 35,000, Protestants; 6,000, Roman Catho­lics; and the rest are pagans of the animist type with deep veneration for fetishes. The Roman Catholic missions are connected with the Lyons Seminary for African Missions, and have 16 mis­sionaries with 13 schools. Protestant missions were commenced in 1752 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. As a result of this mis­sion an African, Philip Quaque, was taken to England, educated, ordained, and returning to the Gold Coast, preached there for some fifty years. The missions now existing are those of the Basel Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Mis­sionary Society (England), the National Baptist Convention '(U. S. A.), and, since 1905, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. These missions together report 875 places of regular worship, 82 mis­sionaries (men and women), 1,088 native workers, 235 schools with 11 557 scholars, and 34,835 Chris­tian adherents. The missions make steady prog­ress; but, at the same time, they point out that Mohammedanism is also making progress among


the pagans. Kumassi, the former capital of Ashan­tiland, is now connected with the coast by a railway 168 miles long; and light steamers are used on the Volta River. An artificial harbor is being con­structed at Sekondi, the coast terminal of the rail­way. The Bible has been translated into Akra (184465) and Otshi (1870). The New Testament has been translated into Fanti (1884) and Ew5 (1872). Progress has been made toward com­pleting the Bible in both of these dialects.

Ivory Coast: A French territory included in the great administrative region known as French West Africa. It has its coastline between Liberia and the British Gold Coast Colony, and extends inland to the territory of Senegambia and the Niger. The French first obtained possessions on this coast in 1843. Area 200,000 sq. miles; population about 3,000,000, of whom 300 are Europeans. In religion about 200,000 are Mohammedans; about 1,000, Roman Catholics; and the rest, pagans. The capital is Bingerville. A railway is being con­structed inland from Bassani, of which 110 miles are nearly finished. The only missions in the country are carried on by the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa (Roman Catholic). There are said to be 16 priests, who have 7 schools and some orphanages.

Hamerun: A protectorate and colonial possession of Germany, occupying the west coast of Africa between French Kongo and Nigeria. Inland it extends in a northeasterly direction to Lake Chad. Area about 191,000 sq. miles; population (esti­mated) 3,500,000, of whom (in 1904) 710 were whites. The native population is largely of the Bantu race, with tribes of Sudan negroes inland. Capital, Buea. The German annexation took place in 1884. Roman Catholic missions have been active in this region since 1889, and are in charge of the Pallotin Missionary Society of Limburg. They report 7 stations, 34 missionaries, 20 nuns, 2,418 pupils in their schools, and 3,780 Roman Catholic Christians. Protestant missions were commenced by Alfred Saker of the Baptist Mission­ary Society (England) in 1844, he having been expelled from Fernando Po by the Spanish, govern­ment. With the German colonization of Kamerun (1880•82) difficulties arose, and the Baptist mission was turned over to the Basel Missionary Society, T. J. Comber and G. Grenfell of the Baptist mission going south to found a mission on the Kongo. A con­siderable body of the native Baptists declined to accept the transfer, and the German Baptists of Berlin sent missionaries to care for them. The German Baptist mission reports 14 missionaries, 1,400 pupils, and 2,170 professed Christians. The Basel Society's mission, established in 1885, has extended inland, and reports (1905) 64 missionaries, 163 native workers, 6,452 pupils, and 6,422 pro­fessed Christians. The eagerness of the natives to learn to read is remarkable. The American Presbyterians (North) opened a mission in the southern part of the country in 188593, which has 30 missionaries, 27 stations and outstations, 15 schools, a hospital, and about 3,000 professing Christians. The entire Bible was translated into the Baptista in 1868, and a version of

the New Testament in the same language, which others than Baptists can use, was issued in 1902. The Benga Bible, used in the Rio Muni colony, is circulated to some extent in the south of Kamerun, and parts of the Bible have been translated into Isuba and Bala.

Bongo Independent State: A region occupying in general the basin of the Kongo River and its tribu­taries in West Central Africa. It touches the seacoast by a narrow neck that extends along the right bank of the river to its mouth. The left bank is held by Portugal. By international agree­ment in 1885 the state was placed under the sover­eignty of King Leopold II. of Belgium. H. M. Stanley, who first explored the region, was its first administrator. International resolutions de­clare the navigation of the Kongo and its branches free to all, and proclaim the suppression of the slavetrade and the protection of the native inhab­itants. The region has highlands well adapted to the residence of Europeans, and its natural wealth, although but slightly developed, is probably very great. The state appears to be administered upon the ancient colonial theory of deriving reve­nue from it at all hazards. Great tracts of its territory have been passed over to trading com­panies, the first condition of whose concessions is an obligation to pay the king of Belgium from 40 to 45 per cent. of their gains. The result has been abuses. The trading companies are charged with forcing the natives to work, treating them in fact as slaves, flogging and killing or mutilating them when they fail to obey orders. Missionaries made facts of this nature known, and King Leopold appointed a commission to examine the situation, with the result that many terrible outrages were found to be habitually committed by the armed guards organized by the trading companies. The commission, while inclined to justify severe meas­ures, as necessary to lead the natives to work, recommended that the trading companies be for­bidden to use armed guards or to require forced labor from the people of the districts which they administer. There is some hope of an amelioration of conditions in consequence. The capital is Boma, at the mouth of the Kongo River.

The area of the state is estimated at about 900; 000 sq. miles; population estimated at from 15; 000,000 to 30,000,000. The white people number 2,483. For the most part the people of the Kongo are of the Bantu race. Every tribe has its own dialect, so that the number of dialects is consid­erable. Roman Catholic missions were established in the Kongo region in the latter part of the fifteenth century. It should be remembered, however, that these early missions were almost entirely in what is now still Portuguese territory. Nothing seems to have been undertaken at that time in the interior of what is now Kongo State. At the present time the Roman Catholic missions extend along the river and in the Ubangi district. They have founded a number of stations also in the Tanganyika region. Schools, industrial work, and agricultural opera­tions are carried on with considerable success. Some of the natives have been trained by the mis­sionaries in Europe as physicians, and render good


service as such. Statistics of the missions are not clearly given, but seem to show about 20,000 con­verts. Protestant missions in this region quickly followed the explorations of H. M. Stanley. The Livingstone Inland Mission from England com­menced work on the lower Kongo in 1878, but their stations were shortly transferred to the American Baptist Missionary Union. The Baptist Missionary Society of England established a mis­sion on the upper river in 1879 having for its pio­neers Grenfell, Comber, and Bentley; the Plymouth Brethren, led by F. S. Arnot, in the Garenganze region in 1881; the Regions Beyond Missionary Union, in the Balolo district of the upper Kongo in 1889; the American Presbyterians (South), led by S. N. Lapsley, on the KassaiRiver in 1891; the Swedish Missionary Society on the right bank of the lower Kongo in 1882. These missionary societies have about 200 missionaries and nearly 1,000 native workers, with schools, hospitals, industrial estab­lishments, including printinghouses, and about 15,000 adherents. Several missionary steamers ply on the great river. Educational work is rapidly expanding, the natives showing the greatest eager­ness to learn to read. The Belgian commission of inquiry in its report (1905) paid a high tribute to the value of these missions in singling out the field of the Baptist Missionary Society as a district where the natives have been taught to work and are noticeably industrious. Several of the dialects of the region have been reduced to writing by the missionaries. The whole Bible has been printed in Fioti (completed 1904); the New Testa­ment, in Kongo (1893); and parts of the New Testa­ment, in the Teke, Labs, Bopoto, Bolegin, Bangi, Nsembe, and Balolo. These latter translations are more or less tentative, and will hardly be en­larged more rapidly than the increase of readers may demand. In the mean time the Fioti Bible can be understood by people using other dialects in ordinary speech.

A British colony and protectorate in Western Africa lying on the coast between Dahomey and Southern Nigeria, and extending inland to the French territories of the middle Niger. Area, including Yorubaland and the protectorate, 25; 450 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,500,000. The great mass of the population are pagan fetish­worahipers. There are some 7,000 Mohammedans, 15,000 Roman Catholics, and 32,000 Protestants. A railway has been built from Lagos to Ibadaa in the Yoruba country, with a branch to Abeokuta: The Yoruba chiefs are allowed to govern their land under British supervision.

Roman Catholic missions are under the Lyons Seminary for African Missions. They report 27 priests, 24 schools, and several charitable institu­tions. The Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society and a native pastor­ate in cooperation with it; by the Wesleyan Metho­dist Missionary Society; by the Southern Baptist Convention (1856); and by the National Baptist Con­vention (U. S. A.). The whole Protestant mis­sionary body has 189 stations and outstations, 55 missionaries (men and women), 317 native workers, 110 schools with 7,000 scholars, and 3 hospitals

and dispensaries. The government maintains Mohammedan and pagan schools, but the pupils availing themselves of this privilege of nonChris­tian education in 1902 were only 192. Abeokuta was evangelized in the first instance about 1842 by freed slaves who had been taught Christianity in Sierra Leone, 1,000 miles to the westward, and who led the people of the city to invite the Church Missionary Society to send missionaries there. This was done in 1846. A remarkable man con­nected with this mission in its early days was Samuel Crowther (q. v.), rescued as a boy from a Por­tuguese slaver, educated, and sent as a preacher to Abeokuta where he found his relatives. He after­ward was consecrated bishop of the Niger in Canter­bury Cathedral, and rendered admirable service to the mission during a long life. The assistant bishop of Yorubaland, now, is a fullblooded African. In 1903 the paramount chief of Abeokuta visited London to do homage to the king, and at the same time called at the offices of the Church Missionary Society and the Bible Society to express thanks for great services rendered to his people. The Bible has been translated into Yoruban (1850), and the New Testament into Hausa (1857). One of the Gospels has been tentatively translated into Igbira.

An independent republic in Western Africa which has grown out of an effort to colonize freed slaves from America. The first settlement was made in 1822. The republican government was organized in 1847. The coast of the republic extends from Sierra Leone to the Ivory Coast Colony. The territory extends about 200 miles inland, and is hemmed in on the east by French territory. Only a region extending about 25 or 30 miles inland from the coast, however, is effect­ively administered by the republic. Area about 45,000 sq, miles; population (estimated) 2,000,000, about 20,000 of whom are of American origin. The language of the republic is English. Several native dialects are found among the tribes of the interior. It is estimated that there are about 850,000 Mohammedans and somewhat over 1,000; 000 pagans in Liberia, with about 500 Roman Catholics and 25,000 Protestant Christians. Ro­man Catholic missions are dependent upon their headquarters at Free Town in Sierra Leone. The missionaries belong to the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and Sacred Heart of Mary. Since 1903 there has been a separate missionary juris­diction confided to the Marist Fathers. Protes­tant missions in Liberia were commenced by the American Baptist Convention through the Rev. Lott Carey, who went to Monrovia in 1822. After

disease had carried off many vietiM §Meig the

missionaries the mission was given up. The Presbyterian Church (North) established a mission in Liberia in 1833, which was also given up on ac­count of the ravages of disease among the mis­sionaries. The American Methodist Church etab­lished a mission at Monrovia in 1833, of which the Rev. Melville B. Cox was the pioneer. This mission is still carried on with a great measure of success. The American Protestant Episcopal

Church established a mission at Cape Palmas in


1834, with the Rev. John (afterward Bishop) Payne as one of the first missionaries. This mission is still carried on with considerable success, about twenty of the mission clergy being from the Grebo tribe of natives. The American Board established a mission at Cape Palmas in 1834, the Rev. J. L. Wilson being one of the earliest missionaries. On account of the unhealthfulness of the region the missionaries and a number of their adherents removed in 1842 to the Gabun district in what is now the French Kongo colony, transferring their buildings and other immovables in Liberia to the Protestant Episcopal Mission. The National Bap­tist Convention established a mission in Liberia in 1853, and the Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of North America also established a mission in 1860 which is doing good industrial work. These societies together report 92 missionaries and 182 native workers operating at 168 stations, with schools, hospitals, printingpresses, and industrial institutions. Parts of the New Testament have been translated into Grebo (1838). See LIBERIA.

xoroooo: An independent Mohammedan empire in Northwest Africa having a coastline on the Mediterranean and on the Atlantic Ocean. The country is gradually falling under the direction of France. Area 219,000 sq. miles (the southern frontier, however, is not definitely fixed); popu­lation (estimated) 5,000,000, being composed of Berbers, Tuaregs, and Arabs. In name, at least, the greater part of the population is reckoned as Mohammedan. There are about 150,000 Jews and about 6,000 Christians of the Roman Catholic and Eastern churches, with a few Protestants. .fin apostolic prefecture of the Roman Catholics was established at Tangier in 1859, and under it are about forty priests in different cities of Morocco. Protestant missions are carried on by the North Africa Mission (1881), the Gospel Mission Union (U.S.A., 1894), and the Southern Morocco Mis­sion (1888); besides some workers among the Jews in Tangier. There is little religious lib­erty in Morocco, and there seems to be but little growth of the Protestant community.

A British colony in South Africa lying on the eastern coast between Cape Colony and Portu­guese East Africa. It is bounded inland by the Transvaal, the Orange River Colony, and Basuto­land. Area 35,306 sq. miles; population (1903) 1,039,787. Of these, 877,388 are ZuluKafirs; 97,857, Asiatics; and 82,542, Europeans. About 850,000 of the population are pagans, 30,000 are Hindus, 14,000 are Mohammedans, 15,000 are Buddhists or Confucians, 22,000 are Roman Catho­lics, and 73,000 are Protestants. The country takes.its name from the whim of Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese navigator, who happened to arrive at the coast on Christmas day. Roman Catholic missions are under the care of the Oblates of Mary the Immaculate; they report 50 missionaries and 7 native clergy, with 55 schools and several orphanages and hospitals. Their ecclesiastical center is at Pietermaritzburg, the seat of a vicar apostolic. The local Anglican, Wesleyan, and Dutch Reformed congregations all carry on mis­sionary work; and, besides these, the following

eleven missionary societies are at work in Natal: the American Board (1835), whose early mission­aries were, Daniel Lindley, Robert Adams, Aldin and Lewis Grout, and Josiah Tyler; the United Free Church of Scotland; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, both of which en­tered Natal as an extension of work in Kaffraria; the Berlin Missionary Society; the Hermamusburg Missionary Society; the Norwegian Missionary So­ciety; the Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant; the Free Methodists of North America; the South Africa General Mission; the National Baptist Convention; and the Plymouth Brethren. All these societies together report 192 stations and outstations, 106 missionaries (men and women), 612 native workers, 161 schools with 7,016 pupils, 2 hospitals, and one printinghouse. Many of the native churches formerly connected with the older missions are now independent and selfsupporting, and do not appear on the mission statistics because reckoned as churches of the country. Many of the tribal chiefs, who are pagans and polygamists of a rank order, but who nevertheless treat mission­aries as benefactors, oppose the Christian Church with all their might as tending to make their " sub­jects " think for themselves and question the commands of hereditary despots. The British authorities are inclined to hamper the freedom of the missions on account of their suspicion of " Ethi­opianism." At present a native preacher may not officiate in a church unless under the immediate supervision of a responsible white clergyman.

The Bible has been translated into Zulu (1851­83). This is one of the most important of the African versions published by the American Bible Society. It has a range of circulation extending to Lake Nyassa and into Bechuanaland.

Nigeria: A British territory and sphere of influ­ence in West Africa lying on the coast between Lagos and Kamerun, and extending inland between the German and the French possessions as far as Lake Chad. It is divided into Northern and Southern Nigeria. Lagos with its protectorate is naturally a part of the region, but at present is separately administered. Area: Northern Nigeria, 315,000 sq. miles; Southern Nigeria, 49,700 sq. miles; population (estimated for the whole great region) 23,000,000. It is estimated that the Mohammedan part of the population numbers about 10,000,000, and the pagan part about 13,­000,000. This is mere guesswork, since the country is not even explored. In all the coast regions the pagans, of the most degraded class of fetishwor­shipers, predominate. In Northern Nigeria the Mohammedan element is the ruling one (under British restraint), but there are large sections occupied by pagan tribes. Christians are for the most part in Southern Nigeria., and their numbers are given as: Roman Catholics, 18,000; Protes­tants, 6,000. The seat of government in Northern Nigeria is Zungeru on the Kaduna River; that of Southern Nigeria is Old Calabar. Steamers ply on the Niger about 400 miles from its mouth. A railway is being constructed in Northern Nigeria from Zungeru toward Kano, a great trading center south of Lake Chad.


Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. Ten missionaries are reported with 6 schools. Protestant missions are those of the United Free Church of Scotland in the Calabar region in Southern Nigeria (1846) and of the Church Missionary Society in the Niger delta (1857) and in Northern Nigeria (1902, after a failure in 1890), the Qua Ibo Mission on the Qua River (1887), and the African Evangelistic Mission (1901) and the Sudan United Mission (1903) in Northern Nigeria. The missions in Northern Nigeria are still in the early stage, with little more to show than the names of Wilmot Brooke, J. A. Robinson, and W. R. S. Miller who sacrificed life for that land. In Southern Nigeria there are 82 mission­aries (men and women), and 157 schools with 2,482 scholars. The Anglican bishop of this region is assisted by a bishop who is a fullblooded negro. The Bible has been translated into Efik (1862); and tentative translations of single Gospels have been made into Akunakuna, into three or four dialects of Ibo, into Idzo, and into Union. These are all dialects of Southern Nigeria. Gospels have been translated into the Igbira and Nup6 lan­guages besides the Hausa language, all in Northern Nigeria.

Orange River Colony: A British possession in South Africa. It has the Transvaal on the north, Natal and Basutoland on the east, and Cape Colony on the west and south. During fortysix years it was the Orange Free State and was annexed to the British crown in May, 1900, in consequence of its participation in the Boer attack on the adjacent British colonies. Area 50,100 sq. miles; population (1904) 385,045, of whom 143,419 are whites and 241,626 are colored. Capital, Bloemfontein. About 220,000 of the inhabitants are pagans. The pre­dominating Christian body is the Dutch Reformed Church. The whole number of Protestants is about 100,000; of Roman Catholics, 5,000. The country is an excellent agricultural region. Dia­monds and other precious stones are found in some sections; and the population tends to increase and to become more and more varied in its constituent elements. Roman Catholic missions are in charge of the Oblates of Mary the Immaculate. The statistics of their work in the colony are not sep­arately given, but there seem to be 14 missionary priests and 2 native priests, with 13 schools. Prot­estant missionary activities are largely in the hands of the local churches. The Dutch Reformed Church has here shown, much more than elsewhere used to be the case, a purpose to work for the evan­gelization of the native pagans. The Wesleyan Church and the mis­sions locally supported; but the work for whit and blacks is not separately reported. Besides this local church work, in beginning which the Paris Missionary Society had a part (1831), the Berlin Missionary Society (1834) is at work in the colony with 33 stations and outstations, 18 missionaries, 148 native workers, 27 schools, and about 8,000 professed Christians connected with its stations. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1863) has 4 stations among the natives, but its

statistics are not separately given. The Zulu Bible, the Chuana version, and the Leauto version used in Basutoland supply the needs of the people in this colony.

Portuguese East Africa: One of the oldest Portu­guese possessions in Africa, situated on the east coast between German East Africa and Natal. It extends inland to British Central Africa, and on both banks of the Zambesi River to Rhodesia. It is composed of the districts of Mozambique, Zambesia, and Lourengo Marques. Area 293,400 sq. miles; population (estimated) 3,120,000. Much of the territory is in the hands of trading companies, which administer the laws in their respective dis­tricts. Delagoa Bay is connected by railway with Pretoria in the Transvaal, and another rail­way runs from Beira in Zambesia to Buluwayo in Rhodesia. The Portuguese began their colonies on this coast in 1505, and the Roman Catholic Church has had strong missions in the region ever since. The ecclesiastical organization was effected in 1612. At present missions in this territory are in the hands of the Society of Jesus, with stations extending along the Zambesi River into the interior. About 30 missionaries are reported. Protestant missions are carried on by the American Methodist Episcopal Church at Inhambane, by the Wesleyan Methodists of England in the Delagoa Bay district, by the Swiss Romande Mission in the south, and by the American Board among the Gaza tribes and at Beira, the chief seaport of the district of Zambesia. The Universities Mission has one station in this territory adjoining its field in Nyamaland. These societies together have 40 missionaries (men and women), 103 native workers, and about 7,000 adherents, with hospitals and schools. A printing. press at Inhambane is beginning to form a litera­ture in two native languages. The New Testament has been translated into Tonga (1890), and the Gospels into Sheetawa (1891). A Gospel has been translated into Ronga by the Swiss Romande missionaries.

Portuguese Guinea: A Portuguese possession adjoining French Kongo on the West African coast, and surrounded by French territory on the land side. It is included in the administration of the Cape Verde Islands. Area, including the islands, 6,280 sq. miles; population, including the islands, 1,000,000. The population is generally given as including 260,000 Roman Catholics; and there are about 170,000 Mohammedans and over 500,000 pagans on the mainland. Roman Catholic missions were established on the mainland in 1832, and are connected with the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon. They comprise eight Roman Catholic pwiohes. No Protestant missions have been established in this territory.

Rhodesia: An immense territory in South Africa,

lying between the Transvaal and the Kongo Inde­pendent State, and having as its eastern boundary Portuguese East Africa, and as its western boundary Angola and German Southwest Africa. It is ad­ministered as British .territory by the British South Africa Company under a British resident com­missioner. In its northeastern


for by the Nyassaland protectorate. It is divided into Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia by the Zambesi River. Area about 246,000 sq. miles; population about 900,000, of whom 12,000 are Europeans and about 1,100 are Asiatics. There are about 5,000 Roman Catholics and 20,000 Protestants in this country. The Roman Catholic missions are not conterminous with the boundaries of this territory, and it is impossible to give their statistics. The missionaries are of the Algerian Society with a certain number of Jesuits in the Zambesi region. Protestant missions in this region were commenced by Robert Moffat of the London Missionary Society in 1830. Livingstone explored the whole region for the same society and unsuc­cessfully attempted to establish stations among the Mashonas. John Mackenzie was $ worthy successor of such pioneers. At present the Protes­tant missionary societies in Rhodesia are: the London Missionary Society in Matabeleland and at the southern end of Lake Tanganyika; the Wes­leyan Methodist Missionary Society in Mashonaland and Matabeleland; and the Paris Missionary Society in Barotseland in the territory north of the Zambesi, which F. Coillard entered in 1885 as an extension of the Society's work in Basutoland, the Barotses having the same speech as the Basutos. The Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society (U. S. A.) and the American Board have missions in the eastern part of Southern Rhodesia, near the Portuguese frontier. These societies together have 112 stations and outstations, 70 missionaries (men and women), 6,000 pupils in their schools, and 15,000 professed Chriatians. The construction of railways, connecting Rhodesia with Cape Town and the Portuguese seaports and opening up the coun­try beyond the Zambesi, is bringing many colonists into the country; and their advent implies that a testing time of the reality of the Christianity of the native churches is at hand. The people use the Bible in Zulu, in Sechuana, and in Lesuto. Tentative translations of Gospels have been made in the Matabele and the Mashona languages.

A Spanish possession in North Africa stretching southward along the shore to the Atlan­tic Ocean from the Morocco frontier and extending inland to the French possessions of the Sahara. Area about 70,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 130,000, almost all Mohammedans. The territory is administered by the governor of the Canary Islands. Roman Catholic missions ecclesiastically connected with the Canary Islands are established at the points occupied by Spanish traders. There are no Protestant missions in the country.

Spanish possession in West Africa adjoining the German Kamerun colony and sur­rounded on the east and south by the territory of the French Kongo. Area 9,800 sq. miles; popu­lation (estimated) 140,000, including about 300 whites. Roman Catholic missions have existed here since 1855 and are carried on by the Spanish Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary, being ecclesiastically connected with the island diocese of AnnObon and Fernando Po. A Protestant mis­in this territory by the

American Presbyterians (North) who established themselves in 1855 on the island of Corisco, and later on the Benito River. They have 4 stations and outstations, 7 schools, and about 300 professed Christians. The Bible has been translated into the Benga language (1858), which has a somewhat extensive domain in the coast regions.

A French colony in West Africa. between the Gambia and the Senegal rivers. It consists of a narrow strip of coast land, forming the colony proper, together with certain ports on the Senegal River. Area 438 sq. miles; population (1904) 107,826, of whom 2,804 Are Europeans. The people of the colony proper are citizens, having the right to vote, and being represented by a deputy in the French parliament. The capital of the colony is St. Louis, on the seacoast. Roman Catholic missions have long existed in Senegal, and were placed under an ecclesiastical prefecture in 1'765. There are about 5,000 native Roman Catholics in the colony. The only Protestant mission work­ing in Senegal is that of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, which has a station at St. Louis (1863) and two or three small congregations in the vicinity. Besides the Arabic Bible, which is occasionally called for, some of the Gospels have been translated into the Wolof and Mandingo languages (1882).

An immense French protectorate comprising the territories formerly called Western Sudan, with the larger part of the Sahara, having the colony of Senegal on the west, the colonies of the Ivory Coast, the Gold Coast, Dahomey, and Togoland on the south, and extend­ing on the north to the Algerian Sahara. Area 2,500,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 10,000; 000. The prevailing religion is Mohammedanism. Many pagan tribes exist who serve Mohammedan rulers and furnish slaves for the markets of Tripoli and the Barbary States. The capital is Kayes, on the Senegal River. This great territory, with the French colonies of Senegal, French Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Dahomey, forms a single region known as French West Africa, of which the govern­orgeneral resides at Dakar on the coast of Senegal. Steamers run regularly on the Senegal River some 400 miles to Kayes; and a railway has been con­structed from Kayes 650 miles to some important points on the upper Niger. A feature of this re­gion is that the French government has planned a universal system of education which it is en­deavoring to apply throughout the territories effectively occupied. Roman Catholic missions have been carried on for a number of years at several of the posts on the Senegal and Niger rivers; the number of converts is reported as 10,000. No Protestant missions are reported in this great region.

A British colony and protectorate in West Africa, lying on the coast between Liberia and French Guinea, and extending inland about 180 miles, limited by the boundaries of the French possessions and of Liberia. Area about 34,000 sq. miles; population about 1,100,000. Of the people about 1,000,000 are pagans, 20,000 are Mohammed­ans, 5,000 are Roman Catholics, and 50,000 are



Protestants. The colony proper is limited to the Sierra Leone peninsula. It was the place whence in 1562 the first slaves were taken to the West Indies under the British flag. After slaves in England had been set free, in 1772, a district in Sierra Leone was set apart to be colonized by liberated slaves. Here, from 1786 on, freed slaves were landed and almost abandoned to their own resources except as to fooda great crowd of debased creatures from all parts of Africa, knowing no common language and having no principle of life except such evil things as they had picked up during slavery among Europeans. The situation of these freed slaves had a powerful influence in turning English missionary zeal to West Africa. The Roman Catholic establishment is under an apostolic vicariate erected in 1858 at Freetown. The missionaries are of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. The number of Roman Catholics is 2,800.

The Protestant missionary enterprise was com­menced in the latter part of the eighteenth century by missionaries from Scotland; three having died soon after their arrival, the mission was given up. The Church Missionary Society sent missionaries to Sierra Leone in 1804; but they were instructed to go north and begin their mission in the Susu country on the Rio Pongas in what is now French Guinea. They were all Germans, chosen because of the difficulty of securing ordination of English­men for this society. The mission came to naught through the hostility of the slavedealers, and was finally transferred (181416) to Sierra Leone. Here a solid work was soon organized among the freed slaves, and has grown ever since. The Prot­estant missionary societies now working in that field are: the Church Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, the Wes­leyan Methodist Connection of America, the United Brethren (U. S. A.) in the Mendi region, and the Christian and Missionary Alliance (U. S. A.) in the eastern part of the protectorate. The Church Missionary Society field is almost wholly in the protectorate, the congregations in Sierra Leone being selfsupporting and independent. Together the mission stations and outstations number about 131. There are 42 missionaries (men and women), 117 schools, and about 45,000 professed Christians connected with the missions. The English Bible is used in the colony. The New Testament has been translated into TemnS (1866); parts. of the New Testament into Mendi; and single Gospels, into Bullom and Kuranko. The Yoruba mission of the Church Missionary society was an outgrowth of the society's work among freed slaves at Sierra Leone. See below, III., LAGOS.

somaliland (British): A British the east coast of North Africa, lying between Abys­sinia and the sea and between French gomaliland and Italian Somaliland. It is administered by a consulgeneral. Area about 60,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 300,000; religion, Moham­medan. Most of the people of this district are nomads and very fanatical in their intolerance of Christians. The English government has been at a considerable expense in money and men to

pacify the tribes of the interior, who have attempted to drive the English from the country on religious grounds. No missions are reported in this district.

8omaUlsad (French): A French protectorate on the eastern coast of North Africa, near the Straits of BabelMandeb, between the Italian colony of Eritrea and British Somaliland, extending inland to the Abyssinian border and including the colony of Obock. Capital, Abuti. Area about 46,000 sq. miles; population about 200,000, mostly Mo­hammedans, with some 40,000 pagans, and in the colony of Obock about 8,000 Christians. A rail­way has been constructed from Jibuti to the Harrar frontier in Abyssinia. There has been for many years a Roman Catholic mission conducted by the French Capuchins who have two or three schools at Obock and Jibuti, and are reaching out toward Abyssinia.

6omaliland (Italian): An Lalian possession on the eastern coast of North A:rica, lying between the Gulf of Aden and Abyssinia, and between British Somaliland and the mouth of the Juba River, the frontier . of Br•tish East Africa. The sovereign rights of the Sultan of Zanzibar over this coast region were bought by Italy in 1905. Area about 100,000 sq. miles; population (esti­mated) 400,000, chiefly Mohammedans, with about 50,000 pagans. There are no records of missions established in this wild territory.

Sudan: This term is here limited to the Egyptian Sudan, the Western and Central Sudan being ab­sorbed in the main into French spheres of influence to which other names have been given (see SENEGAMBIA AND THE Niam, above). The Egyp­tian Sudan is a territory extending south from the frontier of Egypt to Uganda and the Kongo Independent State, and west from the Red Sea to the unmarked boundary of the French sphere of influence. It is nominally a poion of Egypt, but in fact is ruled for Egypt by the British. Eng­lish and Egyptian flags are used together through­out the territory. Area about 950,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 2,000,000. The population of the country was much reduced during the six­teen years' rule of the Mahdi and his dervishes, who as ardent Mohammedans wished to show the world how a country ought to be governed. Gen­eral Gordon having been killed by the Mahdi's party in 1885, one of the first acts of the English on recovering the land in 1898 was to found a great " Gordon Memorial,, College at Khartum, the scene of his murder, and now the seat of the new administration. The majority of the people are Mohammedans, with an uncertain number of pagan tribes in the southern dldtllCtB. A COll81de1­able number of Greek, Coptic, and Armenian traders is found in the Khartum district. Roman Catholic missions exist at Khartum and Omdurman and among the pagans at Fashoda; a Mission of the American United Presbyterian Church has been founded on the Sobat River; and the Church Missionary Society has established missionaries (1906) at or near Bor in the vacant pagan country between the two firstnamed missions. All of these missions are too newly established to have any visible fruit except attendance at schools.


The Arabic Bible is circulated in the Moham­medan parts of the Sudan. Gospels have been translated into the Dinka language.

Tosoland: A German colony in West Africa, occupying the coast of the Gulf of Guinea between the Gold Coast Colony and Dahomey. It extends inland to the French territory of Senegambia and the Niger. Area about 32,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,500,000, chiefly pagan; ' capital, Lome. The German government carries on several schools for the instruction of the natives, and is training them for administrative posts. Roman Catholic missions here are conducted by the Steyl Society for Divine Work. The missionaries num­ber 28, with 9 nuns, 52 schools, 2,119 pupils, and 2,203 Roman Catholic Christians. Protestant mis­sionary work. is carried on by the North German Missionary Society (1847), and by the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, which employs Ger­man Methodists for this field. The two societies report 78 stations and outstations, 31 mission­aries (men and women), 69 schools with 3,111 pupils, and 4,600 professed Christians. The Ewc New Testament is used here, and a special translation of one of the Gospels, to satisfy local variations, has been tentatively prepared.

Transvaal: A colony of Great Britain in South Africa, lying north of the Orange River Colony and Natal, and west of Portuguese East Africa. Area 111,196 sq. miles; population (1904) 1,268; 716, of whom 969,389 are colored, including Chinese and Hindus, and 299,327 are whites. The colony was settled in 183637 by Dutch who emigrated from Cape Colony. In 1899 dissensions with Great Britain respecting sovereignty culminated in war, and in 1900 Great Britain formally annexed the territory to her South African domains, the Boers accepting the annexation after two years. The capital is Pretoria. The religious statistics show the pagans to number nearly 1,000,000; Roman Catholics, 10,000; Protestants, 256,000; Jews, 10,000; Buddhists and Confucians, 15,000. The Dutch churches form the largest single group of Protestants. Chinese laborers at the mines are a recent addition to the population. Numbers of negroes from all parts of Africa are also drawn to Johannesburg for work in the mina, about 75,000 natives and other colored people being gathered there by opportunities for work. The Anglican, Wesleyan, and Dutch Reformed local churches all carry on missions among the natives. Other Protestant missions are those of the American Board (1893), the Berlin Missionary Society (1859) opened by A. Merensky and Knothe, the Her­mamiaburg Missionary Society (1857), and the Swiss Romande Mission led by H. Berthoud (1875). These societies together report (not including the enterprises of the local churches) 112 missionaries (men and women), 2,344 na­tive workers, 300 schools with 14,674 pupils, and 84,000 professing Christian adherents. Efforts to improve the character of the workers in the mining compounds of Johannesburg are meet­ing with some success. The Zulu Bible is much used in the Transvaal as well as the Chuana and Lesuto versions. has

been translated into in 1888.

Tripoli: A possession of Turkey on the north coast of Africa west of Egypt. It extends south­ward to the Sahara and includes the oasis of the Fezzan, but its southern limits are indefinite. This territory was seized by Turkey in the sixteenth century. Area about 400,000 sq. miles; population about 1,000,000, chiefly Berbers. There are about 6,000 Europeans (Maltese and Italians), who are mainly Roman Catholics; and there are also about 10,000 Jews. There is an extensive caravan trade with the Sudan and Timbuctoo; and the slave­trade is quietly fostered by this means. The only Protestant mission in Tripoli is that of the North Africa Mission, which has 1 station with 4 mis­sionaries, a hospital, and 2 dispensaries. Arabic and Kabyle are the languages of the country.

Tunis: A French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa lying between Tripoli and Algeria. Area about 51,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,900,000, mainly Berbers and Arabs, with a foreign population (1901) of 39,000 French, 67,500 Italians, and 12,000 Maltese. The Tunisian ruler, called the Bey, is from a family which has been in power since 1575, and governs the country under the con­trol of a French resident. The Roman Catholic Church in Tunis is under direction of the arch­bishop of Carthage, the see having been restored in 1884. There are 53 priests, 2 bishops, and several schools. Tunis was the scene of some of Raymond Lolly's efforts to convert Mohammedans in the thirteenth century. Protestant missions are carried on in Tunis by the North African Mis­sion, the Swedish Young Women's Christian Asso­ciation, and the London Jews Society. Together these societies have 5 schools, 2 hospitals or dis­pensaries, and about 250 persons under instruction. Arabic is the prevailing language.

Uganda: A British protectorate in East Central Africa, lying between the Egyptian Sudan on the north, German East Africa on the south, British East Africa. on the east, and the Kongo Independ­ent State on the west. Within its boundaries lie part of the Victoria Nyanza and lakes Al­bert and Albert Edward. It comprises the native kingdom of Uganda and several smaller districts ruled by native kinglets under British control. Area 89,400 sq. miles; population about 4,000,000, of whom about 1,000,000 are in the kingdom of Uganda. The religious divisions of the population in the whole protectorate are: pagans, 3,500,000; Mohammedans, 50,000; Roman Catholics, 146,000; and Protestants, 250,000. A railway connects Mombasa on the coast of British East Africa with Kisumu, formerly called Port Florence, on the Victoria Nyanza. The seat of the British admin­istration is Entebbe, and that of the kingdom of Uganda is Mengo. Henry M. Stanley visited Uganda in 1875, and found the king Mutesa a recent convert to Islam but inclined to ask questions on the religion of the Christians. He gave the king some instruction and had the Lord's Prayer trans­lated for him into Suahili written in Arabic char­acters. At this time Uganda was like any other African kingdom a place of superstition, degrada


tion of women, and bloodthirsty cruelty' and op­pression. Stanley was really the first of Christian missionaries there; for the slight teachings that he gave the king were not forgotten, and his transla­tion of the Lord's Prayer was copied and recopied. On leaving Uganda Stanley wrote a letter to the London describing Uganda and the willingness of King Mutesa to receive Christian instruction. He then addressed the missionary societies in these words: " Here, gentlemen, is your opportunity. The people on the shores of the Nyanza call upon you." This challenge was at once taken up by the Church Missionary Society; and in 1876 its first missionaries reached Uganda. The first converts were baptized in 1882, and perse­cution soon set in, when a number of the Christians were burned alive. Alexander Mackay, a layman and a member of the mission, was a man of indom­itable energy and wonderful devotion; and upon him rested to a great degree the responsibility for the defense of the mission. Several of the mission­aries were murdered, including Bishop James Han­nington (1885), by order of King Mwanga, Mutesa's successor. Roman Catholic missionaries appeared on the scene; and quarrels and strife ensued between the two denominations. Mohammedans also inter­vened, trying to profit by the dissensions between the Christians. 'The British protectorate was declared in 1894. In 1897 the Sudanese troops in British employ revolted and attempted to seize the country in the Mohammedan interest. The valor of the Christians weighed largely in deciding this fierce little war against the mutineers. In it George Laurence Pilkington, a notable lay mission­ary lost his life. With the defeat of the mutineers and the assignment of the Mohammedans to separate reservations peace was finally established, and the whole protectorate is in a prosperous condition.

The Church Missionary Society has now in the protectorate 90 missionaries (men and women), 2,500 native workers, 170 schools with 22,229 scholars, and 53,000 baptized Christians. It had established a considerable industrial enterprise for the development of the people; but in 1904 this department of its work was turned over to the Uganda Company, a commercial body chartered in England to develop the country. The Roman Catholic missions were established by the Algiers Society for African Missions. There are now 88 stations and about 80,000 baptized Roman Catho­lic Christians. At Raimosi, about twentyfive miles north of Port Florence, is a mission of the American Society of Friends, which is instruct­ing the people in various industries. Altogether Uganda is after thirty years of missionary labor a remarkable instance of the change in a people which cam be produced by the attempt to follow the prin­ciples of the Bible. The overthrow of barbarism in the native customs was effected before any outside political forces entered upon the scene. The Bible has been translated into Ugandan (1888), and Gospels have

Toro. been rendered into Nyoro and

111. African Islands:

Annobon. See FERNANDO Po.

Canary Islands: A group of

islands lying north

west of Africa and belonging to Spain, of which they form a province. Area 2,807 sq. miles; popu­lation 358,564, reckoned as entirely Roman Cath­olic, the first Roman Catholic see having been erected here in 1404.

Cape Verde Islands: A group of fourteen islands lying off the west coast of Africa and belonging to Portugal. Area 1,480 sq. miles; population (1900) 147,424, of whom about twothirds are negroes and nearly onethird of mixed blood. The religion is Roman Catholic.

Comoro isles: A group of small islands about half way between Madagascar and the African coast. Area 620 sq. miles; population about 47; 000, chiefly Mohammedans. The islands are ecclesiastically under the jurisdiction of Mayotte, but it does not appear that any mission exists upon them


Fernando Po, Annobon, Corlaao, and Elobey: Islands in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Spain. The area of these islands taken together is about 780 sq. miles; population 22,000. Roman Catholic missions are carried on in the islands by the Spanish Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary. Nine­teen clergy are reported in Fernando Po, with about 4,000 Roman Catholics. There is a Protestant mission in Fernando Po, established by the Prim­itive Methodist Missionary Society in 1870, a mis­sion established by the Baptist Missionary Society of England having been driven from the country by Spanish intolerance a number of years before. One of the Gospels was translated into Adiya, a dialect of Fernando Po, in 1846. It is now obso­lete. There is a station of the American Presby­terian Church on the island of Corisco (see above, under Rio Mum).

An island off the southeastern coast of Africa, from which it is separated by the Mozam­bique Channel at a distance of 240 miles, measuring between nearest points. It is 980 miles long, and 360 miles in its greatest breadth. It is a possession of France, whose claim dates from a concession made to a trading company by the king of France in 1642. The claim was not recognized by the native rulers. After a struggle lasting intermit­tently from 1882 to 1896 the formal annexation to France took place. Area 224,000 sq.m1es; popu­lation (1901) 3,000,000, including 15,000 Europeans and some hundreds of Africans and Aeiatics. The people are of Malay stock with an infusion of African blood. The principal tribe, which ruled the larger part of the island until the French occu­pation, is called Aova. Sakalava, Betsileo, and Sihanaka are the names of other important tribes, The history of Mi4d8gasear during many years is connected with the story of its evangelization through the London Missionary Society, beginning in 1818. . The mission had great success during fifteen years. The language was reduced to writing; schools were established; the New Testament was tfanslated and printed; and numbers of the people professed Christianity. In 1835 the reigning queen drove out the missionaries and proscribed Chris­tianity. After bloody persecutions it was made a capital crime to profess the religion of Christ.


This proscription ended in 1861; the missionaries returned; and in 1868 the then queen made public profession of Christianity. At the time of the French occupation there were about 450,000 Protes­tants and 50,000 Roman Catholics in the island. Roman Catholic missions were commenced in Madagascar in 1844, having their center in the island of NossiB6 and the adjacent islands until 1850, when the care of the missions was entrusted to the Jesuits. There are now 348 Roman Catholic mission stations in the island with nearly 100,000 adherents. At the time of the French occupation the Protes­tant missions were looked upon with great suspicion. In anticipation of being obliged to withdraw from the islands, the London Missionary Society invited the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society to take over some of its stations.

After a period of misunderstanding and friction with the Jesuit missionaries, religious liberty was made effective, and difficulties have gradually been removed. The Protestant societies now laboring in the island are: the London Missionary Society (1818), the Society for the Propagation of the Gos­pel (1843), the Friends Foreign Missioriary Asso­ciation (1867), the Norwegian Society (1867), the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America (1892), the (Free) Lutheran Board of Missions (U. S. A., 1895), and the Paris Evangelical Mission­ary Society (1896). These societies together report 196 missionaries, 4,914 native workers, 2,729 schools with 133,262 pupils, and about 200,000 baptized Christians. The effect of the French school laws may probably affect the higher missionary schools; but on the whole conditions are rapidly taking a satisfactory form. The Bible was translated into Malagasy in 1835 and revised in 1886.

Madeira: An island forming a province of Portu­gal and lying west of North Africa. Area 505 sq. miles; population 150,574. The island was colo­nized by the Portuguese in 1420, and has been Roman Catholic for two centuries, the ancient inhab­itants being entirely extinct. The American Metho­dist Episcopal Church has a mission in Madeira.

Mauritius: An island colony of Great Britain, lying in the Indian Ocean 500 miles east of Mada­gascar. Area 705 sq. miles; population (1901) 378,195. The religious classification under the census of 1901 was as follows: Hindus, 206,131; Mohammedans, 41,208; Roman Catholics, 113,224; Protestants, 6,644. Besides the parish priests there are 6 Jesuit missionaries and 11 from the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society. A large section of the population is of African or mixed blood, and the number of Chinese in business in the island is increasing.

Mayotte: An island belonging to France, situated between Madagascar and the African coast. It is under the governor of Reunion. Area 140 sq. miles; population 11,640, which is diminishing. There are 6 Roman Catholic priests and about 3,000 Roman Catholics in the island.

Reunion: An island belonging to France, situated

about 420 miles east of Madagascar. Area, 945 sq. miles; population (1902) 173,395, of whom 13,492 are British Indiana, 4,496 are natives of Madagascar, 9,457 are Africans, and 1,378 are Chinese. The rest of the inhabitants are reckoned as Roman Catholics. The island is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and it forms a part of the eccle­siastical province of Bordeaux in France.

Saint Thomas (Thom6) and Prinoipe:Two islands in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Portugal, of which they are reckoned as a province. Area 360 sq. miles; population (1900) 42,000, of whom 41,000 are lLegroes. These islands are a source of reveuue to the Portuguese government, producing quantities of coffee, cocoa, and cinchona. The products are cultivated by slave labor still imported by the Portuguese " under contract " through Angola from central Africa. About 4,000 of these " laborers " are carried to the islands every year; and it is said that none return. A Roman Catholic diocese was established in these islands in 1584, and a large part of the population is reckoned as Roman Catholic. There are no Protestant mis­sions in this colony.



I. Collections of titles: J. Gay, San Remo,

1875; P. Paulitschke,

16001760, Vienna, 1882; G. Kayser,

H. F. Eng Lon­don,

ib. (by

D. Livingstone, Travels London, H. Spoke, ib. F. ib. H. M. ib. Dove, Vom B. Lloyd, B. du H.




Holub, Die Colonization 1882; H. H. John­ston, History the Colonisation of Africa b9/ Alms Rte, in Cambridge Historical Series, Cambridge, 1894; H. M. Stan­ley, Africa; Its Partition and Its Future, New York, 1898.

Missions: D. Macdonald, Africans: 2 vols., London, 1882; R. Lovett, History the London Mis­sionary Society, 17861896, 2 vols., ib. 1899; F. P. Noble, Africa, New York, 1899; E. Stock, History the Society, 3 vols., London, 1899; Ecumenical Missionary Conference, New York, 1900, Reports, New York, 1900; C. F. Pascoe, Two of the SPG, London, 1901; J. Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Conti­nent; or Africa and its Missions, ib. 1903; H. O. Dwight, H. A. Tupper, E. M. Bliss, Missions, New York, 1904.

Catholic Missions: M. de Montroud, Les Missions catho­liquea lee parties 1809; L. Bethune, Les catholiques b. 1889; O. Werner, Orbis terrarum catholicus, Freiburg, 1890 (geographical and statistical); Rome, 1901.

Native religion: T. Rahn, TsuniGgoam, the Supreme Being of the London, 1882; A. B. Ellis, of the Coast, ib. 1887; W. Schneider, Die afrikanieehen Naturv6lker, Monster, 1891; J. Macdonald, Religion and 1893 (on religion and society); M. A. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, ib. 1897; idem, West African Studies, ib. 1901; R. H. Nassau, West Africa, New York, 1904 (covers native re­ligion and society).

11. Algeria: L. Playfair, Algeria, Lon­don, 1888 (covers 15411887); A. Certeux sad E. H. Car­noy, L'Algkrie traditionnelle, 3 vols., Algiers, 1884 (on cus­toms and superstitions); Gastu, Le Peuple Algien, Paris, 1884; L. Playfair, The Scourge of of Relations with Algeria, London, 1884; E. C. E. Villot, Mo•urs et institutions dea indigMes de 1'Algie, Al­giers, 1888; F. A. Bridgman, Winters in Algeria, New York, 1890; F. Mein, Les Villages hrltiens, Fontaine­bleau, 1890; A. E. Pease, Biskra and the Oases . . of the Zihana, London, 1893; J. Lionel, Races Berbkrea, Paris, 1893; A. Wilkin, Among the ,8erbera of Algeria; London, 1900.

Angola: J. J. Monteiro, Angola and the River Congo, 2 vols., London, 1895 (the one book); F. A. Pinto, Angola e Congo. Lisbon, 1888; H. Chatelain, FolkTales of Angola, Boston, 1894.

Basutoland: J. Widdicombe. Fourteen Years in Basuto­land, London, 1892; E. Cosalis, My Life b. 1889; Mrs. Barkty, Among Boers and Basutos, ib. 1893; E. Jaeottet, Contea populairea des Basaoutoa, Paris, 1895; M. Martin, Legends and Customs, London, 1903.

Bechuanaland: L. K. Bruce, The Story of an African 1893; E. Lloyd, Three AfriatnChiefa, SebelE, and b. 1895; J. D. Hepburn, Twenty Years in and the Batauna, ib. 1895; W. D. Mackenzie, John Mackenzie, South African Mission­ary and Statesman, ib. 1902.

British East Africa and Zanzibar: J. Thomson, Masai 1885; Handbook of British East Africa including b. 1893 (English official publication); H. S. Newman, Banani: the Transition from Slavery to Free­dom in Zanzibar, ib. 1899; S. T. and H. Hinds, Last the Masai, ib. 1901.

Cape Colony: G. MCC. Theall, History of Swath Africa, 4 vols., London, 188889 (exhaustive); E. Holub, Seven Years in South Africa, ib. 1881; A. Wilmot, Story the Expansion South Africa, ib. 1895; A. T. Wirgman, History the Eng­lish South Africa, ib. 1895; South African Year Book for 1902?, ib. 1902 (official); J. Stewart, Dawn in the ib. 1903; H. A. Bryden, History South Africa, 10681905, ib. 1904; D. Kidd, The afir, ib. 1904.

H. $, Johnston, Central Africa, London, 1897; J. Buchanan, The Sirk lands as Colony and Mission, ib. 1885; D. J. Rankin, Zam­bezi Basin b. 1893; A. E. M. Morehead , History the Universities Central Africa, ib. 1897; W. A. Mmslie, Among the Wild Chapters . . of ib. 1899; J. W. Jack. Daybreak in Livingafonia, New York, 1901.

Dahomey. A. Pawlowski, Bibliographic rann~e .

eonarnaut Is 1895; AspsFleurimont frnenOaies, fb. 1890; E. F. Forbes,

2 vols., London, 1851; J. A. Skertehley, Da­as it is, ib. 1874, A. L. d'Alb6ea, Da_



Paris, 1895; E. Foe, Le b. 1895 (on his­tory, geography, customs, etc.); R. S. Powell, The Dowry Prempeh, London, 1890.

Egypt (for missions): G. Lansing, Egypt's Princes. A Narrative of Missionary Labor in the Valley the Nile, New York, 1805; M. L. Whately, Ragged Egypt, London, 1870; idem, Among the Huts Egypt, ib. 1870; A. Watson, The American Egypt, Pittsburg, 1898; M. Fowler, London, 1900; and see Eoypx.

Eritrea: La Colonia Eritrea, Turin, 1891; E. Q M. Ala­manni, L'Aveaire della colonia Eritrea, Asti, 1890; M. Sehveller, meine Reiss Berlin, 1895.

French Kongo: A. J. Wauters and A. Buyl Bt3liographie du Paris, 1895 (3,800 titles); P. Eucher, Le emai sur t histoire religieuae, ib. 1895; A. Voulgre, Le la vall6e du Kouilou, ib. 1897; and see below KONGO.

French Guinea: L. G. Binger, Du Niger au Guinle, 2 vols., Paris, 1891; C. Madrolle, uin6e, ib. 1894; P. d'Espagnat, Joura de Guinle, ib. 1898.

German Africa: Berlin, 1893 and later (exhaustive); P. Reichard, DeutschOstafrika, 1892; H. van Schweinits, Krieg Berlin, 1894; Ch. RSmer, Basel, 1895; E. Zintgraff, 9,8, Berlin, 1895; F. J. van Billow, Leute, ib. 1897; K. HBrhold, Drei Jahre b.1897; M. Dier, Unter den Schu'ar­zen, Steyl, 1901 (missionary); F. Hutter, Brunswick, 1902; and see below, KAMERUN.

Gold Coast: A. B. Ellis, History the Gold Coast, London, 1893; F. A. Ramseyer and J. Kuhne. Four Years in tee, New York, 1877 (missionary); C. Buhl, Die Basler Mis­an der Goldkitate, Basel, 1882; C. C. Reindorf, History of the Gold Coast Ashanti ,from e. 1500, London, 1895; G. Macdonald, Gold Coast, Past ib. 1898; D. Kemp, at the Gold Coast, ib. 1898.

Ivory Coast: Bonnesu, Cdte d'Ivoire, Paris, 1899 (his­torical and geographical); M. Mounier, CSte d'Ivoire et Soudan, ib. 1894.

Kamerun: In G. Warneck, History Protestant tranel. from . ed., London, 1901; E. B. Under­hill, Missionary to Africa, ib. 1884; and see above, GERMAN AFRICA.

Kongo Independent State: H, M, fWey, GON0 and a@ the Free State, 2 vols., London, 1878; W. H. Bentley Life on the ib. 1890; idem, the 2vols., NewYork,1903; Mrs. H. G. Guinness, The New World Central Africa; the Congo, London, 1890; F. S. Arnot, Seven years, Pioneer Mission Work in Central b. 1889; idem, Bihe and Garenganse, ib.1893; S. P. Verner, Central Africa, New York, 1903; E. Morel, Rule in Africa, London, 1904.

Lagos: R. F. Burton, Abeokuta Cameroon Moun­tains, 2 vols., London, 1803; Miss C. Tucker, Abbeokuta: the Yoruba b. 1858; J. A. O. Payne, Table of Events in Foruba History, Lagos, 1893.

Liberia: J. H. T. McPherson, History Liberia Studies, series 9, No. 10), Baltimore, 1891; G. S. Stockwell, The Republic Liberia, New York, 1808 (historical and geographical); J. Buettikofer Reisebilder acs Liberia, Leyden, 1890; F. A. Durham, The Liberia, London, 1892; E. W. Blyden, Chapter the History Liberia, Freetown, 1892.

Morocco: R. L. Mayfair and R. Brown,

011991, London, 1893; R. Kerr, Pio­neering Seven YeaW ib. 1894• E, de Amieis, Its People York, 1892; W, B. Harris, The la d Sultan, London, 1879; Glographie g~raale de Maroc, Paris, 1902; A. J. Dawson, in Morocco, London, 1904; Forrest arid described by ib. 1904.

Natal: R. Russell Natal, the Its Story, Undo., 1900; L. Groat, Zululand, or the ZuluKafcra, Philadelphia, 1804• H. Brooke, The Natal, Lon

don, 1870 ; T. B. Jenkinson, Amazulu, the Zulu, ib. 1882

(on people and country); J. Bud s Natl, 2 vats.,

Pietermaritzburg, 188889; J. Tyler, Forty years among


H. Robinson, Hausaland, H. R. H. H. R.

H. E. H.

H. Henaman, History E. H. L.

London, E.

H. Trips F. S. Brereton,

Ii, H. H.

E. H. as

E. H. v.


H. H. Johnston, Uganda F. F. HarfordBattereby, P

Ellis, E. H. Hansen, Beitrag

Islands: A. B. Ellis,

S. Brown.




AGAPE, seapt or p

Primitive Form of Celebration (§ 1). Final Form of the Agape (§ 2). Disassociation of Agape and Eucharist (§ 3).

The Greek word agape (" love," pl. agapai, Lat. agape) was used in the early Church, both Greek and Latin, to denote definite manifestations of brotherly love between believers, and particularly certain meals taken in common which had more or less of a religious character. The earliest mention of such meals is found in Jude 12 (possibly in II Pet. ii. 13). Distinct history begins with Ter­tullian, in the passage (APologeticus, xxxix.) com­mencing: " Our supper bears a name which tells exactly what it is; it is called by the word which in Greek means ' affection.' " The agape served for the refreshment of the poorer brethren, as well as for the general edification. It was opened and closed with prayer, and after its conclusion one and another gave songs of praise, either from the Bible or of their own composition. These meetings were under the direction of the clergy, to whom (with reference to I Tim. v. 17) a double portion of food and drink was allotted. They were held at the time of the principal meal, and frequently were prolonged

until dark. In the period for which r. Prima. Tertullian bears witness, they were tive Form not connected with the sacrament

of Cele of the Eucharist; he says expressly

bration. (De corona, iii.) that the Lord instituted

the sacrament on the occasion of a

meal, while the Church does not so celebrate it,

but rather before daybreak. Even apart from the

secret nocturnal services of the times of persecution

and the observance of the paschal vigil, the Eucha­

rist was regularly celebrated before any meal.

Notably was this rule, which is found referred to in

Cyprian (Epist., lxiii.16), established in Tertullian's

time, butwhich is decisive for the distinction

between Eucharist and agapeit existed in many

parts of the Church as early as that of Justin

(Apologia, i. 65, 67). The principle, that the

Eucharist should be received only fasting, which

would exclude any relation with a preceding com­

mon meal, and especially with the agape, taking

place toward evening, is indirectly evidenced by

Tertullian (Ad uxorem, ii. 5); Augustine found it

so universally recognized that he was inclined to

refer it to one of the ordimmees promised by Paul

in I Cor. xi. 34; and Chrysustom was so convinced

of the antiquity of the rule that he supposed the

custom of following it by an ordinary meal to have

prevailed in Corinth in Paul's time.. In any case,

in the third and fourth centuries the development

of the agape was more and more away from any

connection with public worship.


From the indications of the Syriac and the Egyptian liturgical books, as well as the canons of the Councils of Gangra and Laodicea it may be inferred that the giving of these feasts and the inviting to them of widows and the poor was, in the East, one of the forms usually taken by the

benevolence of the wealthier mem­s. Final bers of the Church. The bishop and

Form of other clergy were invited, and, if they

the Agape. appeared, were received with special honor and charged with the direction of the assembly. These feasts were given at irreg­ular times and in various places, sometimes in the church itself. This was forbidden by the twenty­eighth canon of Laodicea, at the same time that the fiftyeighth prohibited their celebration in private houses. Secular festivities in connection with the agapse, which brought upon them the condemna­tion of the ascetic Eustathians (against whom the Council of Gangra defended them), caused them to be regarded more and more among the orthodox also as incompatible with the dignity of divine worship, so that they gradually became entirely sep­arate from it, and thus tended to fall into disuse.

How popular these feasts were in Africa, in the churches, in the chapels of the martyrs, and at the graves of other Christians, may be seen from the often renewed canon of Hippo (393), which forbids clerics to eat in churches except in dispensing hos­pitality to travelers, and commands them as far as possible to restrain the people from such meals. The same thing appears in Augustine's descriptions as well as in the great pains he took to repress grave abuses and, with reference to the practise of the Italian and almost all the other churches, to sup­press the agapae altogether.

It is not clear what caused the disassociation of the agape from the Eucharist in the first half of the second century. It is a misunderstanding of Pliny's letter to Trajan to suppose that in consequence of the prohibition of broth­erhoods,'") the Christians then abandoned their evening feasts and transferred the Eucharist to the morning; but it is very probable that the constant accusation of impious customs which recalled the stories of Thyestes and of CJdipus were the main reason for the separation of the Eucharist, which was an essential part of their public worship, from the connection, so liable to be mis

t. Disassounderstood, with an evening meal

ciation of participated in by both sexes and

ages. The fact that at one time the

Eucharist. two were connected is evidenced not

only by Pliny, but about the same time

by the in which, whatever one may think

about the relation of the eucbaristic players to the

accompanying liturgical acts (chaps. ix: x.), the

opening passage of the second prayer (Gk.

shows that a full meal belonged to

the rite there referred to. Just as here the Greek

word which from Justin down is em­

ployed as a technical term for the sacrament, at

least includes a common meal, which is found

eepamtzd from the sacrament after the middle of

the second century, so Ignatius, with whom

a usual designation of the sacrament, also

employs and to denote the same

observance. It is accordingly safe to conclude that

in the churches, from Antioch to Rome, with which

Ignatius had to do, the socalled agape was con­

nected with the Eucharist, as Pliny shows at the

same time for Bithynia and the for Alex­

andria. The same may be inferred of the two

Scriptural passages cited above; and one is led

further back by I Cor. xi. 1734. While Paul

distinguishes as sharply as possible the eating of

the one bread and the drinking of the blessed chalice

from common food and drink (1 Cor. x. 3,16; id. 23­

29), he shows at the same time that in Corinth

the two were connected in thought. While he

rebukes the disorder of one drinking too much

and another going hungry, so as to injure the

dignity of the following sacrament, and lays

down that eating for the mere satisfaction of

hunger ought to take place at home and not in the

assembly of the brethren, he is not disposed (as I

Cor. xi. 33 shows) to abolish altogether the connec­

tion of the sacrament with an actual meal. This

connection, then, existing into the first decades of

the second century, forms the basis of the history

for both Eucharist and agape which diverge from

that time on. (T. ZAHN.)

The agape or lovefeast is practised at present by Mennonites, Dunkards, German Baptists of the AngloAmerican type, and other religious bodies. For an able, but not wholly successful, attempt to prove that the Lord's Supper in the apostolic time was identical with the agape, i.e., that it was nothing but a social feast for the mani­festation of brotherly love, consult Norman Fox, (New York, 1898).


The name of two popes.

Agapetus I.: Pope 535536. He was the son of a Roman priest named Gordianus, who had been killed in the disturbances under Symmachus. Six days after the death of John 11. he was chosen to succeed him, probably by the wish of Theodahad, king of the Ostrogoths. He began his pontificate by reconciling the contending factions among the Roman clergy and annulling the anathema pro­nounced by Boniface 11. against the antipope Dios­cOrus. His decision, induced by the decrees of the North African synod, forbidding the entrance of converted Arians to the priesthood, and his defense of this measure in a letter to the emperor Justinian show him to have been a zealous upholder of ortho. doxy. In 536 he was sent to Constantinople by Theodahad to try to establish peace with the en1­peror, and was obliged to pledge the sacred vessels

of the Roman Church to obtain money for his journey. He did not succeed in the ostensible purpose of his mission, but accomplished more for the orthodox cause, Anthimus, patriarch of Con­atantinople, a secret adherent of Monophysitism, had, by the aid of the empress Theodora, the patroness of the Monophysites, been allowed, in defiance of the canons, to exchange the see of TraPezus (Trebizond) for the patriarchal throne. Agapetus refused all communion with him, and persisted so strenuously in his attitude, in spite of

,~ llt 89

threats from the court,

Justinian that Anthimus had deceived him, and

had him deposed, and replaced by Mennas. Aga­

petus himself consecrated Mennas by wish of the

emperor, and apparently with the assent of the

principal orthodox Eastern bishops, after he had

presented a confession of faith which the pope

considered satisfactory. The emperor, fearing lest

he himself should be accused of sympathy with the

former Monophysite patriarch, placed a confession

of faith in the pope's hands, which Agapetus ap­

proved in a letter plainly showing how important

he felt his triumph to be. Almost immediately

afterward he fell ill and died in Constantinople

Apr. 22, 536, his body being brought to Rome and

buried in St. Peter's. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIaa8AP81: in in lxvi., and in JaH6, ed. Ducheane, i. Paris. Bower. Hefele. Eng. trand., iv.

Agapetus II.: Pope 946955. He was a Ro­

man by birth, and, like his predecessor Marinus

II. owed his elevation to the papal throne (May

10, 946) to Alberic, the secular master of Rome.

Though hampered at home by Alberic's power, he

asserted the claims of his see successfully abroad.

He intervened in the prolonged contest over the

archbishopric of Reims, from which Heribert of

Vermandois had expelled the legitimate incum­

bent, Artold, to give it to his own son Hugh. The

contest between the friends of the two prelates

attained the dimensions of a civil war, Artold being

supported by Louis IV. of France. Agapetus

also took Artold's side at first; but he was deceived

by the representations of a cleric from Reims into

reversing his decision. After Artold had succeeded

in enlightening him, the affair was referred to a

synod held at Ingelheim in 948, whose final verdict

in favor of Artold was confirmed by Agapetus in a

Roman synod (949). [When Berengar II., Mar­

quis of Ivrea, attempted to unite all Italy under

his scepter, the pope and other Italian princes

appealed to Otho I., who went as far as Pavia,

expecting to be crowned emperor; but Agapetus,

influenced by Alberic, turned. away from him.]

In 954 Alberie took an oath from the Roman nobles

that at the next vacancy they would elect as pope

his son and heir, Octavian; and when Agapetus

died in December, 955, Octavian did in fact succeed

him as John XII. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBG10GRAPHT: in in Bouquet, and in Jaffd, Bower, Kbpke and E. Diimmler, Leipsio,

(" Agapios the Monk "; Athanasio Lando): As­cetic writer of the Greek Church; b. at Candia, Crete, toward the end of the sixteenth century; d. between 1657 and 1664. After a wandering life he took up his abode in the monastery on Mt. Athos, but he found it hard to submit to the strict discipline there. He is one of the most popular religious writers of the Greeks. By his excellent translations from the Latin, ancient Greek, and Italian into the vernacular he made many devotional works of the nations accessible to his people. He

meant to be orthodox, but was influenced by Ro­man Catholicism, and in his works he unsuspectingly quotes Peter Damian and Albertus Magnus besides Ambrose, Augustine, and others. In penance he distinguishes between the contritio, aatisfactio, and confessio; and in the Lord's Supper he accepts the doctrine of transubstantiation without using that term. The question of his orthodoxy was seriously debated in the seventeenth century by the fathers of Port Royal and representatives of the Reformed Church (cf. J. Aymon, de la Religion des Grem, The Hague, 1708, pp. 475, 599).

The most important of the works of Agapios is the "Salvation of Sinners" (1641), a devotional book for the people. His "Sunday Cycle" (1675), a collection of sermons, was also much prized. His writings went through many editions, especially those containing biographies of the saints; as the "Paradise" (1641), the "New Paradise" (c. 1664), the "Selection" (1644), and the "Summertide" (1656). The first three contain translations from Symeon Metaphrastes. PHILIPP MEYER.

BIHLmaHAPu7: rade4r,'O 'A6ms, Constantinople, E. Legrand, Paris,

AGATHA, ag'atha, SAINT: ' Virgin and martyr

in the Roman Catholic calendar. The accounts of

her given in the Latin and Greek Acta (ASB, Feb.,

i. 595656) are so largely made up of legendary

and poetical matter that it is impossible to extract

solid historical facts from them. The fact of her

martyrdom is, however, attested by her inclusion

in the Carthaginian calendar of the fifth or sixth

century and in the socalled

she is mentioned also by Dama­

sus, bishop of Rome from to

There seems no reason to doubt that she suffered

at Catania on Feb. 5; but the year of her death can

not be determined. She is venerated particularly

in southern Italy and in Sicily, where, in many

places, she is invoked as a protectress against

eruptions of Mount Etna. The cities of Palermo

and Catania still contend for the honor of being

her birthplace. (A. HAUCK.)

AGATHISTS. See CHx18TIANDomxINE,SocIETfoa ag'atho: Pope He was a Sicilian monk, and in June or July, succeeded Donne after a vacancy in the papacy of two and onehalf months. He is especially celebrated for the decisive part which he took in the Monothelite controversy (see MONOTHELITES). He succeeded also in inducing Theodore of Ravenna to acknowl­edge the dependence of his church on that of Rome. At a synod held in Rome at Easter, he decreed the restoration of Wilfrid, archbishop of York (q.v.), who had been deposed by Theodore of Tar­sus, archbishop of Canterbury. The . financial resources of the Roman see appear to have been very limited during his pontificate; for he not only attempted to administer in person the office of arcarius or treasurer of the Roman Church, but he persuaded the emperor to renounce the payment which had been demanded for the confirmation of a pope, though the imperial approbation was still required. Agatho died Jan. 10, 681; the Roman

Church honors his memory on that day; the Greek

on Feb. 20. (A. HAUC$.)

in ed. Ducheene, i. 350358.1'aris. 1888: Bower, i. 46948N; H. H. Milman. Hefele. passim, Eng. tranal., v. 139144; R C. Mann. as 2428.

A synod which met Sept. 11, 506, at Agde (Lat. Agatha), a town on the Mediterranean coast of France (90 m. w. of Marseilles, of which it was originally a colony). The town is unimportant, though it claimed to pos­sess the relics of St. Andrew. The synod met with the permission of Maxis II., king of the West Goths, and thirtyfive bishops from the south of France attended, Cs;sarius of Arles presiding. It passed fortyseven canons relating to questions of discipline, the guardianship of church property, the devout life, anda matter of no slight impor­tance for the south of Francethe position of the Jews. An attempt was made to enforce clerical celibacy; and an almost suspicious attitude was assumed in regard to female monasticism (nuns were not to take the veil before the age of 40; no new convents were to be founded without the per­mission of the bishop; and the solitary life was disapproved). Provision was made for the main­tenance of several traditional customs, such as the strict fast in Lent, the on the Saturday before Easter, the communion of the laity at Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost; an effort was made to secure liturgical uniformity. In regard to the Jewish question, it is observable that here, as elsewhere, there was no distinction in social life between Jews and Christians, but that the Church disapproved of intercourse with the Jews, and looked with some distrust on converts from Judaism. The canons of the synod are based upon older and not exclusively Gallic foundations: Spanish and African conciliar decisions are used, as well as the letter of Pope Innocent I. to Exsu­perius of Toulouse. In like manner the canons of the First Frankish Synod at Orlfans (511) and the Burgundian Synod at Epao (517) depend upon those of Agde. The latter were early in­cluded in the collections of church law, and Gratian incorporated a large part of them in his (A. HAucs.)

Manei, viii. 319•, ii. 64966o, Eng. transl., iv. 7686; C. F. Ar­nold, 1894.

AGE, CANONICAL: The age required by the canons of the Church for ordination or for the performance of any particular act. The require. ment of a definite age for entering the priestly order is first found in the eleventh canon of the Synod of Neocaesarea (314 or 325): " No one is to be ordained priest before he is thirty year, old

.for Jesus Christ when thirty years old was baptized and entered upon his ministry." The first canon of the second series of canons of the Synod of Hippo in 393 required the completion of the twentyfifth year for the reception of deacon's orders. These decisions were frequently repeated

as by the Synod, of Agile

(524, canon i.), the Third

canon vi.), and the Fourth of Toledo (633, canon xa.), and the later repetitions were included in the canonical collections of the early Middle Ages, but in detail they were frequently changed. Urban II. at the Council of Melfi (1089, canon iv.) laid down the law that no one should be ordained sub­deacon before his fourteenth year, or deacon before his twentyfourth. For the priesthood, though the thirtieth year still remained the minimum in the written law, the practise grew of ordaining at twentyfive. The Synod of Ravenna (1314, canon ii.) fixed the sixteenth year for subdeacons, the twentieth for deacons, and the twentyfourth for priests. Finally the Council of Trent (1563, session xxiii.) settled the minimum at twentytwo, twenty­three, and twentyfour years, respectively, for these offices. It is sufficient to have begun the year specified in the Council. For tonsure and minor orders the Council simply requires the recep­tion of the sacrament of confirmation and a certain degree of learning. In the Protestant Churches the attainment by the candidate of his majority is usually considered sufficient, though here and there the twentyfourth year is still required.

In the Roman Catholic Church the canonical age is reckoned from the day of birth. Canonically the age of discretion is put at seven years, and then the sacraments of penance and extreme unction may be received because the child, being supposed to be capable of conscious choice, can commit a mortal sin; also the child is then subject to the regulations of the Church reapectiiig abstinence and attendance on mass, and may also, as far as law is concerned, contract a marriage engagement. A marriage may not be contracted before puberty (except in case of extraordinary development of mind and body), i.e., before fourteen for boys and twelve for girls; Lord's Supper be received till the child has been properly instructed. From twentyone to sixty is the period when fasting at certain seasons is obligatory. The lowest canonical age for a bishop is thirty years completed. The minimum age at which simple vows may be taken is sixteen years completed. Clerics may not profess solemn vows before they have entered on their twentieth year.

E. Friedberg,

Le~psic, 1903; w. E. Addis End T. Arnold,

London, 1903.

AGELLI, tljel'lf, (Lat. Agelliua): Roman Catholic scholar; b. at Sorrento, s. of the Bay of Naples, 1532; d. at Acerno, 14 m.

e.n.e. of Sorrento, 1608. He joined the order of

the bishop of Acerno in 1593,

but after a few years returned to his monastery, He was famed for his knowledge of the lan

guages of the Bible, under Gregory MIL and

Sixtus y, member of the commission for the

publication of the Septuagint (1587), and as­

~1 ~). also in the publication of the Vulgate

Agelli wrote commentaries on the Book of Lam­entations (Rome, 1598); the Psalms and Canticles

508, canon x vi.), of Arles(1606); proverbs (Verona, 1649); and Habakkuk

Synod of Orli;ans (538, (Antwerp, lgg7),



The Term; its Equivalents Before the Reformation (1 1). Lutheran Changes in Roman Catholic Agenda (¢ 2).

Decline of Lutheran Agenda in Eighteenth Century (§ 3). The Agenda in the Reformed Church (§ 4).

Revival of Agenda by Frederick William III. (1 5). in the Modern Lutheran Church (1 6). American Liturgies (1 7).

The name Agenda (" Things to be Done "; Germ. or is given, particularly in the Lutheran Church, to the official books dealing with the forms and ceremonies of divine service. It occurs twice in the ninth canon of the Second Synod of Carthage (390; Bruns, Ber­lin, 1839, p. 121), and in a letter of Innocent I. (d. 417; 552). The name was frequently employed in a more specific sense, as for the celebration of the mass; for the office of the day; for the service for the dead; and for morning and evening prayers. As the designation of a book of liturgical formulas it is stated by Ducange to have been used by Johannes de Janua, but in the only published work of Johan­nes (c. 1287) the name does not occur. There is no doubt, however, that with the development of the ritual of the Church the classification of liturgical formulas for the use of the parochial clergy became common. Such books of procedure

z. The were known by various names; e.g., Term; its Equiv and The last title was alents Be given especially to the church books of fore the Ref particular dioceses wherein the gen­ormation. eral ritual of the Church was supple­mented by ceremonial features of local origin, as the agenda for Magdeburg of 1497, or the of 1512. The use of the term in the Roman Catholic Church, however, practi­cally ceases with the Reformation, though a few instances occur in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the Evangelical Churches, on the contrary, with the title it speedily came to be the accepted designation for authorita­tive books of ritual. In the early days of the Ref­ormation the agenda not infrequently constituted part of the or general church con­stitutions of a state (see but in the course of time the separation of the formulas of worship from the legal and administrative codes of the Church was effected.

The earliest attempts at a reformation of the Roman ritual were naturally concerned with the mass. The innovations consisted of the omission of certain parts of the Roman ceremonial and the substitution of German for Latin, instances of the use of the vernacular in the celebration of the mass occurring as early as 152122. In 1523 2. Lutheran Luther published his Latin mass, revised Changes in in accordance with

trine; and three years later he gave to

Catholic the world his

Agenda. the use of which,

however, was not made obligatory.

In the same year appeared his " Book of Baptism,"

in 1529 probably his "Book of Marriage," and dur

ing the years 153537 the formula for the ordination of ministers. In the of the time orders of worship occur, as in Thomas Miinzer's of 1523, and the of the duchy of Prussia in 1525. From this time to the end of the sixteenth century the Protestant states of Germany were busied with the task of re­modeling their ecclesiastical systems and formularies of worship, the work being carried on by the great theologians of the age. The church constitutions and agenda of this period may be divided into three classes: (1) those following closely the Lutheran model; (2) those in which the ideas of the Swiss Ref­ormation were predominant; and (3) those which re­tained appreciable elements of the Roman ritual. Of the first type the earliest examples are the constitu­tions drawn up by Bugenhagen for Brunswick, 1528; Hamburg, 1529; Liibeck, 1531; Pomerania, 1535; Denmark, 1537; SleswickHolstein, 1542; and Hildesheim, 1544. Justus Jonas formulated the church laws of Wittenberg (in part), 1533; of the duchy of Saxony (where the name " agenda " is first adopted), 1539; and of Halle, 1541. Han­over received its laws from Urbanus Rhegius in 1536; BrandenburgNuremberg, from Osiander and Brenz in 1533; and Mecklenburg, from Riebling, Aurifaber, and Melanchthon in 1540 and 1552. Among the states which adopted constitutions of the Reformed type were Hesse and Nassau, between 1527 and 1576; more closely, Wiirttemberg, 1536; the Palatinate, 1554; and Baden, 1556. In the so­called " Cologne Reformation," drawn up largely by Butzer and Melanchthon and introduced by Arch­bishop Hermann in 1543, the agenda of Saxony, BrandenburgNuremberg, and Cassel served as models. The Roman ritual was retained to some extent in the church ordihances of the electorate of Brandenburg, 1540; Pfalzneuburg, 1543; and Austria, 1571. Of this type, too, were the ordi­nances drawn up by Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, Major, and others, for the electorate of Saxony in 1549; but these never went into effect, giving place in 1580 to a constitution Lutheran in character.

The Thirty Years' war exercised a disastrous

influence on the entire ecclesiastical system of

Germany, and particularlv on church discipline.

The. work of restoration, however, was begun

almost immediately after the cessation of hostil­

ities, but so great was the moral degradation in

which the mass of the people was plunged, so low

was the, standard of education and general intelli­

gence, that in the formulation of new ecclesiastical

laws the governments, of necessity, assumed a far

larger share of authority over the affairs of the

Church than they had possessed before the war.

This increased power of the government was appar­

ent not only in a closer supervision over the eccle­

siastical administration, but also in the enforcement

of a stricter adherence to the formulated modes

of worship. Of the agenda promulgated after

the war, the most important were those of Mecklen­

burg, 1650; Saxony and Westphalia, 1651; Bruns­

wickLilneburg,1657; Hesse, 1657; and Halls, 1660.

The eighteenth century witnessed a marked decline in the importance of the official liturgies in the



ence so great as to make the books of the Church practically obsolescent. This was due to the rise of the pietistic movement which, in its opposition to formula and rigidity in doctrine, was no less destructive of the old ritual than was the ration­alistic movement of the latter half of the century. Both pietism and rationalism were wanting in respect for the element of historical evolution in religion and worship; and the former, in laying stress on the value of individual prayer and devotion without attempting any change in the forms of divine service, led to their general abandonment for the spiritual edification that was to be obtained in the societies organized for common improve­ment, the socalled collegia pietatia. Rationalism in lending its own interpretation to the ritual, deprived it of much of its practical bearing, and necessitated, in consequence, a radical reconstruction of the prayers and hymns of the Church. But a no

less important cause of change in 3. Decline of liturgical forms is to be found in

Lutheran the growth of social distinctions and

Agenda in the rise of a courtly etiquette which

in the sought, with success, to impose its Eighteenth standards of manners and speech on

Century. the ceremonies and language of the

Church. The etiquette of the salon entered the Church, and the formula " Take thou and eat," at the Lord's Supper, was altered to " Take Ye and eat " when the communicants were of the nobility. The consistory of Hanover in 1800 granted permission to its ministers to intro­duce during public worship such changes in lan­guage, costume, and gesture as would appeal to the tastes of their " refined audiences." As a result the old official agenda passed generally out of use and were replaced by books of worship rep­resenting the views of individual minis

In the Evangelical Churches outside of Germany books of ritual were drawn up during the early years of the Reformation. In 1525 Zwingli pub­lished the order of the mass as celebrated at Zurich and a formula of baptism based on the "Book of Baptism," issued by Leo Judge in 1523. A complete agenda, including the two Zwingliap codes, appeared at Zurich in 1525 (according to Harnack and others, but more probably in 1529), under the title Ordnung der a and was often revised during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bern received its first formulary in 1528; Schaffhausen, in 1592, and St. Gall in 1738.

* Neuchatel, in 1533, was the first

4. The Frenchspeaking community to adopt

Agenda a definite ritual; its

the been attributed to Farel. At Geneva,

Reformed Calvin published in 1542, La Forma

Church, dea prikrea' based on

the practises he had found among the French of Strasburg during his sojourn in that city from 1538 to 1541. The ~trasburg ritual was followed also by the French in London, and by many churches in France itself. Deserving of special mention are the constitutions drawn up in 1550 by Johannes a Lasso for the fi the Netherlands went in England. the first compreheThey form nsive formulation of the ritual


of Calvinistic Protestantism, and are still in force in the Netherland Church.

In Germany the return to a uniform, authorita­tive mode of worship was begun by Frederick William III. of Prussia in the early years of the nineteenth century. After.1613 the royal family of Prussia were adherents of the Reformed creed, but the king's personal beliefs were entirely Luther­an. After the campaign of Jena (1806) he entrusted the task of drafting a ritual to Eylert, whose work, however, failed to receive the king's approval because the author had fallen into the then common _ error of the writers of liturgies, namely, of paying

little regard to the historical develop

g. Revival ment of the evangelical forma of wor

of ship. Frederick William protested

Agenda by vehemently against these newly fabri

Frederick sated rituals, and asserted the neces­III. arty of " going back to Father Lu

ther." With this purpose he devoted many years to the personal study of ritualistic history and attained an expert knowledge of the subject, particularly of its phases in the sixteenth century. The refusal of the great mass of the clergy to lend themselves to his efforts in favor of unity, he met with the determination to make use of the power vested in him by law to bring about the desired end. In 1822 he published the agenda for the court and cathedral church of Berlin; and two years later this formulary, increased and revised with the aid of Borowsky and Bunsen, was submitted to the various oonaiatoriea. Before the end of 1825, out of 7,782 churches within the Pruseiaa dominions, 5,243 had adopted the proposed regulations. In spite of a bitter polemic, in which Schleiermacher led the assault on the king's inno­vations, the new regulations were introduced in all the provinces before 1838!

The king's agenda, however, did not cease to be the subject of much criticism. In 1856 it was improved; and in 1879 the General Synod deter­mined upon a thorough revision. The work was entrusted to a committee of twentythree, among

whom were the theologians Goltz,

6. The HIeinert, Haring, Meuse, Renner,

Agenda is Riibesamen, Ktlgel, and Schmalen­

the Modern bath; and in 1894 their draft of a new

Lutheran ritual was adopted with alight changes

Church. by the General Synod. The lead of

Prussia was followed by the other

members of the German Empire, and moat of the

states have now revised their agenda or have the

work in progress. BohmjS, and MOraV1A (both Lu

therans and Calvinists), Denmark, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Transylvania have also late revisions. In France, after much agitation, a book of ritual, was adopted in 1897.

The Church of (Gn°a° RIMo$EL,)

E*°d adopted the Book of

Common Prayer under Edward VI,, which with

slight revisions, has been made universally obliga_

~i5' by seta ,has It is used with modi_

fications by the Protestant Episeopal Church

of the United States (,see Conrarou pa"a,, Boo,

OF)' H. M. Milhlenberg prepared s liturgy which





was adopted by the Lutheran Synod that he bad organized and approved by the German Lutheran authorities at Halle, whose missionary he was. It was based upon those 7. Ameri in use in Liineburg onward),

can Calenberg onward), Branden­Liturgies. burgMagdeburg onward), and Saxony onward). The liturgyof the Savoy Lutheran Church of London was the only one, apparently, actually in hand, the others exerting their influence through Miihlenberg's memory (for text cf. H. E. Jacobs, A New York, cf. also Schmucker, in the Forms for baptism and the marriage ceremony were taken from the PrayerBook of the Church of England. In Kunze published A which has by successive revisions developed into the present In the New York ministerium adopted a liturgy modified by Episco­pal influence, and in the Philadelphia minis­terium adopted a liturgy in which extemporaneous prayer was allowed as well as freedom in selecting the Scriptures to be read. In after much controversy and conference the General Synod adopted a " Common Service," which has been widely accepted by the Churches, but is not reA garded as obligatory.

The Dutch Reformed Church the United States

adopted along with the Belgic Confession,

the Heidelberg Catechism, and the Canons of the

Synod of Dort, the liturgical forms that were at

that time in use in the Netherlands. The Nicene

and Athanasian creeds are appended to the liturgy,

which has undergone little change. The German

Reformed Church in the United States seems to

have used the Palatinate liturgy, with local modi­

fications. In the Eastern Synod published

a liturgy prepared by Lewis Mayer, which, how­

ever, failed of general approval. A " Provisional

Liturgy," prepared 4y Philip Schaff and others

likewise proved unacceptably. The " Order

of Worship " was allowed by the General Synod

as was also the " Western Liturgy " (1869

The " Directory of Worship " was adopted in

(cf. E. T. Corwin,

and J. H. Dubbs,

New York, A book of

liturgical forms, prepared by Henry Van Dyke

and others appointed by the General Assembly,

for use in Presbyterian Churches, but in no way

obligatory, was published in It aroused

considerable opposition.

J. A. Schmid, Helmetadt, 1718; J. L. Funk, 1824; idem, Neuetedt, 1827; A. E. Richter, 2 Weimar, 1846; H. A. Daniel, 4 Leipsic.184753; J. H. Ebrud Zurich, 1847; A. Nordmeier, Gera, 1879; R. A. Dcheel, Berlin, 1880; E. Sehling, i., Leipeic, 1'903.


French law­yer; b. in Paris Dec. of a Jansenist family; d. there Sept. He held high positions in the French courts during the Revo­lution and under Napoleon and the Bourbons, but was early led into comprehensive theo­logical studies. He learned Hebrew at the age of forty. His principal work is Paris, Among his other works are: Le and Com­

AGILBERT, d"zllflbAr': Second bishop of the West Saxons (Dorchester) and afterward of Paris; b. in Gaul, probably in Paris; d. at Jouarre m. e. of Paris) Oct. 11, he studied in Ireland, and went to Wessex about where King Cenwealh appointed him bishop to succeed Birinus (he had received consecration before leaving Gaul). As he could not speak English, Cenwealh chose another bishop, Wine, whom he located (probably in 663) in his royal city, Winchester, where he had founded a church soon after his conversion in 646. Agilbert then returned to Gaul, passing through Northum­bria and attending the Synod of Whitby (q.v.) on the way. He became bishop of Paris not before 666. He assisted at the consecration of Wilfrid as bishop of York (664 or 665), and entertained Theodore of Tarsus while on his way to Canterbury. After a time Cenwealh invited him to return to Wessex; but he declined, and sent his nephew Hlothhere, or Leutherius, who was consecrated in 670 by the archbishop of Canterbury.

Cardinal ; b. at Cologno al Serio (8 m. s.s.e. of Ber­gamo), Lombardy, Italy, Sept. 4, 1832. After a pastorate of twelve years in his native city, he was called to Rome and appointed administrator of East Indian affairs in the College of the Propaganda, as well as professor of moral theology in the Colle­gium Urbanum. In the former capacity he was sent to India as apostolic delegate in 1884, after being consecrated titular bishop of Ctesarea in Pdestine. Ill health forced him to return to Italy, but he was soon in India once more, and made a tour of the country which lasted five months. in 1887, after finally leaving India, he was for a time secretary for extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, and was then successively papal nuncio at Munich and Vienna. In 1896 he was sent to Russia as am­bassador extraordinary to attend the coronation of the czar, and in the same year received the cardinal's hat, while in 1899 he was made suburban bishop of Albano. In 1902 he was placed in charge of the estates of the College of the Propaganda, and since 1903 has been vicechancellor of the Holy Roman Church.


A n ntioism

AGNELLUS, ag"nel'lus (called also Andrew): The historian of the Church of Ravenna; b. in that city early in the ninth century [some authorities say in 805, of a rich and noble family]; the year of his death is unknown. He entered the clerical state very early, and became abbot of the monas­teries of St. Mary ad Blachernas and St. Bartholo­mew, both in Ravenna. He was ordained priest by Archbishop Petronacius (817835). His repu­tation for learning induced his brother clergy to ask him to write the history of the local church, and he began his natis before 838, and finished it after 846. It follows the model of the Roman giving a series of biographies of the bishops of Ravenna, beginning with Apollinaris, said to have been a disciple of St. Peter and to have died as a martyr July 23, 75 (or 78), in whose memory the Basilica in Classe at Ravenna was dedicated in the year 549. The last bishop mentioned is George, whose death falls apparently in 846. The charac­teristics of the work are its strong tendency to the expression of local patriotism, and the interest which it shows in buildings, monuments, and other works of art. It is one of the earliest historical works to make an extensive use of architectural monuments as sources. Agnellus had little com­mand of written documents; he availed himself of oral tradition wherever possible, and supplied its deficiencies by a wellmeaning imagination.

(A. HAuas.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His history, edited by 0. HolderEgger, is in also in the continuation to by an unknown writer and to by Paul Soordilli, in Ebert, Leipsic,

AGNES, SAINT: A saint commemorated in the Roman Church on Jan. 21 and 28 (the Ge­lasian Liturgy giving the former; the Gregorian, the latter date), and in the Greek Church on Jan. 14 and 21 and July 5. Since the oldest documents (the the A/ri,­canum, and the Gothic and Oriental agree in fixing Jan. 21 as the day of her death, Bolland has rightly assigned to that day the acts of her martyrdom. The year of her death, according to Ruinart, was about 304. The cause and manner of her martyrdom are given in a very legendary manner by an undoubtedly spurious in the older editions of the works of St. Ambrose, which states that, having made a vow of perpetual virginity while still a child, she successfully resisted the wooing of a noble youth, the son of Symphro­nius, the city prefect, and embellishes the narrative with many wonders. Her hair suddenly grew so long and thick as to serve for a cloak; a light from heaven struck her importunate lover lifeless to the ground; when she was bound to the stake the flames were extinguished in answer to her prayer. After she had been beheaded at the command of the prefect, and had been buried by her parents in their field on the Via Nomentana, outside of Rome, she appeared to her people in glorified form with a little lamb at her side, and continued to perform miracles, such as the healing of the princess Constantia, for which, it is said, she was honored

under Constantine the Great by the erection of a basilica at her tomb (Sent' Agnese fuori Is Mura). Evidence of the high antiquity of her worship is given by Ambrose in several of his genuine writings, by Jerome (E*t., exxx., ad by Augustine, by the Christian poets Damasus and Prudentius, and by others.

In medieval art St. Agues is usually represented

with a lamb, which indicates her character as

representative of youthful chastity and innocence,

but may have been derived from her name, which

is to be connected with the Greek "

(cf. Augustine, Two lambs

are blessed every year on Jan. 21 in the Agues

basilica, mentioned above (one of the principal

churches of Rome, after which one of the cardinal

priests is called), and their wool is used to make

the archiepiscopal pallia which are consecrated y by

the pope (see PALLIuM). O. ZOCHLERt.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: For life and legends: Ambrose in of his works, Milan, Jan., Ruinart, Am­sterdam, Ratiebon, A. Butler, as under Jan. London, L. Santini, Ratiebon, Franold de' Cava­lieri, Rome, For representations in Christian art: Detsel. Freiburg, For the Catacombs of St. Agnes: J. S. Northoote and W. C. Brown­low, Roma Sotterranea, London, 1879,80; M. Amellini, IL Cimskrroo di 3. Agnew, Rome, 1880; W. H. Withrow, CataoomU o/ Rome, London, 1888; V. Schultze, Archdolo­pie der allchrisakhm Kunst, Munich, 1895. For the mys­tery play of St. Agnes: Sancta Agnes. Prooemalisches peish 1"ea Schauspid, Berlin. 1889.

AGROOETZ, ag"nof'tf or 4'tk (Gk. agnoltai, " ignorant "): 1. Name of a sect of the fourth century, a branch of the Eunomiana (q.v.), who followed the lead of Theophronius of Cappadocia. They were so named because they limited the divine omniscience to the present, maintaining that God knew the past merely by memory, and the future by divination (Socrates, Hist. eccd., v. 24).

!d. The name was borne also by the sect of the sixth century, founded by Themistius, a deacon of Alexandria, and sometimes called Themistians. They consisted chiefly of the Severian faction of the Monophysites, and maintained that, as the body of Christ was subject to natural conditions, so also his human soul must be thought of as not omni­scient. In support of their view they quoted Mark xiii. 32 and John xi. 34. The heresy was revived by the Adoptionists in the eighth century.

AGNOSTICISM: A philologically objectionable and philosophically unnecessary but very con­venient term, invented toward the end of the nineteenth century (1869) as a designation of the skeptical habit of mind then quite prevalent. It is defined in the Oxford Dictionary as the doctrine which holds that " the existence of anything be­yond and behind natural phenomena is unknown, and (so far as can be judged) unknowable, and especially that a First Cause and an unseen world are subjects of which we know nothing." It is thus equivalent to the common philosophical term, skepticism, although expressing the phase of thought designated by both alike from the point of view of its outcome rather than of its method. Some have held, it. is true, that the true agnostic is not




he who doubts whether human powers can attain to the knowledge of what really is, or specifically to the knowledge of God and spiritual things, but he who denies this. But there is a dogmatic skep­ticism, and there is no reason why there may not be a more or less hesitant agnosticism. The essential element in both is that the doubt or denial rests on distrust of the power of the human mind to ascertain truth. It is common, to be sure, to speak of several types of agnosticism, differing the one from the other according as the basis of the doubt or denial of the attainability of truth is ontological, generally psychological, definitely epis­temological, or logical. But useful as this dis­crimination may be as a rough classification of modes of presenting the same fundamental doc­trine, it is misleading if it suggests that the real basis of doubt or denial is not in every case episte­mological. When it is said,.for example, that God and spiritual things axe in their very nature unknow­able, that of course means that they are unknow­able to such powers as man possesses; nothing that exists can be intrinsically unknowable, and if un­knowable to men must be so only because of limi­tations in their faculties of knowledge. And when one is told that the sole trouble is that the balance of evidence is hopelessly in equilibrium, and the mind is therefore left in suspense, that of course means only that such minds as men have are too coarse scales for weighing such delicate matters.

Agnosticism is in short a theory of the nature and limits of human intelligence. It is that particular theory which questions or denies the capacity of human intelligence to attain assured knowledge, whether with respect to all spheres of truth, or, in its religious application, with respect to the par­ticular sphere of religious truth. As mankind has universally felt itself in possession of a body of assured knowledge, and not least in the sphere of religious truth, nay as mankind instinctively reach out to and grasps what it unavoidably looks upon as assured knowledge, and not least in the sphere of religious truth,agnosticism becomes, in effect, that tendency of opinion which pronounces what men in general consider knowledge more or less misleading, and therefore more or less noxious. Sometimes, no doubt, in what we may, perhaps, call the halfagnostic, these illusions are looked upon as rough approximations to truth, and are given a place of importance in the direction of human life, under some such designation as " regu­lative truths " (Mansel), or " value judgments " (Ritschl), or " symbolical conceptions " (Sabatier). The consistent agnostic, however, must conceive them as a body of mere selfdeceptions, from which he exhorts men to cleanse their souls as from cant (Huxley).

In effect, therefore, agnosticism impoverish, and, in its application to religious truth, secularizes and to this degree degrades life. Felicitating itself on a peculiarly deep reverence for truth on the ground that it will admit into that category only what can make good its right to be so considered under the most stringent teats, it deprives itself of the enjoyment of this truth by leaving the cate­gory either entirely or in great part empty. Re

fusing to assert there is no truth, it yet misses what Bacon declares " the sovereign good of human nature," viz., " the inquiry of truth, which is the lovemaking or wooing of it, the knowledge of truth, which is the presence of it,and the belief of truth which is the enjoying of it." On the ground that certain knowledge of God and spiritual things is unattainable, it bids man think and feel and act as if there were no God and no spiritual life and no future existence. It thus degenerates into a practical atheism. Refusing to declare there is no God, it yet misses all there may be of value and profit in the recognition of God.


standpoint, J. Ward. ib.

1903; C. Hodge. eh. iv., New

York, 1871; B. P. Bowne,

ib. 1874 (a criticism of Spencer's agnosticism); J. Owen.

2 vole., London, 1881; J. Me­

Cosh, New York,

1884; J. Martineau, eh. i: iv., Lon­

don, 1889; H. Wace. Edin­

burgh, 1895; J. Iverach, Is London, 1887.

The agnostics' position is set forth in H. Spencer,

ib. 1904 (called " the Bible of Agnosticism ");

J. Fiske, Boston,